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ICT Gamers’ Culture in Playing League of Legends and Defense of

the Ancients 2

A Practical Research Proposal

Presented to the Senior High School Department
University of the Cordilleras

In Partial Fulfillment of
the Requirements for the Senior High School


November 29, 2018[change]

Bourgonjon et al. (2010) stated that video games are often regarded as promising
teaching and learning tools for the 21st century. Playing games can affect the way we live our
life such as behavior and visual perceptions. Students are now earning scholarships specifically
for their gaming skills, while many parents worry about their child failing out of school because
of too much time with a game controller in hand. Excessive computer exposure can be addictive.
From the study, Students’ Perceptions about the use of video games in the classroom, a path
model to examine and predict student acceptance of video games is proposed, and empirically
tested by involving 858 secondary school students. The results show that students’ preference for
using video games in the classroom is affected directly by a number of factors: the perceptions of
students regarding the usefulness, ease of use, learning opportunities, and personal experience
with video games in general (Jeroen et al., 2009). This can lead to a sedentary lifestyle, poor
health, time management, and eating habits (Yapbeelee, 2015).

According to a new study, Altered Visual Perception in Game Transfer Phenomena: An

Empirical Self-Report Study, published last month in the international journal of human-
computer interaction, playing games can affect our behavior and visual perception in real life
(Samit, 2014). Both of Nottingham Trent University in Nottingham, U.K. the authors collected
testimonials posted in online forums about the aftereffects of gaming in order to study them and
explain why they occur. Based on the study, "intensive playing can result in misperceptions and
visual distortions of real-life objects and environments, stereotypical visual experiences that arise
from mind visualization and pseudo- hallucinatory experiences with video game content." They
refer to such experiences as "visual game transfer phenomena" (VGTP). According to Griffiths
and Ortiz de Gortari, VGTP can occur while playing, right after playing or at some point in the
future, and "suggests in the most of the cases a relationship between the video games' visual
effects and the gamers' altered visual perceptions" (Sarkar, 2014). An example of this is Simon
who is 15 years old, he said, “After playing the game, I felt like playing it like I was the
character so I moved like the character. You can “think” you chose a subject you want the
character to think about. And you hear him/her think that in reality. I imagined myself in this
menu and chosen the topics I should think about like in the game.” Another example of this is
Charlie who is 17 years old; he said “I started seeing health bars above people’s heads. It was
mostly when I played football in school in the breaks. We were losing in a game and when we
started turning it to our advantage. I started to see stuff almost like some kind of “bar” when I
look down that I could use to, I don’t know, do something strange.” (“Cyberpsyke”, 2011)

College students have been bonding together to play video games for decades but the
popularity of online gaming has grown so much that colleges are now offering athletic
scholarships for "e-sports" participants. University of Kansas researchers have authored a study
in which they interviewed e-sports athletes who compete at a university where they receive
athletic scholarships for their gaming abilities. Understanding the students' motivations could
also help administrators boost student retention while avoiding a potentially high rate of burnout,
as well as boosting sponsorship and strengthening the campus community as a whole, the authors
wrote (Krings, 2015).

Numerous studies have shown that digital game-based learning is the next generation’s
education media (Foreman, 2003; Oblinger, 2004; Squire, 2005). In traditional e-learning
educators tend to focus on how much information is transferred to the learners via streamed-
video lectures, lecture notes posted online, discussions on chat boards, and e-mail
communication with instructors. For digital game-based learning, the main focus is multiple
forms of interaction with instructors, learners, and the learning content itself. Fundamentally, the
primary challenges for instructional designers become how knowledge is acquired and possibly
distributed, shared and created within the online community. The curriculum design is no longer
“one size fits all,” but rather that the learning content is customized for each individual in design
game-based learning programs. Thus, there is increasing emphasis on community, simulation,
customized curriculums, constructivistic learning, and social-cultural learning experiences in this
new paradigm of e-learning. This new paradigm of e-learning has challenged our fundamental
perception of education and games and our role in it. Subsequently, it has the potential to reshape
the future of higher education in order to adapt to new demands from learners (Chen, L., Chen,
T. & Liu, 2010).

