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UCE/FIQ

EXAMEN

FENOMENOS

2

DE

TRANSPORTE

TRANSFERENCIA

DE

CALOR

NOMBRES Y

APELLIDOS

P.2 Cuando se concentra un jugo en un evaporador se pierden los aceites esenciales que son tan importantes para el aroma y sabor del juego concentrado. Para evitar esta situación una Unidad de Recuperación de Aroma se utiliza para extraer estos aceites utilizando el principio de la evaporación instantánea o también llamada evaporación flash, los aceites esenciales extraído s que está n mezcla- dos con los vahos de la evaporación flash deben ser separados para lo cual se utiliza una columna de destilación obteniéndose unos aceites esenciales concentrados que posteriormente será n reingre- sados al producto terminado. Se pide al ingeniero de procesos el CÁLCULO Y ESPECIFICACIÓN DEL PRECALENTADOR sabiendo que la cámara de evaporación flash funciona al vacío y a una presión de 1/4 bara, por otro lado se sabe que la capacidad de la planta es 8000 l/h

H-2

Derechos

Reservados

A.DELGADO

•PH-1

: pre-heater

H-2 ; heater

FE-3 ; flash evapo- rator chamber D-4 : distillation tjcolumn RB-B : reboiler

C-6,?,8

T-9 : distilate tank

: condensers

UCE/FI Q

PRUEB A

2

TRANSFERENCIA

FENOMENO S D E TRANSPORT E

DE

CALOR

NUMERO DE LISTA

INICIALES

APELLIDOS

P.1

FLASH EVAPORATION Flash (or partial) evaporation is the partial vapor that occurs v/hen a saturated liquid stream undergoes a reduction in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling device. This process is one of the simplest unit operations. If the throttling valve or device is located at the entry into a pressure vessel so that the flash evaporation occurs within the vessel, then the vessel is often referred to as a flash drum.

If

the

saturated

liquid is

a single-component

liquid (for

example, liquid propane

or

liquid ammonia), a part

of

the liquid immediately "flashes" into vapor. Both the vapor

and the

residual liquid are

cooled

to

the

saturation

temperature of the liquid at the reduced pressure. This is often referred the basis of most conventional vapor compression refrigeration systems.

fo

as "auto-refrigeration"

and is

FLASH EVAPORATION OF A SINGLE-COMPONENT LIQUID The flash evaporation of a single-component liquid is an isenthalpic process and is often referred to as an adiabatic flash. The following equation, derived from a simple heat balance around the throttling valve or de- vice, is used to predict how much of a single-component liquid is vaporized.

rrl

L

V,H,,

T,.

P,

 

In

equilibrium

UTILISING

THE

NOMENCLATURE

USED IN THE

DIAGRAM

derive

F,

HF,

TF, PF

FLASH

Tv

=

TL

the vaporization

 

ratio

X

= V/F

defined

through its enthal-

 

Pv

= PL

 

pies

where:

X

= v/eight

ratio

of

vaporized

/ remaining

liquid

u

means

upstream

 

d means

downstream

L means liquid

L,

HL, TL,

PL

V means

vapour

 

Aditionally

Here,

the

v/ords

"upstream" and

"downstream"

refer

to

before

and after

the

liquid passes

through

the

throttling

valve

or

device.

 

Notes

It

1. Upstream pressure must be much higher than downstream pressure in the flash chamber 2, Moreover, the heat given upstream helps as well to cause the phase change in the chamber

downstream.

is important

to

say

that

in order

to

cause flash

evaporation

two

factors

are

needed;

Derechos

Reservados

A.DELGADO