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Previous Page MMPDS-11 1 July 2016 2.4 I NTERMEDIATE A LLOY S TEELS 2.4.0 Comments on

MMPDS-11

1 July 2016

2.4 INTERMEDIATE ALLOY STEELS

2.4.0 Comments on Intermediate Alloy Steels The intermediate alloy steels in this

section are those steels that are substantially higher in alloy content than the alloy steels described in Section 2.3, but lower in alloy content than the stainless steels. Typical of the intermediate alloy steels is the 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel and the 9Ni-4Co series of steels.

2.4.0.1 Metallurgical Considerations — The alloying elements added to these steels are

similar to those used in the lower alloy steels and, in general, have the same effects. The difference lies in the quantity of alloying additions and the extent of these effects. Thus, higher chromium contents provide improved oxidation resistance. Additions of molybdenum, vanadium, and tungsten, together with the chromium, provide deep air-hardening properties and improve the elevated temperature strength by retarding the rate of tempering at high temperatures. Additions of nickel to nonsecondary-hardening steels lower the transition temperature and improve low-temperature toughness.

2.4.1 5CR-MO-V

2.4.1.0 Comments and Properties — Alloy 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel exhibits high strength

in the temperature range up to 1000 F. Its characteristics also include air hardenability in thick sections; consequently, little distortion is encountered in heat treatment. This steel is available either as air-melted or consumable electrode vacuum-melted quality, although only consumable electrode vacuum-melted quality is recommended for aerospace applications.

The heat treatment recommended for this steel consists of heating to 1850 F ± 50 F, holding 15 to 25 minutes for sheet or 30 to 60 minutes for bar depending on section size, cooling in air to room temperature, tempering three times by heating to the temperature specified in Table 2.4.1.0(a) for the strength level desired, holding at temperature for 2 to 3 hours, and cooling in air.

Table 2.4.1.0(a). Tempering Temperatures for 5Cr-Mo-V Aircraft Steel

F tu , ksi

Temperature, F

Hardness, R c

280

1000

± 10

54-56

260

1030

± 10

52-54

240

1050

± 10

49-52

220

1080

± 10

46-49

Material specifications for 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel are presented in Table 2.4.1.0(b). The room

temperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Tables 2.4.1.0(c) and 2.4.1.0(d). The mechanical properties are for 5Cr-Mo-V steel heat treated to produce a structure containing 90 percent or more martensite at the center prior to tempering

.

Table 2.4.1.0(b). Material Specifications for 5Cr-Mo-V Aircraft Steel

Specification

Form

AMS 6437

Sheet, strip, and plate (air melted) Bar and forging (CEVM)

AMS 6487

C2-75

MMPDS-11

1 July 2016

The room temperature properties of 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel are affected by extended exposure to temperatures near or above the tempering temperature. The limiting temperature to which the alloy may be exposed for extended periods without significantly affecting its room temperature properties may be estimated at 100 F below the tempering temperature for the desired strength level. The effect of temperature on the physical properties is shown in Figure 2.4.1.0.

on the physical properties is shown in Figure 2.4.1.0. Figure 2.4.1.0. Effect of temperature on the

Figure 2.4.1.0. Effect of temperature on the physical properties of 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel.

C2-76

MMPDS-11

1 July 2016

Table 2.4.1.0(c). Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of 5Cr-Mo-V Aircraft Steel Bar and Forging

Specification

 

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AMS 6487 a

 

Form

 

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Bars and forgings

 

Condition.

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Quenched and tempered

 

Cross-sectional area, in. 2

   

b,c

Basis

 

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S

d

 

S

d

S

d

Mechanical Properties:

       

F tu , ksi:

 
 

L.

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260

b

 

c

T.

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F ty , ksi:

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240

260

280

 

L.

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215

b

 

c

T.

. F cy , ksi:

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200

215

240

 

L.

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T.

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220

 

234

 

260

F su , F bru , ksi:

 

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144

156

168

(e/D = 1.5) (e/D = 2.0) F bry , ksi:

(e/D = 1.5) (e/D = 2.0) e, percent:

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L.

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400

 

435

 

465

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315

 

333

 

365

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9

8

b

 

7

 

T.

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RA, percent:

 
 

L.

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30

b

 

T.

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6

c

E, 10 3

 

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30.0

E c , 10 3 ksi. G, 10 3 ksi

 

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30.0

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11.0

ì

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0.36

Physical Properties:

   

ù, lb/in. 3 .

 

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0.281

C, Btu/(lb)( F)

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0.11 (32 F) e See Figure 2.4.1.0

 

K and á.

 

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Last Revised: Apr-2009, MMPDS–04CN1, Item 08-16

a Mechanical properties are based on AMS 6485 and also met AMS 6488.

b Longitudinal properties applicable to cross-sectional area 25 sq. in.

c Transverse properties applicable only to product sufficiently large to yield tensile specimens not less than 4.50 inches in length.

d Design values are applicable only to parts for which the indicated F tu has been substantiated by adequate quality control testing.

e Calculated value.

C2-77

MMPDS-11

1 July 2016

Table 2.4.1.0(d). Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of 5Cr-Mo-V Aircraft Steel Sheet, Strip, and Plate

Specification

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AMS 6437

 

Form

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Sheet, strip, and plate

 

Condition.