The games that will be used in this study are League of Legends and Defense of the
Ancients 2. The researchers chose these games to be used in this study because according to
Painter (2018), these two video games are one of the top Multiplayer Online Battle Arena
(MOBA) games as of 2018. League of Legends is a fast-paced, competitive online game that
blends the speed and intensity of Real Time Strategy (RTS) with Role Playing Game (RPG)
elements. Two teams of powerful champions, each with a unique design and playstyle, battle
head-to-head across multiple battlefields and game modes. With an ever-expanding roster of
champions, frequent updates and a thriving tournament scene, League of Legends offers endless
replay ability for players of every skill level (“Riot Games”). League of Legends is a free-to-play
Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) game. The game is averaged 30 to 45 minutes per
match in which ten players split into two teams and compete against each other for in-game
objectives. It was first released by Riot Games in 2009 and is currently the most played PC
online game with 27 million daily players (Vudinhgm, 2015).

Defense of the Ancients 2 is a Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) video game, the
stand-alone sequel of the Defense of the Ancients (DOTA), Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos and
Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne. Defense of the Ancients 2 is played in matches involving two
teams of five players, each of which occupies a stronghold at a corner of the map. Each
stronghold contains a building called the "Ancient", from which the opposite team must destroy
to win the match. Each player controls a "Hero" character and focuses on levelling up, collecting
gold, acquiring items and fighting against the other team to achieve victory (Ubay, 2016). This
game can be played online and offline using LAN (local area network). Defense of the Ancients
is strategy game where players can choose sides and heroes. There are two sides in this game, the
sentinel and the scrouge. There are 108 choices of heroes that we can choose, it is divided into 57
heroes in sentinel sides and 51 heroes in the scrouge sides, because there are a lot of hero
choices, the team can create their own combos and strategy to make powerful line ups and beat
the opponent. The purpose of this game is to destroy the opponent base. Heroes start in level 1
and can be levelled up until 25, heroes level up during this game by killing the opponent
creatures called creeps and opponent heroes. Heroes gain a new skill when they level up. This
game can be played from one versus one up to five versus five (“UK Essays”, 2016).
Castillo (2016) stated that a lot of children in the Philippines and worldwide are crazy
about video game play (VGP). Some parents even encourage it with the belief that it can increase
their children’s dexterity and could even improve their IQ. We now have robust scientific data
indicating this impression to be erroneous. Although some scientific studies suggest that VGP
may improve certain types of visual agility skills, negative effects of VGP outweigh them, with
unfavorable effects on verbal memory, attention, sleep, learning and comprehension. Most
children regularly engaging in VGP have demonstrated by sophisticated imaging studies that the
release of the hormone dopamine is increased, which is associated with most types of addiction.
A high level of dopamine makes one experience pleasure. Repeated exposure to an addictive
substance or behavior such as playing video games conditions the brain cells in key areas like the
prefrontal cortex—the area of the brain involved in planning and executing tasks—to crave and
go after the substance or behavior causing the release of dopamine. The end result is being
“addicted” to the source of pleasure, and in our children’s case—addiction to video games.

According to a study published in the American Psychologist titled “The Benefits of

Playing Video Games,” video games can strengthen a number of cognitive skills such as spatial
navigation, reasoning, memory and perception. “Contrary to conventional beliefs that playing
video games is intellectually lazy and sedating, it turns out that playing these games promotes a
wide range of cognitive skills. This is particularly true for shooter video games,” says the study.
The study also mentions that people who tend to play shooter games show “accurate attention
allocation, higher spatial resolution in visual processing, and enhanced mental rotation abilities.”
According to a survey by the Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication, an average of
77% or nearly 8 out of 10 children play online games in the Philippines, with Luzon reporting
the highest number of gamers. The first thing that you will encounter when entering a computer
shop in Manila is a dozen kids and teenagers playing video games playing Multiplayer Online
Battle Arena (MOBA) games like League of Legends or Defense of the Ancients (Benigno,

However, despite the number of ICT gamers playing League of Legends and Defense of
the Ancients, therefore, the main problem of the study is “What are the ICT gamers’ culture in
playing League of Legends and Defense of the Ancients 2?” This research will focus on the
culture of ICT gamers in playing League of Legends and Defense of the Ancients 2. The
researchers aim to seek answers regarding this problem.

The findings of this study will benefit the community taking into consideration that these
two video games are one of the top Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games as of 2018
(Painter, 2018), they will know gamers’ perceptions and be more knowledgeable of League of
Legends and Defense of the Ancients 2. The community will also know why people play these
kinds of video games.

This research is also significant to students in a way that this study can help them know
the ICT gamers’ perception to League of Legends and Defense of the Ancients 2. The
importance of this study for the researchers is that this will help them discover information that
other researchers may not have explored. It is also important that the research will have enough
and accurate information for better results. This is also to provide possible solutions to the
problem. This research can also be a reference for future researchers that will conduct a study
related to this study.

