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Chapter Four

Data Representation in Computers

The entire circuitry of the computer is designed on the basis of binary system. The Binary

number system is a group of zeros and ones. It is obvious that computer’s net intelligence is

absolutely zero i.e. computer is not capable of understanding anything except zeros and ones.

In computer every instruction is interpreted and executed in the form of binary system. From

the readability point of view it is very difficult to understand the string of bits. It is also very

difficult to write and understand the instruction or program written in binary form. Therefore,

the programs are generally written in high-level language or Assembly language. Later on

these programs are converted into machine language with the help of appropriate translators

such as Compiler, Assembler or Interpreter.

The basic unit of the memory is a Bit. A Bit is an abbreviation for a Binary digit and can

be either a 0 or a 1.

Group of continuous 4 bits is termed as Nibble.

Eight adjacent bits designed to store the binary code of a single character (letter, decimal

digit or other character) is referred as Byte.

A word is a fixed-sized group of bits that are handled together by the machine. The

number of bits in a word (the word size or word length) is an important characteristic

of computer architecture.

A Word consists of 32 bits, which is equal to 4 bytes (this depends on the computer i.e.,

a word may contain 8, 16, or 32 bits). Commonly used notation in modern computers is

32 bits.

Double word is 2 times a word.

Frequently capacity of memory is represented in terms of K (Kilo) , which is equivalent

to 1024 words of 8 bits each ( 210 bytes ).

1 KILO = 1024 bytes (approx. 103 bytes) These are all the

1 MEGA = 210 K B approximate values

1 GIGA = 210 M B B stands for Byte

1 TERA = 210 G B

1 PETA = 210 TERA B

A computer’s internal storage techniques are different from the way people represent

information in lives.

Information inside a digital computer is stored as a collection of binary data (0’s and 1’s)

It was easier to make hardware which can distinguish between two values than multiple

values.

Other bases need more circuitry as compared to binary and this reduced reliability.

This binary system simplifies the design of the circuits, reduces the cost and improves the

reliability.

Every operation that can be done in decimal system can also be done in binary.

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Number Systems

Every computer stores numbers, letters, and other special characters in a coded form. Before

going into the details of these codes, it is essential to have a basic understanding of the number

system. So the goal of this chapter is to familiarize you with the basic fundamentals of number

system. Number systems are basically of two types: non positional and positional.

In this system, we have symbols such as I for 1, II for 2, III for 3, IIII for 4 etc. Each symbol

represents the same value regardless of its position in the number and the symbols are simply

added to find out the value of a particular number. Since it is very difficult to perform arithmetic

with such number system, positional number systems were developed as the centuries passed.

Positional Number Systems

In the early days Non-Positional number system was very difficult to use, as it had no symbol for

0. History says that the 0 was invented in India. The positional number systems are Binary,

Octal, Decimal and Hexa-decimal. In positional number system there are only a few symbols

called digits, and these symbols represent different values depending on the position they occupy

in the number. The value of each digit in such a number is determined by three considerations.

The digit itself.

The position of the digit in the number, and

The base or radix of the number system(where base is determined as the total number of

digits available in the number system)

We will introduce here 4 positional number systems

Decimal Number System

Binary Number system

Hexadecimal Number System

Octal Number System

The number system that we use in our day-to-day life is called the Decimal number system.

Decimal number system is a base 10 system which means there are 10 digits starting from 0 to

9 to represent any quantity. The position of each digit in a decimal number system is

represented as a power of the base (10).

o Value of the digits depends on the position they hold. For e.g :

4th 3rd 2nd 1st Total Value: 4*100+2*101+0*102+1*103 = 1024

103 102 101 100 Thus any number can be represented by using the available

digits and arranging them in various positions.

1 0 2 4

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

The Binary Number system is a base 2 system with only two digits 0 and 1. Each position in

a binary number represents a power of the base (2).

Octal Number System is a base 8 system. So in this system there are only eight symbols or

digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Each position in octal number represents a power of the base 8. Since

there are only 8 digits in the octal number system, 3 bits are sufficient to represent any octal

number in binary.

