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CLASS X

There will be one paper of two hours duration of 2. Plant Physiology


80 marks and Internal Assessment of practical work (i) Absorption by roots, imbibition, diffusion and
carrying 20 marks. osmosis; osmotic pressure, root pressure;
The paper will be divided into two sections, turgidity and flaccidity; plasmolysis and
Section I (40 marks) and Section II (40 marks). deplasmolysis; the absorption of water and
Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer minerals; active and passive transport (in
questions on the entire syllabus. brief); The rise of water up to the xylem;
Forces responsible for ascent of sap.
Section II will contain six questions. Candidates will
be required to answer any four of these six questions. • Understanding of the processes related to
absorption of water by the roots.
1. Basic Biology
• Characteristics of roots, which make them
(i) Cell Cycle and Cell Division. suitable for absorbing water.
Cell cycle – Interphase (G 1 , S, G 2 ) and • Structure of a single full-grown root hair.
Mitotic phase.
Cell Division: • A general idea of Cohesive, Adhesive
forces and transpirational pull.
• Mitosis and its stages.
• Experiments to show the conduction of
• A basic understanding of Meiosis as a water through the xylem.
reduction division (stages not required).
(ii) Transpiration - process and significance.
• A brief idea of homologous chromosomes
Ganong’s potometer and its limitations. The
and crossing over leading to variations.
factors affecting rate of transpiration.
• Significance and major differences Experiments on transpiration. A brief idea of
between mitotic and meiotic division. guttation and bleeding.
(ii) Structure of chromosome.
• Concept of transpiration and its
Basic structure of chromosome with importance to plants
elementary understanding of terms such as
chromatin, chromatid, gene structure of DNA • Experiments related to transpiration:
and centromere. (a) Loss in weight of a potted plant or a
(iii) Genetics: Mendel’s laws of inheritance and leafy shoot in a test tube as a result of
sex linked inheritance of diseases. transpiration.
• The three laws of Mendel. (b) Use of cobalt chloride paper to
• Monohybrid cross – phenotype and demonstrate unequal rate of
genotype. transpiration in a dorsiventral leaf.
• Dihybrid cross – Only phenotype. • Mechanism of stomatal transpiration on
• The following terms to be covered: gene, the basis of potassium ion exchange
allele, heterozygous, homozygous, theory.
dominant, recessive, mutation, variation,
• Adaptations in plants to reduce
phenotype, genotype.
transpiration.
• Sex determination in human beings.
• A brief idea of guttation and bleeding.
Sex linked inheritance of diseases to
include only X-linked like haemophilia and
colour blindness.

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(iii) Photosynthesis: the process and its importance 3. Human Anatomy and Physiology
to life in general; experiments to show the
(i) Circulatory System: Blood and lymph, the
necessity of light, carbon dioxide,
structure and working of the heart, blood
chlorophyll, formation of starch and release of
vessels, circulation of blood (only names of
oxygen; carbon cycle.
the main blood vessels entering and leaving
. The process and significance of the heart, liver and kidney will be required).
Photosynthesis. Lymphatic system.
• The internal structure of chloroplast to be • Composition of blood (structure and
explained to give an idea of the site of functions of RBC, WBC and platelets).
light and dark reactions.
• Brief idea of tissue fluid and lymph.
• Opening and closing of stomata based on
• Increase in efficiency of mammalian red
potassium ion exchange theory.
blood cells due to absence of certain
• Overall balanced chemical equation to organelles; reasons for the same.
represent photosynthesis.
• A brief idea of blood coagulation.
• Introduction of the terms
• Structure and working of the heart along
"photochemical" for light phase and
with names of the main blood vessels
"biosynthetic" for dark phases.
entering and leaving the heart, the liver
• Light reaction - activation of chlorophyll and the kidney.
followed by photolysis of water, release of
• Concept of systole and diastole; concept
O2, formation of ATP
of double circulation.
(photophosphorylation) and NADPH.
• Brief idea of pulse and blood pressure.
• Dark reaction - only combination of
hydrogen released by NADP with CO 2 to • Blood vessels: artery, vein and capillary
form glucose. (detailed equations are not to be explained with the help of diagrams
required). to bring out the relationship between their
structure and function.
• Adaptations in plants for photosynthesis.
• Brief idea of the lymphatic organs: spleen
• Experiments with regard to the factors
and tonsils.
essential for photosynthesis; emphasis on
destarching and the steps involved in • ABO blood group system, Rh factor.
starch test.
• Significance of the hepatic portal system.
• A diagrammatic representation of
(ii) Excretory System: A brief introduction to the
“carbon cycle”.
excretory organs; parts of the urinary system;
(iv) Chemical coordination in Plants: A general structure and function of the kidneys; blood
study of plant growth regulators; Tropic vessels associated with kidneys; structure and
movements in plants. function of nephron
• A brief idea of the physiological effects of • A brief idea of different excretory organs
Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic in the human body.
acid and Ethylene in regulating the
• External and internal structure of the
growth of plants.
kidney;
• A basic understanding of the tropic
movements in plants with reference • Parts of the urinary system along with the
to – Phototropism, Geotropism, blood vessels entering and leaving the
Hydrotropism, Thigmotropism and kidney; functions of various parts of the
Chemotropism (supported with suitable urinary system (emphasis on diagram
examples). with correct labelling). A general idea of
the structure of a kidney tubule/ nephron.

