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08 SOCIAL PROTECTION

PUBLIC INVESTMENT PROGRAMME 2017 - 2020

8.2 Safety Net Programme

Overall Policy of the Government: Currently, around 36 welfare programmes are


being implemented island-wide mainly
Implementing specific social focusing on poverty reduction and reducing
protection schemes for all the vulnerability. These programmes are
managed by different agencies at national
necessary segments of the society
and provincial levels. However, at present
to improve their living condition most of the ineligible families/ persons are
and empowering them to receiving welfare assistance. According to
contribute to the development of the HIES 2012/13 data, although 6.7 percent
the country of the households are below the poverty line,
16 percent of the households in the country
have received Samurdhi cash transfers.
Further, almost two-thirds of the poorest
quintile does not receive any cash transfers at
8.1 Overview all.
SOCIAL PROTECTION

Sri Lanka has made significant progress in 8.2.1 Prevailing issues in existing welfare
reducing poverty over past decades. The programmes
Poverty Head Count Ratio at the national
CHAPTER 8

level has declined from 22.7 percent in 2002 1. Targeting- (inclusion and exclusion errors)
to 6.7 percent in 2012/13. Despite the above –include the beneficiaries those who are
achievements, inequality and vulnerability not eligible to receive benefits and
remain issues of great concerns. Generally, exclude the eligible persons. In most cases
certain segments of the population like beneficiary selecting criteria is based on
children, disadvantaged women, elders and the poverty line and also suffer from lack
disabled are vulnerable. The government of clearly defined criterion/ definition.
mainly focuses to ensure the well-being of Therefore, the following major weaknesses
those segments within the family through are identified:
group specific interventions. In line with the
above principle, major welfare and livelihood Ŗ &
 KHHKEWNV[ VQ KFGPVKH[ VJG TGCN KPEQOG QH
assistance programmes have been beneficiaries
implemented aiming at the above
vulnerable groups to ensure inclusive growth Ŗ &
 KHHKEWNV[ QH GNKIKDNG RGTUQPU VQ GPVGT VJG
where each and every individual of the programme
country is able to enjoy the economic and
social benefits. Ŗ 0
 Q ENGCT GZKV OGEJCPKUO VQ TGOQXG
empowered families

Box 8.1 : Main Safety Net Programmes

Programme Beneficiary /Target Group


Income Support programmes
Samurdhi - (Divi Neguma) Subsidy and related benefits Low income households
Monthly allowance for disabled Persons with disabilities in low income households
Elderly allowance ( Monthly) Persons 70 years old and above in low income households
Public assistance monthly allowance Highly vulnerable low income households, often with elderly,
disabled, widows, single mothers or orphans
Assistance for illnesses Persons with a chronic illness in low income households
Rehabilitation Grants Low –income /vulnerable households
(one-off grants for micro-business activities, as alternative to PAMA)
Nutritional Support programme
Thriposha national supplementary food programme All pregnant and lactating mothers (up to 06 months from birth) and
(2 take-Home packs of Thriposha per month) undernourished children aged 06-59 months
Nutrition Allowance (Poshana Malla food stamp Rs.2000 per month) All pregnant and lactation mothers below required body mass index (BMI)
Fresh Milk for nursery children Children 2-5 Years in ECD centers in low nutrition areas

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PUBLIC INVESTMENT PROGRAMME 2017 - 2020

2. Inefficient institutional framework and countries such as Chile, Brazil and Colombia
higher administrative cost have succeeded in integrating their social
protection system. The key features of this
There are overlaps in programmes, both integrated system are a centralized and
at national and provincial levels and unified database of beneficiaries and
among agencies. This duplication makes standardized mechanism to target eligible
it difficult to develop a coherent and beneficiaries.
efficient social protection system.
Further, the targeting system of the welfare
3. Unavailability of a proper social security programmes; especially Samurdhi, needs to
system in the informal sector be revised using scientific method namely
Proxy Means Tests (PMT). This means shifting to
This is mainly because those who are indirect methods of eligibility assessment
employed in the informal sector do not based on score obtained from a formula with
enjoy the benefits of any existing social a weighted set of proxy indicators including
security scheme. This is crucial as Sri household assets, demographic
Lanka’s aging population is increasing. characteristics, housing conditions,

SOCIAL PROTECTION
expenditure pattern, etc., in addition to the
Therefore, it is necessary to establish an monthly income. Particularly, attention needs
integrated welfare and subsidy management to be given to identify “pockets of poverty”
(“one-stop-shop”) and social security system and ensure the well-being of the people

CHAPTER 8
for addressing the above issues. The specially in underserved areas.
international experiences reveal that

Box 8.2 : Samurdhi/ Divineguma Subsidy Programme

The Samurdhi /Divineguma programme is the main social protection initiative for the poor
in the country both in terms of the expenditure and the number of beneficiaries. This
associates with multiple programmes like the subsidy (or the cash transfer), social security
(or insurance), microfinance and livelihood development.