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Quenched and tempered

 

Thickness,

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Basis

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S

a

S

a

S

a

Mechanical Properties:

       

F tu , ksi:

 

L.

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LT.

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240

260

280

F ty , ksi:

 

L.

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LT.

. F cy , ksi:

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200

220

240

L.

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LT.

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220

240

260

F su , F bru , ksi:

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144

156

168

(e/D = 1.5) (e/D = 2.0) F bry , ksi:

(e/D = 1.5)

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400

435

465

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(e/D = 2.0) e, percent:

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315

340

365

. LT, in 2 inches b

L.

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6

 

5

 

4

LT, in 1 inch. E, 10 3 E c , 10 3 ksi. G, 10 3 ksi

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8

7

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30.0

30.0

11.0

0.36

 

Physical Properties:

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ù, lb/in. 3 . C, Btu/(lb)( F)

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0.281

 
 

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0.11 c (32 F) See Figure 2.4.1.0

K and á.

 

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a Design values are applicable only to parts for which the indicated F tu has been substantiated by adequate quality control testing.

b For sheet thickness greater than 0.050 inch.

c Calculated value.

C2-78

MMPDS-11

1 July 2016

2.4.1.1 Heat-Treated Condition — The effect of temperature on various mechanical

properties for heat-treated 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel is presented in Figures 2.4.1.1.1(a) through 2.4.1.1.4.

is presented in Figures 2.4.1.1.1(a) through 2.4.1.1.4. Figure 2.4.1.1.1(a). Effect of temperature on the ultimate

Figure 2.4.1.1.1(a). Effect of temperature on the ultimate tensile strength (Ftu) of 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel.

tensile strength (F tu ) of 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel. Figure 2.4.1.1.1(b). Effect of temperature on the

Figure 2.4.1.1.1(b). Effect of temperature on the tensile yield strength (Fty) of 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel.

C2-79

MMPDS-11

1 July 2016

MMPDS-11 1 July 2016 Figure 2.4.1.1.2(a). Effect of temperature on the compressive yield strength (F cy

Figure 2.4.1.1.2(a). Effect of temperature on the compressive yield strength (Fcy) of 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel.

yield strength (F cy ) of 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel. Figure 2.4.1.1.2(b). Effect of temperature on the

Figure 2.4.1.1.2(b). Effect of temperature on the ultimate shear strength (Fsu) of 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel.

C2-80

MMPDS-11

1 July 2016

MMPDS-11 1 July 2016 Figure 2.4.1.1.3(a). Effect of temperature on the ultimate bearing strength (F bru

Figure 2.4.1.1.3(a). Effect of temperature on the ultimate bearing strength (Fbru) of 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel.

bearing strength (F bru ) of 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel. Figure 2.4.1.1.3(b). Effect of temperature on the

Figure 2.4.1.1.3(b). Effect of temperature on the bearing yield strength (Fbry) of 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel.

C2-81

MMPDS-11

1 July 2016

MMPDS-11 1 July 2016 Figure 2.4.1.1.4. Effect of temperature on the tensile and compressive moduli (E

Figure 2.4.1.1.4. Effect of temperature on the tensile and compressive moduli (E and Ec) of 5Cr-Mo-V aircraft steel.

C2-82

2.4.2 9NI-4CO-0.20C

MMPDS-11

1 July 2016

2.4.2.0 Comments and Properties — The 9Ni-4Co-0.20C alloy was developed specifically

to have excellent fracture toughness, excellent weldability, and high hardenability when heat-treated to 190 to 210 ksi ultimate tensile strength. The alloy can be readily welded in the heat-treated condition with pre- and post-heat usually not required. The alloy is through hardening in section sizes up to at least 8 inches thick. The alloy may be exposed to temperatures up to 900 F (approximately 100 F below typical tempering temperature) without microstructural changes, which degrade room temperature strength.

The heat treatment for this alloy consists of normalizing at 1650 F ± 25 F for 1 hour per inch of cross section, cooling in air to room temperature, heating to 1525 F ± 25 F for 1 hour per inch of cross section, quenching in oil or water, hold at -100 F ± 20 F for 2 hours within 2 hours after quenching, and double tempering at 1035 F ± 10 F for 2 hours.

A material specification for 9Ni-4Co-0.20C steel is presented in Table 2.4.2.0(a). Room temperature mechanical and physical properties are shown in Table 2.4.2.0(b). The effect of temperature on thermal expansion is shown in Figure 2.4.2.0.

Table 2.4.2.0(a). Material Specification for 9Ni-4Co-0.20C Steel

Specification

Form

AMS 6523

Sheet, strip, and plate

C2-83

MMPDS-11

1 July 2016

Table 2.4.2.0(b). Design Mechanical and Physical Properties of 9Ni-4Co-0.20C Steel Plate

Specification

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AMS 6523

 

Form

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Plate

 

Condition.

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Quenched and tempered

 

Thickness,

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<0.250

   

0.250

Basis

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S

a

 

S

a

Mechanical Properties:

     

F tu , ksi:

L.

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186

   

186

LT.

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190

190

F ty , ksi:

   

L.

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173

   

173

LT.

. F cy , ksi:

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