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International Journal of Electronics Engineering, 3 (1), 2011, pp. 141– 143

Serials Publications, ISSN : 0973-7383

Performance Enhancement of Recangular Microstrip Patch Antenna by Loading Complementary Split Ring Resonator in the Patch

Vikas Gupta 1 and B.S. Dhaliwal 2

1 Vikas Gupta is Assistant Professor in Electronics and Communication Engg. Deptt. at Technology Education and Research Integrated Institute, Kurukshetra; E-mail: vikasgupta2k11@gmail.com

2 B.S.Dhaliwal is Assistant Professor in Electronics and Communication Engg. Deptt. at Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana; E-mail: bsdhaliwal@ymail.com

Abstract: This paper presents various observations, from Electromagnetic simulations results of a complementary Split ring resonator (CSRR) embedded in patch antenna. CSRR is single negative metamaterial having negative permittivity. There is an increase in the return loss, gain, and the bandwidth of the proposed patch antenna.IE3D (electromagnetic simulation and optimization simulator based on MoM has been used for the purpose.

Index Terms: Left handed material, complementary Split ring resonator (CSRR), patch etc.

1. INTRODUCTION

Microstrip patch antennas have several well-known advantages such as low profile, low cost, light weight, ease of fabrication and conformity. However, the microstrip patch antenna has a low gain and a narrow bandwidth.

To overcome its limitation of narrow impedance bandwidth and low gain, many techniques have been suggested e.g., probe fed stacked antenna, microstrip patch antennas on electrically thick substrate, slotted patch antenna and stacked shorted patches have been proposed and investigated (Pozar and Schaubert, 1995, Sanchez-Herndez and Robertson, 1996,Chang, 2000). There has been a considerable amount of recent interest in the class of composite Metamaterials that possess simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity, causing them to exhibit a negative index of refraction [1], [2]. This type of metamaterial is known as a double negative material (DNG). An application of DNGs to increase the power radiated from electrically small antennas has been suggested by Ziolkowski and Kipple [3]. But in this paper a negative permittivity material complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) which is a dual counterpart of split ring resonator (SRR) originally proposed by Pendry have been loaded into the patch. CSRR is composed of two concentric metallic ring slots with slits etched in each ring at its opposite sides. Apart from double negative materials, single negative materials where only one of the material parameters has a negative real value also possess interesting properties and can be used to produce novel devices. In particular the complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) which establishes a negative-permittivity at resonance, is an example of a single negative media (SNG) that can be used to make microwave

devices [4]-[6]. The properties of SNG can also be manipulated to increase filter shape factor, improve filter rejection and can also applied to antennas to reduce the spurious effect and increase antenna gain and antenna size reduction [7]. This paper is based on the microstrip patched antenna which integrates a CSRR [8]-[10] design into the patch to provide good return loss and improved gain. The improvement in the bandwidth have also been observed.

2. ANTENNA DESIGNAND ANALYSIS

A rectangular patch as shown in the Figure 1 with dimensions 10 mm × 30.50 mm on a RT-Duroid substrate with relative permittivity (εr) 2.55 and substrate thickness of 1.5875 mm has been designed using the procedure given in microstrip and printed antenna handbook by Randy Bancroft [11]. And the design has been simulated using the IE3DTM. A 50ohm coaxial probe feed excites the microstrip patch. It radiates at 9GHz with a return loss of –14.6 dB. This antenna gives a bandwidth of 0.530 GHz with a gain 4.6dbi. The return loss (s11) of this patch is shown in the Figure 2.

The return loss (s11) of this patch is shown in the Figure 2. Fig. 1: Unloaded

Fig. 1: Unloaded Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

142

142 Fig. 2: Return Loss (s11) for Unloaded Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Figures 3 and 4

Fig. 2: Return Loss (s11) for Unloaded Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna

Figures 3 and 4 respectively shows the Elevation and Azimuthal pattern gain of unloaded patch antenna .To improve the antenna performance CSRR was introduced in the center of the patch. The dimensions chosen for the CSRR are given in the Figure 5.Complementary split ring resonators (CSRR) equivalent circuits are available in literature [5]. The complete geometry of CSRR loaded patch is shown in the Figure 6.

geometry of CSRR loaded patch is shown in the Figure 6. Fig. 3: Elevation pattern gain

Fig. 3: Elevation pattern gain display of unloaded patch

After the introduction of CSRR in the patch return loss improves from –14.6 dbi to –27.3 dbi, bandwidth improves from 900 MHz to 1410MHz, Directivity improves from 4.91dbi to 5.68 dbi and gain improves from 4.62 dbi to 4.82 dbi at the

International Journal of Electronics Engineering

same frequency of 9 GHz. The return loss of the loaded patch has been shown in Figure 7. The Elevation and Azimuthal pattern gain are shown in Figures 8 and 9 respectively

pattern gain are shown in Figures 8 and 9 respectively Fig. 4: Azimuthal Pattern Gain Display

Fig. 4: Azimuthal Pattern Gain Display of Unloaded Patch

Fig. 4: Azimuthal Pattern Gain Display of Unloaded Patch Fig. 5: Complementary Square Split Ring Resonator

Fig. 5: Complementary Square Split Ring Resonator with Outer Ring of 6 mm, Inner Ring of 4 mm, Gap or Spacing Between Rings = 0.8 mm, Thickness of Each Ring = 0.2 mm and Width of Split = 0.2mm.