Table 8.2.1: Benefits of the Samurdhi/ Divineguma Subsidy Programme


Total Monthly Net Subsidy Compulsory Contribution Contribution to
Category
Subsidy (Rs.) Amount Savings to Social Housing
(Rs.) (Rs.) Security Fund (Rs.) Fund (Rs.)

1-2 member families

3-5 member families

6 or more members

Empowered Families

Source: Department of Divineguma Development

The main purpose of the subsidy programme is to promote compulsory savings and
improve savings culture among poor families. However, currently, these compulsory
savings can only be withdrawn after a beneficiary reaches the age of 60 years unless
he/she suffers from a serious illness or require funds for investment.

Despite being in operation for nearly two decades and having a substantial coverage of
families, the Samurdhi/ Divineguma subsidy programme has several weaknesses relating
to targeting both inclusive and exclusive errors.

The Samurdhi/ Divineguma cash transfer programme has undergone a few waves of
reforms during the last decade. These reforms were aimed at enhancing the quantity and
coverage of benefits and restructuring the design of the programme. The rising cost of the
Samurdhi/ Divineguma programme requires to bring down the number of uneligible
beneficiaries, while targeting the benefits only for the needy groups.

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8.3 Women Ŗ .QYRCTVKEKRCVKQPKPVJGFGEKUKQP 


making process
Allowing all members of a society to
participate in, and contribute to, the growth Renewed efforts are being made to
process on an equal basis will result in improve female representation in Sri
achieving inclusive growth regardless of their Lankan politics targeting the upcoming
individual concerns. However, the available local government elections which is an
essential part of inclusive development.
data and indicators show that the economic
According to the Inter-Parliamentary
potential of the Sri Lankan women is not fully Union, Sri Lanka political representation of
utilized for the process of economic the women is less than 6 percent and
development. The condition of women in Sri ranks 128th out of 140 countries. Females
Lanka is determined by the social-cultural represent only 4.1 percent of seats in the
norms and economic status. As a result of Provincial Councils (PCs), and 2.3 percent
social policies on free health and education of seats in the Local Government (LG)
services, women’s quality of life has bodies in Sri Lanka.
remarkably improved. Compared to the rest
of South Asia, Sri Lankan women enjoy better
SOCIAL PROTECTION

quality of life with high life expectancy (74 Table 8.3.2: Female Representation
years), nearly universal literacy, and access to in Parliament
economic opportunities, which are nearly
CHAPTER 8

unmatched in the rest of the subcontinent.


Country (%)
8.3.1. Issues and Challenges
Rwanda 64
Ŗ .QYHGOCNGNCDQWTRCTVKEKRCVKQP Bolivia 53
Cuba 49
Recent studies have revealed that Sri Lanka’s
Nepal 29.5
female labour participation is low compared
Afghanistan 27.7
to its Asian counterparts such as Thailand and
Pakistan 27.7
Malaysia which have a high rate of 64
percent and 44 percent respectively. The Bangladesh 20

latest available data indicate that out of the India 12

total economically inactive population of the Sri Lanka 6


country, 70.3 percent is female and out of the Source; http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm
total economically active population females
However, the Table 8.3.2 reveal that, Sri
account for only 33.4 percent (Department of
Lanka female representation is the lowest
Census and Statistics, 2013). Lack of facilities in the region. Deserving women should
for child caring has been identified as a major have a chance to represent themselves in
constraint which prevents women from the parliament and facilitate to improve
participating in the labour force. good governance through inclusiveness.