Hexadecimal number system is a base 16 system with 16 digits namely

0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F; Where A represents decimal 10, B represents decimal 11 , C

represents decimal 12, D represents decimal 13, E represents decimal 14 and F represents

decimal 15.

Comparative Representation of Number Systems

Hexa decimal

Decimal System Binary System Octal System

System

0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1

2 10 2 2

3 11 3 3

4 100 4 4

5 101 5 5

6 110 6 6

7 111 7 7

8 1000 10 8

9 1001 11 9

10 1010 12 A

11 1011 13 B

12 1100 14 C

13 1101 15 D

14 1110 16 E

15 1111 17 F

: : : :

: : : :

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

(a) Integer Part Conversion

Step 1: Determine the positional value of each digit.

Step 2: Multiply the positional value by the digits in the corresponding columns.

Step 3: Sum the products obtained in step 2. The total is the equivalent value in decimal.

For converting a fraction of binary system into decimal the following steps should be followed:

Step 1: Multiply each digit of binary from left to right by base–1, base–2, base–3 and base–4....

respectively.

Step 2: Simplify the arithmetic expression and add them together to find the required fraction of

decimal system.

Step 3: Now by combining both the converted parts we can find the decimal equivalent of the

binary number.

Binary to Decimal

(For conversion of a binary number to a decimal number the base / radix will be 2)

Example 1 Convert binary (1100)2 to decimal form.

Solution

Digit Positional value(Step 1) Step 2

0(right most digit) 20 0*20

0 21 0*21

1 22 1*22

1 23 1*23

Total (Step 3) 4+8=12

Therefore 11002 =1210

Example 2 Convert binary (11101101.10101)2 to decimal form.

Solution

Integer part – 11101101

Fractional part – 10101

Conversion of integer part :

1×27 + 1×26 + 1×25 + 0×24 + 1×23 + 1×22 + 0×21 + 1×20

1×128 + 1×64 + 1×32 + 0×16 + 1×8 + 1×4 + 0×2 + 1×1

128 + 64 + 32 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1

(237)10

Conversion of fractional part :

Starting from left to right each bit is multiplied by

2–1, 2–2, 2–3, 2–4...... we find

1 0 1 0 1

———–––––––––

1×2 + 0×2–2 + 1×2–3 + 0×2–4 + 1×2–5

–1

By combining both the resultant values we get the final decimal equivalent value (237.65625)10

4 | | Adigrat University, College of Engineering and Technology, Department of Information Technology

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Useful Tips

+ve Power of 2 Equivalent value –ve Power of 2 Equivalent values

20 1 2–1 .50

21 2 2–2 .25

22 4 2–3 .125

23 8 2–4 .0625

24 16 2–5 .03125

25 32 2–6 .015625

26 64 2–7 .0078125

27 128 2–8 .00390625

28 256 2–9 .001953125

29 512 2–10 .000976562

210 1024 2–11 .000488281

Note : A binary number having all 1s and without fractional part can be

converted into decimal number system by the following direct conversion

formula : 2n-1, where n is the total number of bits in the binary number.

Example

Convert Binary 11 into its decimal equivalent: (11)2 = (?)10

Here n = 2 2n–1 = 22–1 = (3)10

Octal to Decimal

(For conversion of an octal number to a decimal number the base / radix will be 8.)

Example 1 Convert octal number (172)8 to decimal (?)10

Solution

Conversion of integer part : Starting from right multiply each digit by its positional value , we find

1 7 2

1×82 + 7×81 + 2×80

1×64 + 7×8 + 2×1

64 + 56 + 2

(122)10.The converted decimal equivalent value we find is (172)8 = (122)10

Example 2

Convert (342.671)8 to decimal (?)10 form.

