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IIIT Chittoor, AP

2

Syllabus

• Semiconductor devices, diode and BJT

• Operational amplifier

• Filters

• Waveform generators

• ADC and DAC

3

Syllabus

• Semiconductor diode and rectifier: Diode characteristics, half-wave

and full wave rectifiers, shunt capacitor filter, voltage regulator,

regulated D-C power supply

characteristics

source models, classification, the operational amplifier (OP-AMP) as

a linear active device, the VCVS model of an op-amp, different

amplifier configurations using op-amp (open loop-closed loop),

frequency response of op-amp and op-amp based amplifiers.

Calculation of CMRR, Gain Band width product. Op-Amp as

integrator, differentiator, addition, subtraction etc.

4

Syllabus

• Passive and active filters: Concepts of low-pass, high-pass and

band-pass filters, ideal (brick-wall) filter response, frequency

response of simple RC filters, active RC filters using Op-amp.

condition of harmonic oscillation, RC and LC oscillator circuits,

Phase shift oscillator, Wien bridge oscillator.

5

Syllabus

• Comparator: Op-amp as a comparator, digital inverters (TTL/CMOS)

as comparators, comparator with hysteresis, Schmitt trigger using

Op-amp. Concept of bistable, monostable and astable circuits using

opamp (multi vibrators)

monostable and astable circuits using 555 timer and relaxation

oscillator based on comparator and RC timing circuit, square wave

generator using 555 timer, crystal clock generator. 555 timer as a

two dimensional comparator.

6

Syllabus

• Analog-Digital conversion: Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) using

binary resistor scheme, R-2R ladder DAC, DAC using switched

current resources, Analog to Digital converter (ADC) using capacitor

charge/discharge: single-slope and dual-slope ADCs, ADC using

counter and DAC, ADC using successive approximation

7

Text books

• TEXT BOOKS:

– Microelectronic Circuits by Sedra and Smith,

Oxford University Press, Fifth Edition, 2010.

– Linear integrated circuits, Roy choudary

• REFERENCE BOOKS:

– Integrated Electronics by Millman and Halkias,

Tata McGraw Hill, 2009.

– Microelectronics by Millman and Grabel, Tata

McGraw Hill, 2008.

8

Elements

• Passive elements

– Resistor

– Inductor

– Capacitor

• Active elements

– Transistor

– Operational amplifier

9

Laws & analyses

• Ohm’s law

• KCL

• KVL

• Mesh analysis

• Nodal analysis

10

Sources

• Independent sources

– Independent voltage source

– Independent current source

• Dependent sources

– Dependent voltage source

– Dependent current source

• Ideal sources

• Practical sources

11

Divider circuits

• Voltage divider

• Current divider

12

Material classification

• Material classification based on conductivity

()/resistivity ()

– Conductors

1

– Semiconductors

– Insulators

13

Atomic arrangement

• Periodic

• Lattice constant

14

General constants and conversion

factors

15

Semiconductor constants

16

Outline: Semiconductor

Materials and Diodes

• Semiconductor material properties

• Two types of charged carriers exist in a

semiconductor

• Two mechanisms generate currents in a

semiconductor

• Current–voltage characteristics of the pn

junction diode

17

Valence electrons

• An atom is composed

– nucleus

• positively charged protons

• neutral neutrons

– electrons

• negatively charged

• The electrons are distributed in various “shells” at different

distances from the nucleus,

– electron energy increases as shell radius increases

• Electrons in the outermost shell are called valence

electrons

– the chemical activity of a material is determined primarily by

the number of valence electrons

18

Elemental and compound

semiconductors

• Elements in the periodic table

can be grouped according to the

number of valence electrons

• elemental semiconductors

(group IV)

– Silicon (Si)

– Germanium (Ge)

• compound semiconductor

(group III–V)

Periodic table

19

Single crystal silicon at T = 0 K

Two-dimensional representation of

single crystal silicon at T = 0 K; all

valence electrons are bound to the

silicon atoms by covalent bonding

20

Silicon at T = 0 K

• at T = 0 K, silicon is an insulator

– that is, no charge flows (Current) through

semiconductor

• each electron is in its lowest possible energy

state

• Electrons are bound to their individual atoms

21

Silicon at T > 0 K

T > 0 K creating an electron in the

conduction band and a positively

charged “empty state”