[Definition of culture]
[Di ko alam kung alin dito and where to put .-.]
Video game culture is the institutionalisation of video game practices, experiences and meanings
in contemporary societies, which places video games and video gaming not only in a central
position among other cultural products but also traverses everyday life: an increasing number of
people play video games and they are starting to be recognized as part of our social imaginary,
enabling the construction of identities and communities based on them.

Culture refers to the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes,
meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe,
and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generations
through individual and group striving.


This study is a qualitative type of research, specifically a phenomenological type of
qualitative research. Qualitative research is a type of social science research that collects and
works with non-numerical data and that seeks to interpret meaning from these data that help us
understand social life through the study of targeted populations or places (Crossman, 2018).
Phenomenology is an approach to qualitative research that focuses on the commonality of lived
experiences within a particular group. The fundamental goal of this approach is to arrive at a
description of the nature of the particular phenomenon (Creswell, 2013).

The data for this study will be gathered from the Grade 12 Senior High School ICT
Animation strand of the University of the Cordilleras, School Year 2018-2019. The researchers’
participants were chosen using purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is a non-probability
sample that is selected based on the characteristics of a population and the objective of the study.
This type of sampling can be very useful in situations when you need to reach a targeted sample
quickly, and where sampling for proportionality is not the main concern (Crossman, 2018). A lot
of students have an idea about video games ("Newzoo", 2017) since video games are one of the
sources of entertainment ("UK Essays ", 2013), but the researchers chose the Grade 12 ICT
gamers as the participants. Thus, the Grade 12 ICT gamers who have experienced playing
League of Legends and Defense of the Ancients 2 were chosen as key informants since video
games are related to the ICT course. It is related to ICT course because Computer Programming
and Animation are one of the fundamentals applied in creating a game (Weimann, 2018), and
these fundamentals needed in creating a video game are subjects in ICT.

The data will be gathered through a one-on-one interview. Interview can be defined as a
qualitative research which involves “conducting intensive individual interviews with a small
number of respondents to explore their perspective on a particular idea, program or situation”
(Boyce & Neale, 2006). Mobile phones will be used as a voice recorder to record the voice of the
interviewees. The time span would be 45 minutes maximum in order to acquire as much
information needed. The notebook and ball pen will be used to take down important details from
the interviewees’ answers.

Before proceeding with the interviewing, the researchers will ask permission to their
respective teacher during that time. Upon having the permission, the researchers will ask
permission to the one ICT gamer per section who plays both League of Legends and Defense of
the Ancients 2 if they agree to participate for the interview. The selections of this study can be
interviewed in an empty classroom to avoid noise and to boost up their confidence and their
concentration while answering the questions. During the interview, the researchers will introduce
themselves and will ask if it is okay for the interviewees’ voices to be recorded for the validation
of data for the research. They will ask a set of questions to explore and know the interviewees’
perception to League of Legends and Defense of the Ancients 2. Follow up questions will be
asked as the need arises. One researcher will ask the interviewees. The others will record. The
other researcher will also be taking down notes of the important or highlight answers from the
interviewees. After the interview, the recording will be transcribed verbatim and reviewed and
analyzed using thematic method. This will serve as a back-up in case of emergencies like corrupt
flash drives and deleted videos.


Chu chu. In this research, we aim to acknowledge the culture of Grade 12 ICT
Animations students from the University of the Cordilleras in playing League of Legends and
Defense of the Ancients 2. By doing so, the data gathered from the interview conducted would
be the bases of this research. To present the gathered data, the researchers classified them into
three categories: Motives in playing, Roles and strategies, and Realization.

The first category, Motives in playing, includes why ICT gamers start playing League of
Legends and Defense of the Ancients 2, and what keep them on playing these games. The second
category, Roles and strategies, includes how they pick a role, the way they encounter an enemy
and how they choose items. The third category, Realization, includes what they feel and do after
losing a game, and the lesson that ICT gamers learn after playing these games.

Motives in Playing

This category is characterized by two primary themes: cause and reason.

Cause. The first primary theme, cause, encompassed three distinct supporting themes
which were identified(?) by the chu chu. The cause included the supporting themes of
entertainment, internal motivation, and peers. Chu chu chu.