Solution

Integer part – 342

Fractional part – 671

Conversion of integer part Conversion of fractional part

3 4 2 Starting from left to right each digit is multiplied by

3×8 2 + 4×81 + 2×80 8–1, 8–2, 8–3, 8–4...... we find –

3×64 + 4×8 + 2×1 6 7 1

192 + 32 + 2 –1

6×8 + 7×8 –2 + 1×8–3

(226)10 0.75 + 0.1093 + 0.00195 = (0.86125)10

By combining both the converted values we get the final decimal equivalent (226.86125)10

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

80 1 8–1 .125

81 8 8–2 .015625

82 64 8–3 .00195312

83 512 8–4 .0002441406

84 4096 8–5 .00003051757

85 32768 8–6 .00000381469

86 262144 8–7 .00000047683

: : : :

: : : :

Hexadecimal to Decimal

(For the conversion of Hexa - decimal to a decimal number the base/radix will be 16. )

Solution

Conversion of integer part :

Starting from right multiply each digit by nth bit × 16n-1, we find

3 D F

3×16 + 13×16 + 15×160

2 1

768 + 208 + 15

(991)10

The converted decimal equivalent value is – (3DF)16 = (991)10

Solution

Integer part – 5DE

Fractional part – 1A

Conversion of integer part-

Starting from right multiply each digit by nth bit × 16n-1, we find –

5 D E

5×16 + 13×16 + 14×160

2 1

1280 + 208 + 14

(1502)10

Conversion of fractional part

Starting from left to right each digit is multiplied by 16–1, 16–2, 16–3, 16–4... we find

1 A

1×16 + 10×16–2

–1

+

0.0625 + 0.039062 = (0.101562)10

by combining both the values we get the final decimal equivalent.

(1502.101562)10

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

160 1 16–1 .0625

161 16 16–2 .0039062

162 256 16–3 .00024414062

163 4096 16–4 .00001525878

164 65536 16–5 .00000095367

165 1048576 16–6 .0000000596

166 16777216 16–7 .00000000372

: : : :

Converting From Decimal to a New Base

Steps:

Step 1: Divide the decimal number to be converted by the value of the new base.

Step 2: Record the remainder from step 1 as the rightmost digit (Least Significant Digit) of

the new base number.

Step 3: Divide the quotient of the previous division by the new base.

Step 4: Record the remainder from step 3 as the next digit (to the left) of the new base

number.

Repeat steps 3 and 4 recording remainders from right to left, until the quotient becomes

zero in step 3. Note that the last remainder thus obtained will be the most significant digit (MSD)

of the new base number.

(1) In this method we multiply given fractional part by ‘base’ and write down the Fractional

parts and integer parts of the products in the separate columns.

(2) The successive fractional parts of the products are multiplied by base till the fractional part

of the product becomes 0 or up to the desired accuracy.

(3) The integer part of the product is written in downward direction ( ) to find the binary

equivalent of the decimal fraction.

Example 1

2510 =? 2 95210 =? 8 42810 = ?16

Q R Q R Q R

25 952 428

12 119 0 26

6 3 1 14 7 0 1 0 1

3 0 7 1 6 `

1 1 1 =1 10 12

=1 A C 16

= 110012 =16708

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Solution

Integer part conversion

Dividend divisor = Quotient (Remainder)

75 2 = 37 1 LSD

37 2 = 18 1

18 2 =9 0

9 2 =4 1 (1001011)2

4 2 =2 0

2 2 =1 0

1 2 =0 1 MSD

Process Product Decimal part Integer part

0.68 × 2 1.36 .36 1 MSD

0.36 × 2 0.72 .72 0

0.72 × 2 1.44 .44 1 (10101)2

0.44 × 2 0.88 .88 0

0.88 × 2 1.76 .76 1 LSD

Now the combined string of converted integer and fractional part will be

(75.68)10 = (1001011.10101)2

Example 3: Find the Octal equivalent of (634.640625)10 = ( ? )8

Solution

Integer part conversion

(Divisor) Dividend divisor = Quotient (Remainder)

8 634 8 = 79 2 R1 LSD

8 79 8 = 9 7 R2

8 9 8 = 9 1 R3 (1172)8

8 1 8 = 0 1 R4 MSD

Process Product Decimal part Integer part

0.640625 × 8 5.125 .125 5 MSD

0.125 × 8 1.00 .00 1 (510)8

0.00 × 8 0.00 .00 0 LSD

Now the combined string of converted integer and fractional part will be -

(634.640625)10 = ( 1172.510 )8

Example 4: Find the Hexa-decimal equivalent of (3634.6505)10 = ( ? )16

Solution: Integer part conversion

(Divisor) Dividend divisor = Quotient (Remainder)