22

Silicon at T > 0 K

• the valence electrons will gain thermal energy

• Once the electron gains enough thermal

energy, it will break the covalent bond

• Results in free electron/mobile carrier

• Bandgap energy (Eg): The minimum energy

required for an electron to break covalent

bond

• The electrons that gain Eg now exist in

conduction band

• The free electrons in conduction band can

move throughout the crystal (silicon)

• The net movement of the electrons in The breaking of a

conduction band generates current covalent bond for T > 0 K

23

Energy band diagram

• The energy Eν is the maximum energy

of the valence energy band

• Energy Ec is the minimum energy of

the conduction energy band.

• The bandgap energy Eg is the difference

between Ec and Eν, and the region

between these two energies is called Energy band diagram.

Vertical scale: Electron

the forbidden bandgap. energy

• Electrons cannot exist within the horizontal scale:

distance along the

forbidden bandgap. length of

semiconductor

24

EHP generation

• EHP: Electron hole pair

• An electron in valence band

if gains enough energy,

moves to conduction band

• This results in creation of Energy band diagram

showing the generation

positively charged empty process

space called hole in valence

band

25

Current in semiconductor

• In semiconductors two types of

charged particles contribute to

the current:

– the negatively charged free

electron and

– the positively charged hole

• The magnitude of charge of hole A two-dimensional

is equal to the magnitude of the representation of the

silicon crystal

charge of electron (1.6 x 10-19 C) showing the

movement of hole

26

Bandgap energies of materials

• Insulators

– Bandgap range 3-6 eV

– No free electrons in conduction band at room

temperature

• Semiconductors

– Bandgap around 1 eV

27

Intrinsic semiconductor

• A single-crystal semiconductor material with

no other types of atoms within the crystal

• Pure semiconductor

• Intrinsic carrier concentration (ni): In an

intrinsic semiconductor, the concentrations of

electrons and holes are equal

• Concentration: The number of carriers

(electrons/holes) per cubic cm.

– Example: 1015 /cm3

28

Intrinsic carrier concentration (ni)

• where

– B is a coefficient related to the specific semiconductor material,

– Eg is the bandgap energy (eV),

– T is the temperature (K),

– k is Boltzmann’s constant = 86 × 10−6 eV/K

• ni depends on temperature

• The bandgap energy Eg and coefficient B are not strong

functions of temperature

29

Problem

• Calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration of

silicon at T = 300 K

Solution:

Eg 1.1

3/2 2 kT

286106 300

ni BT e

5.23 1015 3003/2 e

1.1

6

ni 5.23 1015 3003/2 e 28610 300

compared to concentration of silicon atoms (5 1022), it is relatively less

30

Assignment A.1

• Calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration of

silicon at T = 313 K.

• Calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration of

gallium arsenide and germanium at T = 300 K.

31

Extrinsic Semiconductors

• the electron and hole concentrations in an intrinsic

semiconductor are relatively small

– The resulting currents are small

• The carrier concentrations can be greatly increased by

adding controlled amounts of certain impurities

– To enhance currents

• Doping: The process of adding impurities

• Semiconductors added with impurity atoms are called

extrinsic semiconductors, or doped semiconductors

• For silicon, the desirable substitutional impurities are from

the group III and V elements of periodic table

• Group V: Phosphorous, Arsenic

• Group III: Boron

32

n-type semiconductor

• Silicon doped with group V elements (P, As)

• Group V elements has 5 valence electrons

• Silicon doped with Phosphorous:

– four valence electrons of the five in phosphorous forms

covalent bond with four valence electrons of silicon, and

one electron is free

– Free electron contributes for electron current

– a positively charged phosphorus ion is created

– Phosphorous donates a free electron, therefore called as

donor impurity

• when a donor impurity is added to a semiconductor,

free electrons are created without generating holes

33

n-type semiconductor

representation of positively charged

a silicon lattice phosphorus ion

doped with a after the fifth

phosphorus valence electron

atom and valence has moved into the

electron conduction band

e- mobile carrier P+ immobile ion

34

p-type semiconductor

• Silicon doped with group III element (Boron)

