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Otto Cycle Calculation
Problem statement:
The compression ratio of an air-standard Otto cycle is 9.5. Prior to the
,
The temperature at the end of the isentropic expansion process is 800 K.
Determine the highest temperature and pressure in the cycle; the amount
of heat supplied per cycle (in kJ); the thermal efficiency; and the mean
effective pressure.
Perform the calculations assuming 1) cold air standard conditions
and 2) air standard conditions.
isentropic compression process the air is at 100kPa 35 o C and 600 cm 3
,
,
.
p
State 3
Given:
State 4
Otto cycle, r = 9.5
State 2
State1:
p 1 = 100 kPa;
T 1 = 35 o C;
V 1 = 600 cc
State 1
State 4:
v
T 4 = 800 K
TDC
BDC
Assumptions:
Method 1) cold air standard
Method 2) air standard
To find:
a) Tmax, Pmax
b) Q H (kJ)
c ) η
th
d) MEP
p State 3
State 4
Solution:
State 2
System mass:
State 1
v
Method 1) Cold air standard
Isentropic process(1 – 2), ideal gas:
Isentropic process(3 – 4), ideal gas:
p State 3
State
4
State 2
State 1
v
Note that T max = T 3 = 1970K
∴ p
= ? kPa ←
max
p State 3
Heat transferred:
State
4
State 2
First law:
U − U = Q
− W
3
2
2 − 3
2 − 3
State 1
v
but,
and,
Q = ←
?
H
p
State 3
By the same logic ,
State
4
State 2
State 1
v
Q
= ?
c
Conservation of energy,
Efficiency of a heat engine,
W
η=
= ←
?
Q
H
Mean effective pressure (MEP)
p
State 3
Method 2) Air standard
State 4
Recall system mass, m = 6.79 X 10 -4 kg
State 2
Recall BDC volume, V 1 = V 4 = 6.00 X 10 -4 m 3
Recall TDC volume, V 1 = V 4 = 6.32 X 10 -5 m 3
State 1
(
)
v
v T
v
r
2
=
2
Isentropic process(1 – 2), ideal gas:
= ?
vT
(
)
v
r
1
1
Interpolating from the table for ideal gas properties for air:
T =⇒=K T
308
u
(
)
? kJ
and
v
(T )= ?
1
1
kg
r
1
v
(
T = ?
)
r
2
? kJ
⇒=
T
?&
K
uT
(
)
=
2
2
kg
p
State 3
Isentropic process(3 - 4), ideal gas:
State 4
v
(
T
)
v
1
r
3
3
=
=
State 2
v
(
T
)
v
r
r
4
4
State 1
v
From the table for ideal gas properties for air:
and
v
(
T = ?
)
T =⇒=800 K uT ?
(
)
r
4
4
4
v
(
T = ?
)
kJ
⇒ =
T
?&K
u T
(
)
=
?
r
3
3
3
kg
p
State 3
Tmax = T3 = ? K
State 4
State 2
mRT
p
= p
=
3
= ?
max
3
V
3
State 1
v
⇒=p ? kPa ←
max
? kJ
Q =
H
kg
Cycle efficiency:
Q
η = −
1
C
=
?
th
Q
H
Mean effective pressure:
W
MEP
=
=
?
kPa
V
V
1
2