16 3634 16 = 227 2 R1 LSD

16 227 16 = 14 3 R2 (E32)16

16 14 16 = 0 14 = E R3 MSD

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Process Product Decimal part Integer part

0.6505 × 16 10.408 .408 10 = A MSD

0.408 × 16 6.528 .528 6

0.528 × 16 8.448 .448 8 (0.A6872)16

0.448 × 16 7.168 .168 7

0.168 × 16 2.688 .688 2 LSD

Now the combined value of converted integer and fractional part will be -

(3634.6505)10 = (E32.A6872 )16

(Decimal)

Step 2: Convert the decimal number so obtained to the new base.

Eg: 3456 =? 4

First, Convert 3456 into its equivalent decimal.

=5*60+4*61+3*62 Now, convert 137 10 =? 4

=5+24+108 137 1

=13710 34 8 2

8 2 0

So, 3456 = 20214 2 2

Step 1: Divide the binary digits into groups of three (starting from the right). If any last group does

not have sufficient bits to make the pair of 3 bits then some 0 bits can be included to the left

to make the group of 3 bits.

Step 2: Convert each group of 3 binary digits into one octal digit. Since decimal digits 0 to 7 are

equal to octal digits 0 to 7, binary to decimal conversion can be used in this step.

(b) Fractional part conversion

Step 1: Here the grouping of 3 bits is done from left to right and if any last group does not have sufficient

number of bits then adequate zeros can be included to the right of the last group.

Step 2: Now each group of bits is converted into its octal equivalent number.

Step 3: After this if integer part is present all the equivalent octal numbers of integer parts and fractional

parts are combined to find the final octal equivalent number.

Step 4: At last the decimal point is fixed at the appropriate position according to the mathematical

conventions.

Example 1: Find the octal equivalent of (10101.01101)2 = (?)8

Solution

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0

·

2 5 ·

3 2 (10101.01101)2 = (25.32)8

R to L grouping L to R

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Step 1: Convert each octal digit to a 3 digit binary number. (Here octal digits are

considered as decimals.)

Step 2: Combine all the resulting binary groups into a single binary number.

Solution

The 3 bits binary combinations of octal equivalent digits are as follows

Octal Binary

2 = 010

1 = 001

7 = 111

0 = 000

By combining all the 3 bits binary combinations we get–

2 1 7 2 . 0 1

010 001 111 010 000 001

(2172.01)8 = (010001111010.000001)2

Step 1: Divide the binary digits into groups of four. (Starting from the right)

Step 2: Convert each group of four digits to one hexadecimal digit. Hexa decimal digits 0

to 9 are equal to decimal digits 0 to 9, and hexa decimal digits A to F are equal to decimal

10 to 15. Hence the binary to decimal conversion procedure can be used, but the decimal

values 10 to 15 must be represented as hexa decimal A to F.

(b) Fractional part conversion

Step 1: The grouping of 4 bits is done from left to right and if any last group does not have the sufficient

number of bits then adequate 0s can be included to the right of the last group.

Step 2: Now each group of bits is converted into its hexa-decimal equivalent number.

Step 3: After this all the equivalent hexa-decimal numbers of integer parts and fractional parts are

combined to find the final hexa-decimal equivalent number.

Step 4:Lastly the decimal point is fixed at the appropriate place according to the mathematical

conventions.

Example 1: Find the hexa-decimal equivalent of (100001011.000011) = (?)16

Solution

0 011 0 0 0 0 1011 · 0000 110 0

1 0 B

0 C (10B.0C)16

R to L L to R

grouping

Shortcut Method for Hexadecimal to Binary Conversion

Step 1: Convert the decimal equivalent of each hexa digit to a 4 digit binary number.

Step 2: Combine all the resulting binary groups into a single binary number.

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Step 1: The grouping of 4 bits is done from left to right and if any last group does not have the sufficient

number of bits then adequate 0s can be included to the right of the last group.

Step 2: Now each group of bits is converted into its hexa-decimal equivalent number.

Step 3: After this all the equivalent hexa-decimal numbers of integer parts and fractional parts are

combined to find the final hexa-decimal equivalent number.

