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# Introduction to MEMS-E6382, MECH-6347

## Homework #3, 100 Points Total

Due Wednesday, March 6th, 2019
1. (50 points total) Figure below shows the top view of a thermo-electro-mechanical
resonator. The resonator consists of two rectangular masses hanging from the two ends of
three narrow beams. As the resonator vibrates, the narrow beams expand and compress
along their lengths and therefore the two masses move up and down in opposite
directions periodically getting closer and further from each other.

a) (12 points) The resonator is made of crystalline silicon along the 110 direction (E =
3
170GPa, υ ~ 0, and ρ = 2328 kg/m ). Find the equivalent mass, stiffness and resonance
frequency of this resonator. The thickness of the structure is 200nm and the mass of the
beams can be neglected.

b) (14 points) To thermally actuate this resonator an AC voltage (vac) with an amplitude of
0.1V and frequency of 20MHz is applied between the two pads of the device (on the two
sides). If the resistivity of the silicon structural material is 0.01Ω.cm (n-type doped),
calculate the amplitude and frequency of different frequency components of the heat
generated by the resistance in the current path. Neglect the resistance of the wider parts
2 2
(masses). (Reminder 1: P = R.i ) (Reminder 2: Cos X = (Cos2X + 1) / 2 )

c) (4 points) What should the frequency of the input signal be to actuate the resonators at its
resonance frequency?

d) (10 points) The effective thermal resistance between the narrow beams on the two sides
of the resonator and the surrounding environment (T = 25ºC) can be approximated
to be 10000ºK/W. Assuming that the structure has a fast enough thermal settling time to
maintain the fluctuating temperature forced to it by the AC power, what is the amplitude
of the temperature fluctuations in the narrow beams as a result of the fluctuating power?
Assume a fluctuating power of 1µW if you have not been able to calculate it in the
previous sections.

e) (10 points) Assuming that the resonator has a quality factor (Q) of 10,000, find the
resulting vibration amplitude for the structure at its resonance frequency resulting from
this fluctuating temperature. If you have not been able to calculate the temperature from
the previous sections assume a ΔT of 0.01ºC. (Hint: first find the motion amplitude
caused by the same thermal fluctuations at DC and then consider the fact that resonator
-6 -1
vibrations amplify by Q times at resonance) (Expansion coefficient of Si = 2.5×10 ºC )

2. (total 50 points)

The chevron thermal actuator with dimensions shown in the figure below is made of
silicon with electrical resistivity of 0.05Ω.cm. The beam width is 2μm and its height
(third dimension into the page) is 10μm.

a) (20 points) Considering the effect of thermal conduction only (no convection or
radiation), derive the equation for temperature profile across the structure and graph the
temperature versus location along the beam showing the maximum temperature value
upon application of a 0.5mA DC current. Assume the two pads to have fixed temperature
−1 −1
of 25˚C. Thermal conductivity of silicon is 149 W·m ·K .
b) (20 points) Calculate the elongation of each of the wings of the actuator as a result of
temperature increase caused by the current. How much displacement in the vertical
direction will result from that?

c) (10 points) What is the maximum force generated by the actuator in the vertical direction
if its displacement is completely blocked?