• Group III element has 3 valence electrons

• When silicon is doped with boron:

– Three valence electrons of boron forms covalent bond with

three valence electrons of silicon

– One bond position is open

– Adjacent electron with enough thermal energy can occupy the

vacant position

– Hole is created, contributes for hole current

– Negatively charged boron ion is created

– Boron has accepted an electron, hence called acceptor impurity

• when an acceptor impurity is added to a semiconductor,

free holes are created without generating electrons

35

p-type semiconductor

representation of a silicon charged boron ion

lattice doped with a boron after it has accepted an

atom showing the vacant electron from the valence

covalent bond position band

B- Immobile ion

Mobile carrier

36

Doping/diffusion/ion implantation

• Concentrations of electrons and holes can be

controlled by the process of doping

• Conductivity and current flow can be

controlled

37

Relationship between the electron and

hole concentrations

• relationship between the electron and hole

concentrations in a semiconductor at thermal

equilibrium is given by

2

no po n i

where

• no is the thermal equilibrium concentration of free electrons

• po is the thermal equilibrium concentration of holes

• ni is the intrinsic carrier concentration

38

Donor doped: Calculations of electron

and hole concentrations

• Semiconductor doped with donor

concentration Nd

• At room temperature (T = 300 K), If the donor

concentration Nd is much larger than the

intrinsic concentration, we can approximate

≅

• The hole concentration is

ni2

po

Nd

39

Acceptor doped: Calculations of

electron and hole concentrations

• Semiconductor doped with acceptor

concentration Na

• At room temperature (T = 300 K), If the

acceptor concentration Na is much larger than

the intrinsic concentration, we can

approximate ≅

• The electron concentration is

ni2

no

Na

40

To calculate the thermal equilibrium

electron and hole concentrations

41

To calculate the thermal equilibrium

electron and hole concentrations

Donor Nd = 1016 1016 2.25 104

Acceptor Na = 5 1016 4.5 103 5 1016

42

Majority and minority carriers

• Semiconductor (silicon) doped with donor

atoms/impurities (Phosphorous) has

– Electrons as the majority carriers

– Holes as the minority carriers

• Semiconductor (silicon) doped with acceptor

atoms/impurities (Boron) has

– Holes as the majority carriers

– Electrons as the minority carriers

43

Assignment A.2

• Calculate the majority and minority carrier

concentrations in (a) silicon and (b) GaAs at

T = 300 K for (i) Nd = 2 × 1016 cm−3 and

(ii) Na = 1015 cm−3.

• Ans.

– (a) (i) no = 2 × 1016 cm−3, po = 1.125 × 104 cm−3

(ii) po = 1015 cm−3, no = 2.25 × 105 cm−3;

– (b) (i) no = 2 × 1016 cm−3, po =1.62 × 10−4 cm−3;

(ii) po = 1015 cm−3, no = 3.24 × 10−3 cm−3

44

Drift and Diffusion Currents

• If charged particles (holes/electrons) move, a

current is generated

• How to move charged particles?

• Two basic processes that cause electrons and

holes to move in semiconductor

• Drift mechanism

– Charged particles movement because of electric fields

• Diffusion mechanism

– Charged particle movement because of concentration

gradient

45

Current density (J)

• Current flowing through unit area (A/m2)

46

Drift Current Density

• Drift = being carried away by some external force

• assume an electric field is applied across a

semiconductor

• Electric field produces a force on the electrons

and holes

• These electrons and holes experiences velocity,

drift velocity and thereby net movement

47

Electric field applied across n-type

semiconductor

• Consider an n-type semiconductor: Electrons are majority carriers

• Apply electric field E

• Electric field exerts a force on electrons in the opposite direction

• Electrons move in opposite direction to E, with a drift velocity of

vdn = - nE (cm/s)

• -ve sign, drift velocity is opposite to E

• n = constant, called electron mobility

• n = 1350 cm2/V-s for silicon

• Electron drift produces electron current density Jn (A/m2)

