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Oct-15

A Guide to Designing Reinforced Concrete


Water Tanks

Dr. Alaa Helba

Lecture 2 & 3
 Examples of tank Sections Resisting Tension
 Tank Sections Resisting Tension and Moments
 General Design Requirements for Tank Elements
 Analysis and Design of R.C. Sections under T&M
With tension on water side. (Uncracked Sections)
Appendix: Solved Examples

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 1


Oct-15

Sections Resisting Tension


Example of Cylindrical Wall
of Water Tank in Hal direction

D Water r H
Pressure

Wall SEC. PLAN Wall SEC. ELEV.

h t

r
1m
R R

t
T T
T=rR
Ring tension T in Cylindrical Wall

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 2


Oct-15

Sections Resisting
Tension and Moments

Sec. Elev.
Water Pressure on
Walls and Floor of an elevated Tank
rests on columns

Critical Sections in
Tank Structural Elements
(walls & Floors)

Final B.M.D. on Walls and Floor

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 3


Oct-15

Sections 1 & 4 Tension due to Moment


is on Air-Side (Cracked Sections)
Sections 2 & 3 Tension due to Moment
is on Water-Side (UnCracked Sections)

1 1
3
2 2
4 3 4
Open Tank B.M.D

B.M.D. on Walls and Floor

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 4


Oct-15

General Design Requirements for Tank


Elements (Uncracked Sections)
• Consider Condition I (Tension on Water side)
1- For serviceability requirement (no cracks at
the liquid side ) ,Design a section To satisfy:
f ctr fctr = 0.6 fcu
f ct  η coeff. 1 from code
 table(4-16)

T M
fct = fct(N) +fct(M)  +
A Z

2- To Control the crack width (wk)


• USE - according to ECP Code 203 tables
4-13 , 4-14 and 4-15 – the appropriate :

- concrete cover (from table 4-13)


- type/diam./stress of steel.
( from tables 4-14 and 4-15)

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 5


Oct-15

Control of crack
width
ECP Code 203
Recommendations
Table 4-11 Code

Control of crack width


ECP Code 203 Recommendations

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 6


Oct-15

Control of crack width


ECP Code 203
Recommendations

Control of crack width


ECP Code 203
Recommendations

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 7


Oct-15

Control of crack width


ECP Code 203 Recommendations

Control of crack width


ECP Code 203 Recommendations

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 8


Oct-15

Analysis and Design


of R.C. Sections
- Under T only
- Under M only
- Under T & M

Controlling Tensile Strength of


Concrete according to Egyptian Code
• Water Tanks are classified as type 3 or 4
in CODE Table (4-8).
• The maximum tensile stress of concrete
is given by CODE Eq. (4-69) as follows :

f ct  [f ct ( N )  f ct ( M ) ]  f ctr / 

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 9


Oct-15

fct(N) is the tensile stress due to


unFactored axial tension
(+ve sign for tension and –ve sign for comp.)
T
f ct ( N ) 
Ac  nAs
where :
As = all steel area
E
and Assume n  s  10
Ec

• fct(M) is the tensile stress due to


unFactored moment
(+ve sign for tension and –ve sign for comp.)

M M 6M
f ct ( M )   2  2
Z bt / 6 b t

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 10


Oct-15

Tensile Strength of Concrete


according to Egyptian Code
f ctr 0.6 f cu

 
•  is a reductuon coefficient given in code
table (4-16) and depends on the ideal
(virtual) thickness of the section (tv) , where
f ct ( N )
tv  t [1  ]
f ct ( M )

Values of coefficient 
Table (4-16) Code
tv(mm) 100 200 400 ≥ 600

 1 1.3 1.6 1.7


f ctr /  (N/mm )
2
fcu Values of
20 2.68 2.06 1.68 1.58
25 3 2.31 1.88 1.76
30 3.29 2.53 2.05 1.93

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 11


Oct-15

Calculation of steel rft. As


required in Design
of R.C. Sections
- I - Under T only
- II - Under M only
- III - Under T & M (e=M/T =big ecc.)
- IV - Under T & M (e = small ecc.)

Use Steel to resist all tension


(neglect concrete resistance in tension)
I - Case of axial tension ( T only)
Tu Tu   f T
As  where  f  1.4 for water pressure
fy
cr  f  1.6 for other loads
s 1
1
As
As 2
2
1
T
As
1
TIE section 2 As
2

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 12


Oct-15

Consider a Cylindrical Wall


of Water Tank

D Water r H
Pressure

Wall SEC. PLAN Wall SEC. ELEV.

Ring tension
h t
in Cylindrical
Wall

r
1m
R R

t
T T
T=rR
I - Case of pure tension ( T only)

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 13


Oct-15

T=rR
h Ring Steel = r D/2
in
1 1
As As Cylindrical
2 2
Wall r
D
r = wh
1m

T T
t
I - Case of Ring tension ( T only)

II - Case of pure flexure (M only)


Mu a
As  , 
 f y    d
cr   1   d
 s  2
  1  1  3R R  M u ( fcuc )bd 2

M
As
cross Sec.