Reason. The second primary theme, reason, included four supporting themes,
entertainment, internal motivation, peers and game play. Chu chu chu

Roles and Strategies

In addition to discussing why they start playing League of Legends and Defense of the
Ancients 2 and what keep them on playing, they also shared how they play these games(?). Two
primary themes were identified: roles and strategies.

Roles. Chu chu. The roles included the supporting themes of top, jungle, mid, adc, and

Strategies. The second primary theme, strategies, encompassed how ICT gamers act and
collaborate with each other and the system(?). The strategies included the supporting themes of
tactics(?) and item set.

In League of Legends and Defense of the Ancients 2 have system of position it’s where
players stay and get a part. There is top, mid and bottom in this games the players group
themselves by their roles to choose where they will stay. The players choose their roles among
the stats which differentiate among all the characters which are supporter, and dealer. The healer,
tanker, buffer and any characters that they can support they are under the supporting characters
to be picked.

We found most of players who pick under supporting characters they usually help their
teammate and try to motivate them to win their games and when day faced an enemy the try to
call their teammate or run away from them. However other side of players who picked role as in
dealers they focus on how they will kill their enemies, they do get covered by their teammate or
they also could play alone. But there is both similarities of all the players
All the players they do try to support their fellow teammate and they try to compare
themselves and own enemies. If they found out they are not that strong as their enemies they run
away or ask for help from own teammate. And one more thing that effects the players as how
they play is call Item setting.


ICT gamers also talked about what happened after playing League of Legends and
Defense of the Ancients 2. In analyzing the discussion, two primary themes are identified: defeat
and lesson learned.

Defeat. In playing games, there will always a chance that you will lose. The defeat
included the supporting theme of aftermath.

The aftermath encompassed what ICT gamers feel and do after they have been defeated.
Positive and negative effects are often referred to as the Big Two emotions (Larsen, 2007). The
former refers to all high energy emotions that feel good or pleasurable, such as energetic,
engagement, joy, happiness, love, and enthusiasm (Larsen, 2007; Tsahuridu, 2009). On the other
hand, the latter refers to unpleasant feelings such as anxiety, fear, hate, worry, distress, anger,
hostility, and disgust (Larsen, 2007; Tsahuridu, 2009).
Most of the ICT gamers don’t really lose motivation to play further after being defeated; they
queue up and play again. They have this goal to win and rank up that’s why they play again.
They analyze the game and their mistakes so that they can learn from it and adjust for the next
game. Others also make their defeat(?) as motivation to win and it also challenges them. Some
ICT gamers lose motivation because they lose many times and they feel that they’re not good
enough: “Yeah because it’s a sign… that you should be better.” (Interviewee 3). They would feel
disappointed and stop playing. Other ICT gamers showed hostile behavior due to the feeling of
frustration after their game. One example is a gamer who shared his experience:

I often punch the wall or sometimes just watch Korean drama or something like that to keep it
cool, just like that. I punch because it just takes out my frustration to that object and it keeps me
calm sometimes but Korean drama is much better. (Interviewee 6)

Lesson learned. Chu chu.

Furthermore, we, the researchers have also gathered data and information on the
realizations or effect of losing a game, and the lessons that ICT gamers learn after playing
League of Legends and/or Defense of the Ancients 2. We thought that ICT gamers might
have learned some lessons based on the game and if so, would it be convenient enough to
be used in real life situations?

We asked some questions on the realizations that they have come up to after
losing a game. Based from the data that we have collected through interview, when
gamers lose a game, the majority is that they'll be likely to hit that "Play Again" button
because they think that they didn't do well and that they should try again in order to attain
higher ranks. They use their "Defeat" as a motivation and challenge themselves to be
better and stronger for the future gameplays. Gamers also tend to adjust their gameplay
based on the experience from previous gameplays through analyzation, for this reason,
they become more knowledgeable and have improved their performance in playing
League of Legends and/or Defense of the Ancients 2. In addition, after losing a game,
some gamers get disappointed and stop, take a rest and find inspiration or get mad and
punch the wall. Reporting teammates, playing other games, and say "GG, next game" is
what others do.

Moreover, we asked the interviewees if they learn something after playing and if
it could be applied in real life. Whereas, most of them agreed that they learn something
after playing such as teamwork and new strategies. In fact, some tend to apply these in
real life for instance, handling temper and cooperation in group works. Others have stated
that they play the game in order to understand the logic of it and use it as a base in
making their own program. Some also study the graphics and art of the game and apply it
in their works. In essence, gamers do learn something after playing League of Legends
and/or Defense of the Ancients 2 and apply it in their own unique ways.

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