Ŗ +PETGCUGQHKPEKFGPVUQH8KQNCPEG 
Table 8.3.1: Comparison of Female  #ICKPUV9QOGP
8#9
Labor Force Participation
Developed/ Developing Countries  8
 KQNGPEGCICKPUVYQOGPQEEWTUKPOCP[
parts of the country and however not all
cases are reported. The violence against
2011 2012 2013 women has serious health and
China 64 64 64 development impacts and is a gross
Japan 48 48 49
violation of women’s rights. Some studies
show that these issues are mainly reported
Malaysia 44 44 44
in estate and rural sectors.
Korea 49 50 50
Singapore 58 59 59 Key Factors influencing Gender-based
Sri Lanka 35 35 35 8KQNGPEG
)$8 KP5TK.CPMC
India 28 27 27
Pakistan 24 24 25 Ŗ ( COKN[EQPHNKEVUFWGVQVJGRQXGTV[UVCVWU
of the family
Source: World Bank

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PUBLIC INVESTMENT PROGRAMME 2017 - 2020

Ŗ #
 NEQJQNKUO QH HCVJGT NQPIVGTO Currently, Government and other
absenteeism of mother due to foreign organizations are supporting WHHs including
employment war widows. While the ongoing efforts are
positive and have contributed to the
Ŗ /
 CVVGTUTGNCVGFVQFQYT[CPFCFWNVGT[ betterment of the lives of individuals in WHHs,
there are some serious issues concerning WHH
Ŗ '
 EQPQOKE FGRGPFGPEG CPF NQY unaddressed. In most of the current
educational level development efforts, WHH are not
considered as a diverse group with varied
Women in nuclear family set up seem to be and multi-faceted issues but as a simple
OQTG XWNPGTCDNG VQ )$8 EQORCTGF VQ category identified as “most vulnerable”.
extended family units. Another limitation is that current approaches
are often focused on one facet of
Ŗ 9QOGP*GCFGF*QWUGJQNFU
9** experience of a WHH (i.e. livelihoods), the
success of which is dependent upon other
According to the most recent Household issues (health, security etc.). As such, a multi
and Income Expenditure Survey sectoral approach is required to improve the

SOCIAL PROTECTION
(2012/13), it is estimated that out of 5.2 lives of WHH.
million households in Sri Lanka, 1.2 million
households or 23 percent of the Ongoing Programmes
households are WHH. WHHs are not

CHAPTER 8
confined to a particular geographical Implementing several livelihood
location or a residential sector. When a development programmes targeting
sector–wise comparison is made, the vulnerable women, providing training,
highest proportion of WHHs is found to be financial and technical assistance to
in urban areas. The proportion of WHHs is improve the economic status of the
increasing in all three sector, urban, rural family. These include Samurdhi, cash
and estate with the highest increase grants, concessionary lending facilities
recorded for the estate sector. etc.

Box 8.3 : Snapshot of WHH Characteristics

Age Employment

Over 60% of female heads are Employment of female heads is


under 60 below 35%
The highest concentration is within In the estate sector 52% are
the age group 40-59 employed but in precarious
20% of women headed households employment
are below 40 22% indicated that they are unable
or too old to work

Education Marital Status

7% have no schooling (This figure is 32 % of female heads are married


twice the national figure) While a majority are widowed, there
27% have only primary education is a substantial proportion of NHs
due to separation or divorce

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PUBLIC INVESTMENT PROGRAMME 2017 - 2020

Conducting awareness programmes on Ŗ 5 VTGPIVJGPVJGEQWPUGNKPIU[UVGOKPGCEJ


TGFWEKPI )GPFGT $CUGF 8KQNGPEG
)$8  DS division to resolve family disputes
at national, district and divisional levels
Ŗ &
 GXGNQRCEQORTGJGPUKXGRTQITCOOGVQ
Providing services mainly for widows and identify current gaps and limitations
Women Headed Households covering the areas of legal aid for land
collaboratively with the relevant Ministries FKURWVGU )$8 CYCTGPGUUTCKUKPI QP
and agencies and other stakeholders in UGZWCNN[ VTCPUOKVVGF FKUGCUGU *+8#+&5
Northern and Eastern Provinces. Social stigma associated with widows,
divided/separated families etc
8.3.2. Key Strategies
Ŗ &
 GXGNQR C OQFGN QH XQECVKQPCN VTCKPKPI
Ŗ +ORNGOGPV URGEKCN RTQITCOOGU HQT for skill development
women on business development training
and technology transfer, create markets Ŗ +PKVKCVG C ECORCKIP VQ EJCPIG CVVKVWFG
and market linkages, share business towards women’s participation in the
information and facilitate access to credit labour force
SOCIAL PROTECTION

for the business.