48

Electric field applied across p-type

semiconductor

• Consider an p-type semiconductor: Holes are majority

carriers

• Apply electric field E

• Electric field exerts a force on holes in the same

direction

• Holes move in same direction to E, with a drift velocity

of vdp = pE (cm/s)

• p = constant, called hole mobility

• p = 480 cm2/V-s for silicon

• Hole drift produces hole current density Jp (A/m2)

J p epvdp ep ( p E ) ep p E

49

Mobility

• Indicates how an electron or hole moves in a

material

• It is constant for a particular material

50

Directions of applied electric field and

resulting carrier drift velocity and drift

current density

51

Directions of applied electric field and

resulting carrier drift velocity and drift

current density

– the holes to drift in the direction of E and

– the free electrons to drift in the opposite direction of E

– Both the hole and electron drift currents are in the direction of E

52

Total drift current density in a

semiconductor

• A semiconductor has both electrons and holes

• Therefore total drift current is because of

electrons and holes

1

J en n E ep p E E E

where

enn ep p

E

J

53

Objective: to find the resistivity of

intrinsic and extrinsic silicon

• Find the resistivity of (a) intrinsic silicon and (b) p-

type silicon with NA = 1016/cm3.

• Use ni = 1.5 × 1010/cm3, and

• assume that for intrinsic silicon μn = 1350 cm2/V ·

s and μp = 480 cm2/V · s,

• and for the doped silicon μn = 1110 cm2/V · s and

μp = 400 cm2/V · s.

(Note that doping results in reduced carrier

mobilities.)

54

Objective: to find the resistivity of

intrinsic and extrinsic silicon

Solution:

(a) For intrinsic silicon p = n = ni = 1.5× 1010/cm3

55

Objective: to find the resistivity of

intrinsic and extrinsic silicon

(b) For p-type silicon

56

Objective: to find the resistivity of

intrinsic and extrinsic silicon

Observation:

Resistivity () of

(a) Intrinsic silicon 2.28× 105 · cm

(b) For p-type silicon 1.56 · cm

57

Objective: Calculate the drift current

density for a given semiconductor

• Problem: Consider silicon at T = 300 K doped

with arsenic atoms at a concentration of Nd = 8

× 1015 cm−3. Assume mobility values of μn =

1350 cm2/V–s and μp = 480 cm2/V–s. Assume

the applied electric field is 100 V/cm.

58

Objective: Calculate the drift current

density for a given semiconductor

• Solution: The electron and hole concentrations

are

59

Assignment A.3

• A uniform bar of n-type silicon of 2-μm length has

a voltage of 1 V applied across it. If ND =

1016/cm3 and μn = 1350 cm2/V · s, find (a) the

electron drift velocity, (b) the time it takes an

electron to cross the 2-μm length, (c) the drift-

current density, and (d) the drift current in the

case that the silicon bar has a cross-sectional area

of 0.25 μm2.

Ans. 6.75× 106 cm/s; 30 ps; 1.08× 104 A/cm2; 27 μA

60

Note: Drift velocity saturation

• the carrier drift velocities are linear functions of

the applied electric field. This is true for relatively

small electric fields.

• As the electric field increases, the carrier drift

velocities will reach a maximum value of

approximately 107 cm/s. Any further increase in

electric field will not produce an increase in drift

velocity. This phenomenon is called drift velocity

saturation.

61

Note: Conductivity, is not a linear

function of impurity doping.

• The mobility values are actually functions of

donor and/or acceptor impurity

concentrations.

• As the impurity concentration increases, the

mobility values will decrease.

• This effect then means that the conductivity, is

not a linear function of impurity

doping.

62

Diffusion Current

• Diffusion = spreading out something more widely

• Carrier diffusion occurs when the density of charge

carriers in a piece of semiconductor is

not uniform

• If the concentration of holes/electrons is made higher

in one part of a piece of silicon than in another, then

holes/electrons will diffuse from the region of high

concentration to the region of low concentration

• The diffusion of charge carriers

gives rise to a net flow of charge, or diffusion current.