Rings = 0.8 mm, Thickness of Each Ring = 0.2 mm and Width of Split =

Fig. 6: CSRR Loaded Microstrip Patch Antenna

Performance Enhancement of Recangular Microstrip Patch Antenna by Loading Complementary Split Ring

143

Patch Antenna by Loading Complementary Split Ring 143 Fig. 7: Return Loss (s11) for Loaded Patch

Fig. 7: Return Loss (s11) for Loaded Patch

Split Ring 143 Fig. 7: Return Loss (s11) for Loaded Patch Fig. 8: Azimuthal Pattern Gain

Fig. 8: Azimuthal Pattern Gain Display of CSRR Loaded Patch

Fig. 8: Azimuthal Pattern Gain Display of CSRR Loaded Patch Fig. 9: Elevation Pattern Gain Display

Fig. 9: Elevation Pattern Gain Display of CSRR Loaded Patch

Table 1 compares the performance of both unloaded and CSRR loaded patch and shows the improvement in the return loss, gain and bandwidth of the unloaded patch antenna.

Table 1 Showing Improvement in the Various Parameters

Parameters

Unloaded

Patch loaded

Patch

with CSRR

Return Loss (S11)

–14.6dbi

–27.3dbi

Gain

4.62dbi

4.87dbi

Bandwidth

900 MHz

1410MHz

Directivity

4.91dbi

5.68dbi

3. CONCLUSIONAND FUTURE WORK

This paper presents a microstrip patch antenna loaded with CSRR structure. Simulated results indicate that there is an improvement for return loss, directivity, bandwidth and gain, at the same resonant frequency. Changing the location of the CSRR on the patch may vary the performance of microstrip patch antenna further.

REFERENCES

[1] V.G. Vesalago, “The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of Permittivity and Permeability”, Sov. Phys. USPEKHI, pp. 509-514, 1968. [2] D.R. Smith, W.J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser,

[3]

[4]

[5]

and S. Schultz, “Composite Medium with Simultaneously Negative Permeability and Permittivity”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 84, No. 10, pp. 4184-4187, 2000. R.W. Ziolkowski and A.D. Kipple, “Application of Double Negative Materials to Increase the Power Radiated by Electrically Small Antennas”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 51, No. 10, pp. 2626-2640, October 2003. F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, J.D. Baena, R. Marques, F. Martin, and M. Sorolla, “Negative- E Stop-Band Microstrip Lines Based on Complementary Split-Ring Resonators”, IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett, 14, No. 6, pp. 280-282, Jun. 2004. J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, F. Martin, R. Marques, F. Falcone, et.al., “Equivalent-Circuit Models for Split Ring Resonators Coupled to Planar Transmission Lines, “IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech, 53, No. 4, pp. 1451-1461, Apr. 2005.

Coupled to Planar Transmission Lines, “ IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech , 53, No. 4, pp.
Coupled to Planar Transmission Lines, “ IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech , 53, No. 4, pp.

[6] J. Garcia-Garcia, , F. Martin, F. Falcone, J. Bonache, J.D. Beano, et.al, “Microwave Filters with Improved Stop Band Based on Sub Wavelength Resonators” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech, 53, No. 6, pp. 1997-2006, June. 2005. [7] J.J. Max, Y. Cao and T. Liu, “Design the Size Reduction Patch Antenna Based on Complementary Split Ring Resonator, “ICMMT 2010 proceedings. [8] Hui Zhang, You-Quan Li, Xi Chen, Yun-Qi Fu, and Nai-Chang Yuan, “ Design of Circular Polarization Microstrip Patch Antenna using Complementary Split Ring Resonator”, 978-1-4244-2609-6, IEEE 2008.

[9]

D. Laila, R. Sujith, V. Deepu, C.K., Vasudevan Aanandan and P. Mohanan, “Compact Csrr Based Patch Antenna for

Wireless Applications”,

978-1-4244-4819-7, IEEE 2009.

[10] N. Ortiz, F. Falcone, M. Sorolla, “Dual Band Patch Antenna Based on Complementary Split Ring Resonator”, 978-1-4244-2802-1, IEEE 2009.

[11]

Microstrip and Printed Antenna Handbook by Randy Bancroft 2 nd Edition 2006.