Ŗ +PETGCUGYQOGPRCTVKEKRCVKQPKPFGEKUKQP
Ŗ +ORNGOGPV C TCPIG QH URGEKCN making at political and institutional level
programmes by both government and
CHAPTER 8

non-government institutions especially 8.4 Children


focusing the Women Headed Households
and vulnerable women. For a balanced growth of a child, health and
education are the two most important
Ŗ $
 QQUV VJG UWRRN[ QH EJKNFECTG HCEKNKVKGU VQ services he/she should receive. Both of these
enhance women labour force services are available free of charge within
participation through a comprehensive the country ensuring the proper physical and
programme to establish day care centers mental growth of the child. Although Sri
with the support of stakeholders. Lankan children are in a better status
compared to other South Asian countries,
Carry out a comprehensive survey and there are several challenges to be addressed.
develop a data base
8.4.1. Issues and Challenges
Revise Child Care policy and standard
regulations to standardize the existing High malnutrition and obesity among
centers and care givers children

Promote all government and private Poor quality of early childhood education
institutions to start the day care centres Increased violence/abuse against
children
Ŗ '
 PUWTGCPFUCHGIWCTFVJGTKIJVUQHYQOGP
Unsystematic implementation of Early
Enact the Bill of Rights of Women Childhood Development Programmes

Establish a “National Commission on Provision of foster parent or institutional


Women” to enforce the bill of rights care for destitutes and orphans
Inadequate access to health, nutrition
Enforce strict legal punishment for and education facilities by vulnerable
sexual and violent crimes against children
women
8.4.2. Key Strategies
Appoint a “National Commission on
Preventing Sexual and Gender Based Ŗ Promote advocacy as a continuous
 8
 KQNGPEG
)$8 Πprocess to help mobilize resources and
galvanize political and social leadership
Provide assistance for victims of gender to prevent child abuse, exploitation,
based violence violence and neglect

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PUBLIC INVESTMENT PROGRAMME 2017 - 2020

Ŗ 5 GVWR CFOKPKUVTCVKXG CPF UQEKCN TGHQTOU 8.5 Elders


for preventing child violence and abuse
As a consequence of changing fertility,
Ŗ ( QTOWNCVG CPF KORNGOGPV EJKNF mortality and international migration trends,
protection policy Sri Lanka’s aged population has increased
from 6.6 percent in 1981 to 9.2 percent in 2001
Ŗ '
 PHQTEG UVTKEV NGICN RWPKUJOGPV HQT EJKNF and 12.2 percent in 2012. It is projected that
abuse elder population will double from the current
level in 2041 and reached the level of 24.8
Ŗ ( QTOWNCVGCEJKNFHTKGPFN[NGICNU[UVGO percent.

Ŗ '
 PUWTGGHHGEVKXGEQQTFKPCVKQPCOQPIUVCNN
organizations and actors working for the Future trends are as follows:
protection and development of the
children of this country Every one out of four will be over the age
of 60 years by the year 2041. Further the
Ŗ 5 VTGPIVJGP CPF GZRCPF PQPHQTOCN oldest old people (80+) will account for

SOCIAL PROTECTION
education opportunities for children who more than 5 percent of the nation
have not been to school, children who population.
are drop-outs
Older population will be more

CHAPTER 8
Ŗ '
 PUWTGGXGT[EJKNFŏURTGUEJQQNGPTQNNOGPV predominantly female in the future.

Ŗ 4
 GFWEG OCNPWVTKVKQP COQPI EJKNFTGP One in five (20.9 percent) of the aged
under 5 years persons who are 60 years or above is
widowed with higher tendency for
women to become widows at older age

Figure 8.1: Elder Care Model

Elders

Elders with family Without family Bedridden


Non-formal care

Family Care Model Subsidiary Model State Responsible


Elders – with Informal caregivers With Income Model
(family / relatives or Friend Without income

Without Establish paying


With Income Provide care
Income elder home with
facilities in
facilities
government
institutions
Financial Support /
Livelihood Opportunities

Direct / Provide long term


Health Care Short Term
encourage Hospitalize facilities

Day Care / Elder Societies

Source: Department of National Planning

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PUBLIC INVESTMENT PROGRAMME 2017 - 2020

8.5.1 Issues and Challenges Ŗ +ORNGOGPVCJGCNVJKPUWTCPEGUEJGOGHQT


senior citizens
Ŗ %
 JCPIG KP CVVKVWFGU QP VTCFKVKQPCN HCOKN[
support to older people. Ŗ '
 UVCDNKUJ GNFGTUŏ EQQRGTCVKXG UQEKGVKGU KP
order to facilitate microfinance,
Ŗ ( QTOCNUQEKCNUGEWTKV[U[UVGOUJCXGNKOKVGF marketing, national and international
coverage and inadequate benefits networking, etc.