63

Hole diffusion current

• Holes are arranged in

the left side

• Hole concentration

profile

• This profile results in

diffusion of holes from

left to right along the

silicon bar

• Hole current in the +ve

x-direction

64

Hole diffusion current

• The magnitude of the

current at any point is

proportional to the

slope of the

concentration profile,

or the concentration

gradient, at that point

d

J p qD p p ( x)

dx

65

Hole diffusion current

d

J p qD p p ( x)

dx

where

Jp is the hole-current density

(A/cm2)

q is the magnitude of electron

charge

Dp is a constant called the

diffusion constant or diffusivity of

holes

p(x) is the hole

concentration at point x

Dp = 12 cm2/s for silicon

66

Electron diffusion current

• electron

concentration profile

in a bar of silicon

• electrons diffuse in

the x direction

• electron diffusion

current in the

negative-x direction

d

J n qDn n( x)

dx

Dn = 35 cm2/s for silicon

67

Problem: Diffusion current

• Consider a bar of silicon in which a hole

concentration profile described by

x / Lp

p ( x) p0 e

is established. Find the hole-current density at x = 0.

Let p0 = 1016/cm3, Lp = 1 μm, and Dp = 12 cm2/s.

If the cross-sectional area of the bar is 100 μm2,

find the current Ip.

68

Problem: Diffusion current

69

Assignment: Diffusion current A.4

• The linear electron-

concentration profile shown in

Fig. has been established in a

piece of silicon.

If n0 = 1017/cm3 and W = 1 μm,

find the electron-current density

in microamperes per micron

squared (μA/μm2). If a diffusion

current of 1 mA is required,

what must the cross sectional

area (in a direction

perpendicular to the page) be?

Recall that Dn = 35 cm2/s.

Ans. 56 μA/μm2; 18 μm2

70

Einstein relationship

Relationship between D and μ

Dn Dp

VT

n p

where

kT

VT 26 mV

q

VT Thermal voltage

71

Assignment A.5

• Find Dn and Dp for intrinsic silicon using μn =

1350 cm2/V·s and μp = 480 cm2/V·s.

72

The pn Junction

Operation with Open-Circuit Terminals

• The interface at x = 0 is

called the metallurgical

junction

simplified 1D geometry

the cross-sectional area

73

The pn Junction

Operation with Open-Circuit Terminals

(a) The space charge region with negatively charged acceptor ions in the

p-region and positively charged donor ions in the n-region; the resulting

electric field from the n- to the p-region.

(b) The potential through the junction and the built-in potential barrier Vbi

across the junction.

74

The pn Junction

Operation with Open-Circuit Terminals

• Diffusion of holes from the p-region into the n-region, and a diffusion of

electrons from the n-region into the p-region

• The flow of holes from the p-region results in negatively charged acceptor

ions

• The flow of electrons from the n-region results in positively charged donor

ions

• Diffusion results in charge separation, which sets up electric field

• The positively charged region and the negatively charged region comprise

the space-charge region, or depletion region

– no mobile electrons or holes

• Because of the electric field in the space charge region, there is a potential

difference across that region

• This potential difference is called the built-in potential barrier, or built-in

voltage

75

Objective: To calculate the built-in

potential barrier of a pn junction

Problem: Consider a silicon pn junction at T = 300 K,

doped at Na = 1016 cm−3 in the p-region and Nd = 1017

cm−3 in the n-region.

Solution:

ni = 1.5 × 1010cm−3 for silicon at room temperature

Na Nd 16 17

10 10

Vbi VT ln 2 0.026 ln 2

0.757 V

ni 1.5 1010

76

Assignment A.6

• Calculate Vbi for (a) GaAs pn junction and (b)

Germanium pn junction at T = 300 K for Na =

1016 cm−3 and Nd = 1017 cm−3

Ans: (a) Vbi = 1.23 V, (GaAs) (b) Vbi = 0.374 V. (Ge)