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• A brief idea of ultra-filtration (emphasis (iv) Endocrine System: General study of the
on the diagram of malpighian capsule); following glands: Adrenal, Pancreas, Thyroid
selective reabsorption and tubular and Pituitary. Endocrine and Exocrine glands.
secretion in relation to the composition of • Differences between Endocrine and
blood plasma and urine formed. Exocrine glands.
(iii) Nervous system: Structure of Neuron; central, • Exact location and shape of the endocrine
autonomous and peripheral nervous system glands in the human body.
(in brief); brain and spinal cord; reflex action
and how it differs from voluntary action. • Hormones secreted by the following
glands: Pancreas: insulin and glucagon;
Sense organs – Eye: Structure, functions,
Thyroid: only thyroxin; Adrenal gland:
defects and corrective measures: Ear: Parts
Cortical hormones and adrenaline;
and functions of the ear.
Pituitary: growth hormone, tropic
• Parts of a neuron. hormones, ADH and oxytocin.
• Various parts of the external structure of • Effects of hypo secretion and hyper
the brain and its primary parts: Medulla secretion of hormones.
Oblongata, Cerebrum, Cerebellum,
• A brief idea of Feedback mechanism with
Thalamus, Hypothalamus and Pons; their
reference to TSH.
functions.
(v) The Reproductive System: Organs,
• Reference to the distribution of white and fertilisation functions of placenta in the
gray matter in Brain and Spinal cord. growth of the embryo Menstrual cycle.
• Voluntary and involuntary actions – • Functions of Male and Female
meaning with examples. reproductive organs and male accessory
• Diagrammatic explanation of the reflex glands. An idea of secondary sexual
arc, showing the pathway from receptor characters.
to effector. • Structure and functions of the various
• A brief idea of the peripheral and parts of the sperm and egg.
autonomic nervous system in regulating • Explanation of the terms: Fertilization,
body activities. implantation, placenta, gestation and
• Differences between natural and acquired parturition.
reflex. • A brief idea of the role of placenta in
• External and Internal structure and nutrition, respiration and excretion of the
functions of the Eye and Ear and their embryo; its endocrinal function.
various parts. • Functions of Foetal membranes and
• A brief idea of stereoscopic vision, amniotic fluid.
adaptation and accommodation of eye. • Menstrual cycle, outline of menstrual
• Defects of the eye (myopia, hyperopia cycle.
hypermetropia, presbyopia, astigmatism • Role of Sex hormones: Testosterone,
and cataract) and corrective measures Oestrogen and Progesterone in
(diagrams included for myopia and reproduction.
hyperopia only)
• Identical and fraternal twins: meaning
• The course of perception of sound in and differences only.
human ear.
• Role of ear in maintaining balance of the
body.

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5. Population 7. Pollution
Population explosion in India; need for adopting (i) Types and sources of pollution; major
control measures - population control. pollutants.
• Main reasons for the sharp rise in human • Air: Vehicular, industrial, burning
population in India and in the world. garbage, brick kilns.
• A brief explanation of the terms: demography, • Water: Household detergents, sewage,
population density, birth rate, death rate and industrial waste, oil spills.
growth rate of population. • Thermal pollution.
• Problems faced due to population explosion: • Soil: Industrial waste, urban
unemployment, over exploitation of natural commercial and domestic waste,
resources, low per capita income, price rise, chemical fertilizers.
pollution, unequal distribution of wealth. • Biomedical waste – used and
• Methods of population control: Surgical discarded needles, syringes, soiled
methods – Tubectomy and vasectomy. dressings etc.
• Radiation: X-rays; radioactive fallout
6. Human Evolution from nuclear plants.
Basic introduction to Human evolution and • Noise: Motor Vehicles, Industrial
Theories of evolution: Lamarck’s theory of establishments, Construction Sites,
inheritance; Darwin’s theory of evolution by Loudspeakers etc.
natural selection. (ii) Biodegradable and Non-biodegradable
• A brief idea of human ancestors – wastes
Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo Biodegradable wastes: meaning and
erectus, Neanderthals, Cro-Magnon and example; paper, vegetable peels, etc.
Homo sapiens sapiens (Modern Man) with Non-biodegradable wastes: meaning and
reference to the following characteristics: example; plastics, glass, Styrofoam etc.
- Bipedalism Pesticides like DDT etc.
- Increasing Cranial capacity (iii)Effects of pollution on climate,
environment, human health and other
- Reduction of size of canine teeth organisms; control measures.
- Forehead and brow ridges • Brief explanation of: Greenhouse effect
and Global warming, Acid rain, Ozone
- Development of chin
layer depletion.
- Reduction in body hair • Measures to control pollution:
- Height and Posture - Use of unleaded petrol / CNG in
• Lamarck’s theory of inheritance of acquired automobiles
characteristics – with reference to use of - Switching of engines at traffic signal
organs (e.g.: neck and forelimbs of giraffe) lights
and disuse of organs (e.g.: vestigial organs in - Social forestry
humans like wisdom teeth, vermiform - Setting of sewage treatment plants
appendix, pinnae). - Ban on polythene and plastics
• Darwin’s theory of Natural selection: - Organic farming
Survival of the fittest - e.g. adaptation of - Euro Bharat vehicular standard.
peppered moth. (A brief idea of the above measures)
• A brief mention of “Swachh Bharat
Abhiyan”- A national campaign for Clean
India.