Ŗ +PCFGSWCVGIGTKCVTKEJGCNVJECTG Ŗ +ORTQXG CPF GZRCPF KPHTCUVTWEVWTG


facilities of exiting elder homes
Ŗ . CEM QH QRRQTVWPKVKGU VQ RCTVKEKRCVG KP
productive economic activities Ŗ +PVTQFWEG WPKXGTUCN RGPUKQP UEJGOG
(social security system with health
Ŗ +NNVTGCVOGPVQHGNFGTU insurance scheme) for all the persons
above 65 years of age who donot have
Ongoing Programmes the benefit of any other pension scheme.
SOCIAL PROTECTION

Ŗ A new model for elder care is being Ŗ '


 UVCDNKUJ CV NGCUV  GNFGT ECTG EGPVGTU KP
developed to ensure protection of each DS division
vulnerable elders (Figure 8.1)
CHAPTER 8

Ŗ +PENWFGDCUKERTKPEKRNGUQHIGTQPVQNQI[KP
Ŗ #
  URGEKCN RTQITCOOG KU DGKPI the school curriculum
implemented to establish elder care
centres - a data base of elder care Ŗ '
 UVCDNKUJUWDUKFK\GFGNFGTJQOGUHQTGNFGTU
centers and web page for the elderly who have regular income
care is currently created with the
participation of the all stakeholders. 8.6 Differently-abled

Ŗ ( KPCPEKCN CUUKUVCPEG KU RTQXKFGF VQ NQY The issue of disability exists in every society.
According to the Department of Census and
8.5.2 Key Strategies Statistics, out of the population aged 5 years
and above, 8.7 percent have reported at
Ŗ +PETGCUGVJGPWODGTQHFC[ECTGEGPVGTU least one difficulty. Of this, 43 percent were
for senior citizens to spend quality leisure males and 57 were females.
time with the private sector participation

Ŗ '
 UVCDNKUJ URGEKCN YCTF HCEKNKVKGU KP GXGT[
hospital for senior citizens with trained
geriatricians

Ŗ 2
 TQXKFG HTGG RCUUGU VQ UGPKQT EKVK\GPU HQT
public transport (over 74 years)

Ŗ 2
 TQXKFGJKIJGTKPVGTGUVTCVGUQHFGRQUKVUQH
senior citizens

Ŗ 2
 TQXKFG VTCKPKPI KP IGTQPVQNQI[ VQ 5QEKCN
Service Officers, Elders Rights Promotion
Assistants, Social Development Assistants,
Development Officers, Counselors,
Hospital Attendants and Family Health
Officers

Ŗ 2
 TQXKFG PGEGUUCT[ OGFKEKPG HQT EJTQPKE
diseases such as kidney diseases, cancer, 8.6.1 Issues and Challenges
heart diseases, etc. at a concessionary
rate for elders Ŗ . QY GFWECVKQPCN CEJKGXGOGPVU
especially in tertiary education
Ŗ ( CEKNKVCVG UGPKQT EKVK\GPU VQ GPICIG KP
productive economic activities Ŗ . GUUGEQPQOKECNN[CEVKXG

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PUBLIC INVESTMENT PROGRAMME 2017 - 2020

development interventions have been


Ŗ '
 ZRGTKGPEGJKIJGTTCVGUQHRQXGTV[ implemented by the Government with the
support of the development partners. As a
Ŗ +PCDKNKV[ VQ NKXG KPFGRGPFGPVN[ QT result of post conflict development
participate fully in community activities interventions in the Northern and Eastern
provinces, most of the socio-economic
8.6.2 Key Strategies indicators have improved close to the
national level. However, some indicators such
Ŗ +FGPVKH[VJGEJKNFTGPYKVJFKUCDKNKVKGUKPVJGKT as pipe borne water coverage (northern),
early childhood infant mortality (northern) and maternal
mortality (northern) are far behind the
Ŗ +PXGUV KP URGEKHKE RTQITCOOGU CPF national level.
services for people with disabilities
Since the Northern and Eastern Provinces and
Ŗ 2
 TQOQVG GORNQ[OGPV CPF FGXGNQR adjoining districts had been facing the direct
livelihoods through Community Based consequences of a conflict situation nearly for
Rehabilitation (CBR) three decades, bringing back these areas to

SOCIAL PROTECTION
normalcy within a short period is a huge
Teach skills for developing challenge. In order to achieve government
income-generating opportunities and macroeconomic and regional development
for being employed objectives by 2020, a substantial amount of

CHAPTER 8
additional resources are required to fill the
Impart knowledge about the labour remaining gaps in relation to vital
market socio-economic infrastructure needs in the
Northern and Eastern provinces as well as
Shape appropriate attitudes to work bordering districts.