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 14


Oct-15

Cases of eccentric tension (M &T)


Mu t
III  Case of e= 
Tu 2
Calculate Mus = Tu(e + t/2 - d)
or = Mu – Tu(d – t/2)
M
As T
e
cross Sec. T(eccentric)

III – Case of big eccentric tension


M us Tu M t
As   if e= u 
 f    f  Tu 2
cr  y  1   d cr  y 
 s  2   s 
Where Mus = Mu – Tu(d – t/2)

As T
e
cross Sec. T(eccentric)

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 15


Oct-15

IV – Case of small eccentric tension


Mu t
IV Case of e = 
Tu 2 M
d'
As 2

d d ' es 2 T
e
es1 T(eccentric)
As 1
cross Sec.

Mu t
IV Case of e = 
Tu 2
Calculate Tu1 = Tu / 2 + Mu / (d – d’)
Tu2 = Tu / 2 - Mu / (d – d’)
Tu 1 Tu 2
As 1  , As 2 
f  f 
cr  y  cr  y 
 s   s 
As 2
e T
As 1 Teccentric
cross Sec.

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 16


Oct-15

Design of Uncracked Sections

• Steps :
1- assume t and check fct
2- calculate As

Step (1) for Slabs and Walls


• b = 1 m = 1000 mm Assume t as follows :

If T (in kN) only t  0.6 T mm

• If M only M in (kN.m) t  50 M mm

If M & T t  50 M  50 mm

For practical considerations tmin = 150 mm

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 17


Oct-15

Step (1) for Sections (b X t) (Beams)


• Assume t as follows :
T 
t  0.6  
T only [ T
- for in (N) ] b  mm
- for M only M
M in (N.mm) t  1.6 mm
b

- For M & T M mm
t  1.6  50
b

Step (1)b
• Check fct (tensile stress) For any case :

T
f ct (N )  ,
Ac
M
f ct (M ) 
bt 2 / 6
f ct  [ f ct ( N )  f ct ( M ) ]  f ctr / 

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 18


Oct-15

Step (2)
• Calculate As as follows :
• case (I) T only Tu mm2
As 
fy
cr
s
Mu
• case (II) M only As 
 f y   
cr   1   d
 s  2
a M
where    1  1  3R , R  2 u
d bd f cu /  c

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 19


Oct-15

• Check m ≥ mmin (steps 1 to 4 in sequence)

   0.225 f cu  
  1  #  
   fy  
*the smaller of    the max.of #   
  2# 1.1   
   fy  
 
  
  3  1.3As / bd  
mmin  the max.of *  4*  0.25% st .Gr .240 / 350 
 
 or 4*  0.15% st .Gr .360 / 520 
Note:

If mcal ≥ mmin (steps 1 and 2) , No need to do step 3)

Minimum Val RFT. for Walls

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 20


Oct-15

Step (2)
• Calculate As as follows :
• case (III) T & M and e ≥ t/2
M us Tu
As  
 f y    fy 
cr   1   d cr  
 s  2  s 
Where Mus = Mu – Tu(d – t/2)
a M us
  1  1  3R , R 
d bd 2f cu /  c

Step (2)
• case (IV) T & M and e < t/2
Tu 1 Tu 2
As 1  , As 2 
fy  fy 
cr   cr  
 s   s 

Where Tu1 = Tu / 2 + Mu / (d – d’)


Tu2 = Tu / 2 - Mu / (d – d’)

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 21


Oct-15

Appendix

Solved Examples
on
Design of different Uncracked Sections

Examples on
Design of Uncracked Sections
With conc. of fcu=25 N/mm2 & steel grade 360/520
Design tank wall sections to resist the following
cases:
1- T = 150 kN
2- M = 30 kN.m
3- T = 150 kN and M = 60 kN.m
4- T = 150 kN and M = 15 kN.m
Solution:
for concrete fctr = 0.6 fcu = 3 N/mm2
for wall b = 1 m = 1000 mm

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 22


Oct-15

Design of Uncracked Sections – Case # 1


1- Case of T = 150 kN
Solution:
Assume twall = 0.6 T = 90 mm < tmin = 150 mm
Chosen twall = 150 mm
Check tensile stress:
Calculate fct :
fct = fctN + fctM = T/Ac + M/Zc = T/(b x t) + M/(bt2/6)
= 150000/(1000 x 150) + 0 = 1 + 0
= 1 N/mm2
Calculate fctr/ :
tv = t (1 + fctN / fctM) = ∞ then  = 1.7
fctr/ = 3 / 1.7 = 1.76 N/mm 2