Step 4: Lastly the decimal point is fixed at the appropriate place according to the mathematical

conventions.

Solution

The group of 4 binary bits of hexa-decimal equivalent numbers is as follows :

Hexa-decimal Binary

A = 1010

C = 1100

4 = 0100

1 = 0001

6 = 0110

F = 1111

By concatenating (combining) all the 4 bit binary combinations we get

A C 4 . 1 6 F

1010 1100 0100 0001 0110 1111

(AC4.16F)16 = (101011000100.000101101111)2

Binary Arithmetic

Operations on Binary Numbers

1. Binary Addition

Rule:

0+1=1

1+0=1

0+0=0

1+1=0, with a carry 1 over to the next higher column.

Add the following number

101 + 11

101

+ 11

1000

Complement or 1’s Complement of Binary Numbers

Complement or 1’s Complement of Binary Numbers

Rule:

Complement of 1 = 0

Complement of 0 = 1

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Rule:

2’s Complement = 1’s Complement +1

= 010+1= 011

Negative numbers are represented in its 2’s complement form. 5-bit representation is used for

all example numbers; the first bit (MSB) being the sign bit.

Eg: (+9) + (+4)

+9 0 1001

+4 + 0 0 1 0 0

----------------

0 1 1 0 1 = +13

Sign bits

+9 0 1001

-4 + 1 1 1 0 0 (-4 is in its 2’s complement representation)

--------------------

1 0 0101 =+5

Positive Number and a Larger Negative Number

+4 + 0 0100

--------------------

1 1011 = -5 (answer is in 2’s complement form)

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

-4 + 1 1100 (-4 is in its 2’s complement representation)

-----------------

1 1 0011 = -13 (in its 2’s complement form)

Eg: (-9) + (+9)

+9 + 0 1001

----------------

1 0 0000 =0

2. Binary Subtraction

Rule:

1-1=0

1-0=1

0-0=0

0-1=1, a borrow 1 from the next higher column.

Eg: 101-11

101

- 11

010

Binary Subtraction in the 2’s Complement System

Eg: (+9) - (+4)

+9 01001

+4 -00100

Here, +4 is to be changed to its 2’s complement form. i.e, 11100. And now add this number with

+9 (01001) .

+9 0 1001

-4 + 1 1100

-----------------

1 0 0101 =+5

13 | | Adigrat University, College of Engineering and Technology, Department of Information Technology

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Any subtraction operation, then, actually becomes one of the addition when 2’s complement system is

used. This feature of 2’s complement system allows addition and subtraction to be performed by the same

circuitry- made it the most widely used method.

3. Multiplication of Binary Numbers

Eg: (910 ) * (1110 )

910 = 1 0 0 1 multiplicand

1110 = 1 0 1 1 multiplier

----------

1001

1001

0000

1001

-------------------

1100011 = 9910

4. Division of Binary Numbers

Eg: (910 ) ÷ (310 ) 910 = 1 0 0 1 dividend

310 = 0 0 1 1 divisor

0011 = 310

11 1001

011

------------

0011

0011

------------

0000

Computer Codes

Computer handles different types of data namely numeric data, alphanumeric data, alphabetic

data etc. Computer system use a binary system for data representation; Two digits 0 and 1, refer

to the presence and absence of electric current or pulse of light. All data and programs that go

into the computer are represented in terms of these numbers.

Computer system encodes the data by means of binary or digital coding schemes to

represent letters, numbers and special characters. One of the early coding schemes is BCD. Some

of the commonly used schemes are EBCDIC, ASCII, and Unicode.

BCD (Binary Coded Decimal)

BCD is one of the early memory codes. In BCD each digit of a decimal number is

converted into its binary equivalent rather than converting the entire decimal value into binary

form. And each decimal digit uses 4 bits for this conversion.

4210 is equal to 0100 00102 in BCD (Here 410 = 0100 and 210 = 0010)

910 = 1001 in BCD

110 = 0001 in BCD

1010 = 0001 0000 in BCD

1510= 0001 0101 in BCD

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

BCD Coding Scheme for All

Since 4 bits is insufficient to represent Numeric and Alphabetic Characters

characters, 6 bits representation was

introduced in BCD coding. 6 bit is enough to

represent 10 decimal digits, 26 alphabetic

letters and 28 other special characters. Also

using 6 bits we can represent 26 (=64)

different characters.