Provide guidance on developing 8.7.1 Issues and Challenges


relationships with employers to find a
job or receive on-the-job training Ŗ Resettlement of IDPs in their places of
origin
Support targeted welfare programmes
for differently abled persons with severe Ŗ Resettlement issues of Second generation
disabilities and low income.
Ŗ 4
 GRCVTKCVKQPQHTGHWIGGUHTQO6COKN0CFW
Promote self-employment and provide India.
microfinance
Ŗ 4
 GJCDKNKVCVKQP CPF UQEKCN KPVGITCVKQP QH
Ŗ +ORTQXGJWOCPTGUQWTEGECRCEKV[QHVJG detainees and ex-combatants.
employees who are engaged in providing
services to the differently-abled Ŗ +UUWGUQHFGVCKPGGUCICKPUVYJQOEJCTIG
sheets not framed / minor offenders need
Ŗ +PETGCUG RWDNKE CYCTGPGUU CPF to be addressed.
understanding of disability
Ŗ 2
 C[OGPV QH EQORGPUCVKQP HQT RGTUQPU
8.7 Internal Displaced Families properties and industries.

Sri Lanka has passed nearly 7 years since the Ŗ &


 GOKPKPIQHNCPFUHQTTGUGVVNGOGPV
end of three decade long conflict in May
2009 and now people have gained new 8.7.2 Key Strategies
strength and expectations about their living
standards. The Government has placed a Ŗ 6 CMG CEVKQP VQ TGNGCUG QTKIKPCN NCPFU VQ
high priority on expediting the development IDPs or provide alternative lands.
of conflict affected areas and improving
living conditions of the people with a view to Ŗ 5 VTGPIVJGP VJG TGUGVVNGOGPV RTQITCOOG
achieving firm economic development to by providing basic requirements and
strengthen the national reconciliation infrastructure facilities to the IDPs and
process. In view of this policy, a broad array of returnee refugees.

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PUBLIC INVESTMENT PROGRAMME 2017 - 2020

Ŗ 2
 TQXKFG CUUKUVCPEG HQT NKXGNKJQQF
development to enhance the standard of
living condition of resettled IDPs.

Ŗ '
 PUWTG GHHGEVKXG EQQTFKPCVKQP COQPI CNN
organizations working for the resettlement
of Internally Displaced Persons to
expedite the resettlement process.

Ŗ 2
 TQXKFG UGNHGORNQ[OGPV CPF NKXGNKJQQF
support to rehabilitees (ex-combatants)
to mainstream them into national
development
SOCIAL PROTECTION

Medium Term Targets of the Social Protection Sector

Ŗ <GTQVQNGTCPEGQHIGPFGTDCUGFXKQNGPEG
CHAPTER 8

Ŗ +PETGCUGYQOGPNCDQWTHQTEGRCTVKEKRCVKQPWRVQRGTEGPV
Ŗ +PETGCUGYQOGPTGRTGUGPVCVKXGUKPOWPKEKRCNKVKGUCPFRTQXKPEKCN
councils up to 25 percent
Ŗ +PETGCUGRTGUEJQQNGPTQNOGPVWRVQRGTEGPVD[
Ŗ +PETGCUGRTGUEJQQNVGCEJGTVTCKPKPIWRVQRGTEGPVD[
Ŗ 4GFWEGOCNPWVTKVKQPCOQPIVJGEJKNFTGP
TGFWEGWPFGTYGKIJVD[
5 percent)
Ŗ 'PUWTGUQEKCNYGNHCTGCPFTKIJVUHQTPGGF[RGQRNG
Ŗ 4GFWEGKPEKFGPEGQHYQOGPCPFEJKNFXKQNGPEGCPFGPUWTG 
women and children rights
Ŗ +PVGITCVGCNNYGNHCTGU[UVGOUCPFGPUWTGVJCVDGPGHKVUCTGTGCEJGF
only by the needy segment
Ŗ 4GFWEGRQXGTV[COQPIXWNPGTCDNGEQOOWPKVKGU

Source: Department of National Planning

128