Check: as fct < fctr/ chosen t = 150 mm is O.k

Calculation of As in Case of T = 150 kN


As = Tu / (cr fy/s) - [ for bars 10 mm - cr = 0.93]
= 1.4 x 150 x 1000 / (0.93 x 360/1.15)
= 721.33 mm2
Use 5 10 /m’ on each side (As= 2 x 395 = 790 mm2)
Check As min
As min = 0.15 % Ac = 0.15 x b x t /100 = 1.5 t (for walls)
As > As min O.k

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 23


Oct-15

Design of Uncracked Sections – Case # 2


2- Case of M = 30 kN.m
Solution:
Assume twall = 50 𝑀 = 50 30 = 274 mm
Try twall = 300 mm
Check tensile stress:
Calculate fct :
fct = fctN + fctM = T/Ac + M/Zc = T/(b x t) + M/(bt2/6)
= 0 + 6 x 30 x 106 / (1000 x 3002) = 0 + 2
= 2 N/mm2
Calculate fctr/ :
tv = t (1 + fctN / fctM) = t = 300 mm from table  = 1.45
fctr/ = 3 / 1.45 = 2.07 N/mm2
Check: as fct < fctr/ chosen t = 300 mm is O.k

Calculation of As in Case of M = 30 kN.m


Calculate As :
As = Mu / [(cr fy/s)(0.95d)] [ use a = 0.1 d]
= 1.4 x 30 x 106 / [(0.93 x 360/1.15)(0.95 x 260)]
= 584 mm2
Use 8 10 /m’ on tension side (As= 632 mm2)
Check As min
As min = 0.15 % Ac = 1.5 t = 450 mm2
As > As min O.k

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 24


Oct-15

Design of Uncracked Sections – Case # 3


3- Case of T = 150 kN and M = 60 kN.m
Assume twall = 0.6 T = 90 mm
Assume twall = 50 𝑀 + 50= 50 60 + 50 = 437 mm
Try twall = 500 mm
Check tensile stress:
Calculate fct :
fct = fctN + fctM = T/Ac + M/Zc = T/(b x t) + M/(bt2/6)
= 150 x 103 /(1000 x 500) + 6 x 60 x 106 / (1000 x 5002)
= 0.3 + 1.44 = 1.74 N/mm2
Calculate fctr/ :
tv = t (1 + fctN / fctM) = t (1 + 0.3 / 1.44) = 1.21 x 500 = 605 mm > 600 mm
then  = 1.7
fctr/ = 3 / 1.7 = 1.76 N/mm2
Check: as fct > fctr/ chosen t = 500 mm is O.k

Calculation of As in Case of T = 150 kN and M = 60 kN.m

e = M / T = 400 mm > t / 2 = 250 mm Large ecc.


Calculate Ms :
Ms = T (e – t / 2 + d’)
= 150 (400 – 250 + 40) / 1000
= 28.5 kN. m
Calculate As :
As = Mus / [(cr fy/s)(0.95d)] + T1u / (cr fy/s) [ use a = 0.1 d]
= 1.4 x 28.5 x 106 / [(0.75 x 360/1.15)(0.95 x 460)]
+ 1.4 x 150 x 1000 / (0.75 x 360/1.15)
= 388.9 + 894.4 = 1283 mm2
Use 7 16 /m’ on tension side

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 25


Oct-15

Design of Uncracked Sections – Case # 4


4- Case of T = 150 kN and M = 15 kN.m
Assume twall = 0.6 T = 90 mm
Solution:
Assume twall = 50 𝑀 + 50= 50 15 + 50 = 244 mm
Try twall = 250 mm
Check tensile stress: Calculate fct :
fct = fctN + fctM = T/Ac + M/Zc = T/(b x t) + M/(bt2/6)
= 150 x 103 /(1000 x 250) + 6 x 15 x 106 / (1000 x 2502)
= 0.6 + 1.44
= 2.04 N/mm2
Calculate fctr/ :
tv = t (1 + fctN / fctM) = t (1 + 0.6 / 1.44) = 1.42 x 250 = 355 mm
then  = 1.53
fctr/ = 3 / 1.55 = 1.94 N/mm2
Check: as fct > fctr/ Not O.k increase t (try t = 300 mm)
Recheck: as fct > fctr/ chosen t = 300 mm is O.k

Calculation of As in Case of T = 150 kN and M = 15 kN.m


e = M / T = 100 mm < t / 2 = 150 mm Small ecc.
Calculate T1 and T2 : T1 = T / 2 + M / (d – d’) ❷
2 _

T1 = 150/2 + 15/(0.26 – 0.04) = 143.2 kN


T2 = 150/2 - 15/(0.26 – 0.04) = 6.8 kN

Calculate As1 and As2 :
As1 = T1u / (cr fy/s)
= 1.4 x 143.2 x 103 / (0.93 x 360/1.15)
= 689 mm2
Use 9 10 /m’ or 7 12 /m’ on tension side ❶(As=711 mm2)
As2 = T2u / (cr fy/s)
= 33 mm2 < Asmin = 1.5 t
Use Asmin 5 10 /m’ on tension side ❷(As= 395 mm2)

Dr. A.Helba CIV 416 E 26