77

Forward-Biased pn Junction

• If a positive voltage vD is applied to the p-

region and negative voltage to n-region

then the diode is forward biased

• The electric fields in the space-charge region

– very large compared to those in the remainder of the p- and n regions

– The applied electric field, EA, (induced by the applied voltage) is in the

opposite direction from that of the thermal equilibrium space-charge

E-field

• The net result is that the electric field in the space-charge region is lower

than the equilibrium value

• Majority carrier electrons from the n-region diffuse into the p-region, and

majority carrier holes from the p-region diffuse into the n-region

• Width of the space charge region decreases compared to equilibrium

width of the space charge region

78

Reverse-Biased pn Junction

• When a positive voltage is applied to the n-region

and negative voltage is applied to the p-region of a

pn junction, then the diode is said to be reverse

biased

• The electric fields in the space-charge region

– very large compared to those in the remainder of the p- and n regions

– The applied electric field, EA, (induced by the applied voltage) is in the

same direction from that of the thermal equilibrium space-charge E-

field

• The net result is that the electric field in the space-charge region is higher

than the equilibrium value

• This increased electric field holds back the holes in the p-region and the

electrons in the n-region, so there is essentially no current across the pn

junction.

• Width of the space charge region increases compared to equilibrium

width of the space charge region 79

pn junction summary

The pn junction in: (a) equilibrium; (b) reverse bias; (c) forward bias

80

Junction capacitance of the RB pn

junction diode

• a capacitance is associated with the pn junction

when a reverse-bias voltage is applied

• Junction capacitance, or depletion layer

capacitance

1/ 2

VR

C j C jo 1

Vbi

voltage

Useful for electrically tunable resonant circuits

81

Ideal Current–Voltage Relationship of

diode

vD vD

VT

VT

iD I S e 1 I S e

• IS is the reverse-bias saturation current. For

silicon pn junctions, typical values of IS are in

the range of 10−18 to 10−12 A

• The parameter VT is the thermal voltage

• Nonlinear rectifying current characteristics

82

I-V characteristics of diode

83

half-wave rectifier

www.electronics-tutorials.ws

84

Full-wave rectifier

85

Full-wave rectifier

• RMS value of voltage at the output resistance

1 2 1 2

Vrms v d (t ) Vm sin t d (t )

0 0

2 1 cos 2

sin

2

V

Vrms m

2

86

Full-wave rectifier

• Average value of voltage at the output

resistance

1 1

Vdc vd (t ) Vm sin t d (t )

0 0

2Vm

Vdc

87

Full-wave rectifier

• Ripple factor: indicates how close the rectifier

output voltage to its DC value

2

Vrms

1 0.482

Vdc

88

Full-wave rectifier

• Efficiency, is the ratio of output power (dc)

to input power (ac)

Vdc2

Output power ( DC ) RL

2 81.2%

Input power ( AC ) Vrms

RL

89

Full-wave rectifier

• Form factor: ratio of the rms value of the

output voltage to the average value of the

output voltage

RMS value of output voltage

Form factor =

Average value of output voltage

Vm

Form factor = 2 1.11

2Vm

90

Full-wave rectifier

• Peak factor: the ratio of the peak value of the

output voltage to the rms value of the output

voltage

Peak value of output voltage Vm

V pf 2

RMS value of output voltage Vrms

91

Diode rectifier circuits

centre tapped transformer

Passive filters

• To smoothen the ripple

– Inductor filter

– Capacitor filter

– LC filter

– CLC or pi filter

93

Shunt capacitor filter

94

Voltage regulator

• Provides constant DC voltage to the circuit

• Zener diode is a voltage regulator

National LM100)

95

Regulated D-C power supply

96

Transistors

• Transistor

– Transfers resistance

• Transistor types

BJT

– BJT (bipolar)

– FET (Unipolar)

MOSFET 97

Bipolar junction transistor

• Transistor principle:

the voltage between two terminals controls the current

through the third terminal

• Current in the transistor is because of both holes and

electrons, hence the name “Bipolar”

• Applications

– Amplifier

– Switch

• MOSFET

– Amplifier

– Switch

• Differences between BJT and MOSFET

98

Bipolar junction transistor (BJT)

• Three doped regions

• Three terminals

• Two pn junctions

• Single pn junction has two modes

– FB

– RB

• BJT has two junctions

– Four modes of operation

99

Modes of operation

EB CB Mode

FB RB Active

FB FB Saturation

RB RB Cut-off

RB FB Reverse active

100

Block diagrams and circuit symbols for

BJT

101

Transistor as an amplifier

active mode

102

Currents in npn BJT

Doping levels: Emitter high, colletor low and base moderate

Injected electrons

electrons

Recombined

electrons

Injected

holes

the forward-active mode 103

Currents in BJT

• The total current flowing into the transistor

must be equal to the total current flowing

out of it

• the emitter current IE is equal to the sum of

the collector (IC ) and base current (IB)