6 bit BCD code can be easily divided

into 3 bit groups and each group can be

represented by 1 octal digit. Thus octal number

system is used as a shortcut notation for memory

dump by computers that use BCD code for internal

representation characters.

IBM and BCD

Some variation of BCD was used in most

early IBM computers, including the IBM

1620, IBM 1400 series and non-Decimal

Architecture members of the IBM 700/7000

series. With the introduction of System/360,

IBM replaced BCD with 8-bit EBCDIC. BCD

is still heavily used in IBM processors and

databases, such as IBM DB2.

Example 1

Write a BCD code for the word CASE

Solution

C A S E

11 0011 11 0001 01 0010 11 0101

The BCD code for CASE is

– 110011 110001 010010 110101

Decimal Interchange Code)

characters. To represent lowercase alphabets EBCDIC

EBCDIC Coding

Coding Scheme

Scheme for

for All

All

(26), uppercase alphabets (26), decimal numbers Numeric and Alphabetic Characters

Numeric and Alphabetic Characters

(10) and special characters (28+) BCD coding is

not sufficient and was extended from 6 bit to 8

bit. And the new coding scheme is EBCDIC.

different characters. EBCDIC 8 bit coding can

be divided into 2 groups of 4 bits. Each group

can be represented using 1 hexa decimal digit.

This scheme is developed by IBM and hence

mostly used in IBM model computer and

mainframe.

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

This code can represent the following type of coded information. (i) Printable (ii) non printable

(iii) lowercase letters - a, b, c ...... z (iii) upper case letters eg. A, B, C ...... Z (iv) numeric values 0, 1, 2

........ 9 (v) some special characters such as + , –, $ etc.

Solution By using the EBCDIC table

P E N

1101 0111 1100 0101 1101 0101

The EBCDIC code for PEN is 1101 0111 1100 0101 1101 0101

Solution By using the EBCDIC table

M A I S M

1101 0100 1100 0001 1100 1001 1110 0010 1101 0100

D 4 C 1 C 9 E 2 D 4

The EBCDIC code for MAISM is

1101 0100 1100 0001 1100 1001 1110 0010 1101 0100

D4C1C9E2D4 in Hexa-decimal system

This binary scheme originally used 7 bits to from a character and so known as ASCII- 7 coding

scheme. ASCII 7 can represent only 27 (=128) different characters.

Interchange) Pronounced “ask-ee,” it is the ASCII-7 Coding Scheme for All

built-in binary code for representing characters Numeric and Alphabetic Characters

in all computers except IBM mainframes, which

use the EBCDIC coding system. ASCII is the

binary code used in most of the microcomputers.

communications and uses only seven bits per

character(character and so known as ASCII- 7

coding scheme.), providing 128 combinations

that include upper and lower case alphabetic

letters, the numeric digits and special symbols

such as the $ and %. In this the first 32

characters are set aside for communications and

printer control. ASCII encoding scheme uses

hexadecimal for its shortcut notation.

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Solution By using ASCII-7 table :

R O Y A L

101 0010 100 1111 101 1001 100 0001 100 1100

The ASCII-7 code for ROYAL is - 1010010 1001111 1011001 1000001 1001100

Solution By using ASCII-7 table :

N O S E

100 1110 100 1111 101 0011 100 0101

The ASCII-7 code for NOSE is - 1001110 1001111 1010011 1000101

ASCII-8

To provide more possible combinations with which to

form other characters and symbols. Extended ASCII

ASCII-8 Coding Scheme for All

or ASCII-8 was introduced. ASCII-8 use 8 bits to Numeric and Alphabetic

form a character and can represent 28 (=256) different Characters

characters.

Solution By using ASCII-8 table :

T O O L

1011 0100 1010 1111 1010 1111 1010 1100

The ASCII-8 code for TOOL is

- 10110100 10101111 10101111 10101100

R A J A

1011 0010 1010 0001 1010 1010 1010 0001

The ASCII-8 code for RAJA is

- 10110010 10100001 10101010 10100001

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