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INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF (ii) The identification of different types of blood cells
PRACTICAL WORK under a microscope.
(iii) Identification of the internal structure of the Ear
The practical work is designed to test the ability of the and Eye (Through models and charts).
candidates to make an accurate observation from
specimens of plants and animals. (iv) Identification and location of selected endocrine
PLANT LIFE glands: Adrenal, Pancreas, Thyroid and Pituitary
glands with the help of a model or chart.
(i) Observation of permanent slides of stages of
mitosis.
(ii) Experiments demonstrating: EVALUATION

• Diffusion: using potassium permanganate in The practical work/project work are to be evaluated
water. by the subject teacher and by an External Examiner.
(The External Examiner may be a teacher nominated
• Osmosis: Thistle Funnel experiment and
by the Head of the school, who could be from the
potato osmoscope,
faculty, but not teaching the subject in the relevant
• Absorption: using a small herbaceous plant. section/class. For example, a teacher of Biology of
(iii) Experiments on Transpiration: Class VIII may be deputed to be an External Examiner
for Class X, Biology projects.)
• demonstration of the process using a Bell Jar.
The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner will
• demonstration of unequal transpiration in a assess the practical work/project work independently.
dorsiventral leaf using cobalt chloride paper.
Award of marks (20 Marks)
• demonstration of uptake of water and the rate
of transpiration using Ganong’s potometer. Subject Teacher (Internal Examiner) 10 marks

(iv) Experiments on Photosynthesis: External Examiner 10 marks

• to show the necessity of light, carbon dioxide The total marks obtained out of 20 are to be sent to the
and chlorophyll for photosynthesis. Council by the Head of the school.
• to show the release of O 2 during The Head of the school will be responsible for the
photosynthesis using hydrilla / elodea. online entry of marks on the Council’s CAREERS
portal by the due date.
ANIMAL LIFE
(i) Identification of the structures of the urinary
system, heart and kidney (internal structure) and
brain (external view) through models and charts

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INTERNAL ASSESSMENT IN SCIENCE - GUIDELINES FOR MARKING WITH GRADES
Criteria Preparation Procedure/ Observation Inference/ Presentation
Testing Results
Grade I Follows instructions (written, Analyses problem Records Processes data without Presentation is accurate
(4 marks) oral, diagrammatic) with systematically. data/observations format. Recognises and and good. Appropriate
understanding; modifies if Recognises a number of without being given a comments upon sources of techniques are well
needed. Familiarity with and variables and attempts to format. Comments error. used.
safe use of apparatus, materials, control them to build a upon, recognises use Can deal with unexpected
techniques. logical plan of of instruments, degree results, suggesting
investigation. of accuracy. modifications.
Recording is
systematic.
Grade II Follows instructions to perform Specifies sequence of Makes relevant Processes data appropriately Presentation is
(3 marks) experiment with step-by-step operation; gives reasons observations. No as per a given format. Draws adequate. Appropriate
operations. Awareness of for any change in assistance is needed qualitative conclusions techniques are used.
safety. Familiarity with procedure. Can deal with for recording format consistent with required
apparatus, materials and two variables, controlling that is appropriate. results.
techniques. one.
Grade III Follows instructions to perform Develops simple Detailed instructions Processes data approximately Presentation is
(2 marks) a single operation at a time. experimental strategy. needed to record with a detailed format reasonable, but
Safety awareness. Familiarity Trial and error observations. Format provided. Draws disorganised in some
with apparatus & materials. modifications made to required to record observations qualitative places. Overwriting;
proceed with the results. conclusions as required. rough work is untidy.
experiment.
Grade IV Follows some instructions to Struggles through the Format required to Even when detailed format is Presentation is poor
(1 mark) perform a single practical experiment. Follows very record observations/ provided, struggles or makes and disorganised but
operation. Casual about safety. obvious experimental readings, but tends to errors while processing data. follows an acceptable
Manages to use apparatus & strategy. make mistakes in Reaches conclusions with sequence. Rough work
materials. recording. help. missing or untidy.
Grade V Not able to follow instructions Cannot proceed with the Even when format is Cannot process results, nor Presentation
(0 marks) or proceed with practical work experiment without help given, recording is draw conclusions, even with unacceptable;
without full assistance. from time to time. faulty or irrelevant. considerable help. disorganised, untidy/
Unaware of safety. poor. Rough work
missing.

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