• IE = I C + IB VBE /VT

• IC = αIE IC I S e

• IC = IB

• α = Common base current gain

• = Common emitter current gain

1

Problem

105

Common emitter amplifier circuit

106

Common emitter circuits

107

Input and output characteristics of BJT

Saturation region

Active region

Cut-off region

108

Find the transistor currents in the circuit shown

in fig. if ICO= 20nA, β =100

• For the base circuit, 5 =

200 x IB + 0.7

5 0.7

• Therefore, I B

200k

0.0215 mA

= β IB = 2.15 mA

• From the collector circuit,

VCE = 10 - 3 x 2.15 = 3.55 V

• Since, VCE = VCB + VBE

• Thus, VCB = 3.55 - 0.7 =

2.85 V

Problem

Suppose that a certain npn transistor has VBE = 0.7 V for IE =10

mA. Compute VBE for IE = 1 mA.

VBE VBE

I E = I ES exp -1

I ES exp

V

T V

T

0.7 VBE

10 mA=I ESexp and 1mA=I ES exp

0.026 0.026

0.7 - VBE

divide the above 10 = exp

0.026

0.026 ln10 0.7 VBE

VBE 0.7 0.026 ln10 0.64 V

Assignment A.7

• The transistor in the circuit

of Fig. has = 100 and

exhibits a vBE of 0.7 V at iC =

1 mA. Design the circuit so

that a current of 2 mA flows

through the collector and a

voltage of +5 V appears at

the collector.

111

Assignment A.8

• In the circuit shown in Fig.,

the voltage at the emitter

was measured and found to

be –0.7 V. If = 50, find IE, IB,

IC, and VC.

112

Assignment A.9

• In the circuit shown in Fig.,

measurement indicates VB to

be +1.0 V and VE to be +1.7 V.

What are α and for this

transistor? What voltage VC

do you expect at the

collector?

113

Problem

Consider the circuit shown in Figure. Transistors Q1 and Q2 are identical, both having

IES = 10-14A and β = 100. Calculate VBE and IC2. Assume that VT = 26mV for both

transistors.

Because the transistors are identical and have identical values of VBE, their collector

currents are equal.

I B1 I B 2 I C 1 mA & I C I B

2 1mA

I C 1 1 mA I C 0.98 mA

1.02

1

I E 1 I C 0.99 mA

VBE

since I E I ES exp we have

V

T

I

VBE VT ln E 0.026 ln 0.99 1011 0.658V

I ES

Assignment A.10

• Draw circuit diagrams for CC and CB

configurations

115

Transistor Configuration Comparison Chart

COMMON COMMON

AMPLIFIER TYPE COMMON BASE

EMITTER COLLECTOR

INPUT/OUTPUT

PHASE 0° 180° 0°

RELATIONSHIP

CURRENT GAIN LOW(a) MEDIUM(b) HIGH(g)

POWER GAIN LOW HIGH MEDIUM

OUTPUT

HIGH MEDIUM LOW

RESISTANCE

116

List of Semiconductor devices

• Voltage regulator: the voltage across the diode remains fixed

• VARACTOR: VARiable reACTOR, depletion width of the reverse

biased pn junction varies with (reverse) voltage, hence depletion

capacitance varies. This property is used in tuning radio/TV

receivers.

• Tunnel diode: Also called as Esaki diode. Applications are for

oscillation, amplification, switching etc.

• Solar cells: Converts optical energy into electrical energy

• Photo diode: Also called as photo detector, detects the presence of

light

• Light emitting diode (LED): Emits light when subjected to electrical

signal. LEDs emit more directional light.

• LASER: Emits light when subjected to electrical signal. Lasers emit

coherent light in much narrower wavelength bands.

117

Acknowledgments

• Material from “Microelectronic Circuits” by

Sedra and Smith and “Microelectronics: Circuit

Analysis and Design” by Donald A. Neamen

118

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