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Jem Van Tyn Sage Davis

Chemistry _ 3

03.05.19

Copper Oxidation Lab

Pre Lab Questions:

1. What will happen to the mass of the solid as copper reacts with oxygen to form either one of the copper oxides?

a.

When the solid copper reacts with the oxygen, the mass will increase due to the oxygen molecules bonding to the copper.

2. Draw a particulate reaction showing how copper, Cu(s) and

oxygen gas, O(2) , can react to form Cu2 O(s) . Write a symbolic representation (chemical equation) of the reaction and include the states of matter for all reactants and products.

a. (SEE IMAGE ONE)

3. Draw a particulate reaction showing how copper (I) oxide,

Cu2 O(s) , and oxygen gas,

copper (II) oxide CuO. Then write a symbolic representation of the reaction.

O2(g) , can react to form

a. (SEE IMAGE TWO)

4. Determine what each of these compounds look like, what potential hazards they pose and what precautions and equipment need to be used to safely work with them.

a. Copper(II) oxide needs:

 i. Mask ii. Goggles iii. Gloves

b. Copper(II) oxide is harmful if swallowed, harmful to aquatic life, causes skin, eye and respiratory issues.

Analysis:

1. Determine the mass of one mole of each of the two forms of copper oxide.

a. Molar Mass of Cu = 63.546 g/m

b. Molar Mass of O = 15.999 g/m

c. Molar Mass of Cu2 O = 143.09 g/m

d. Molar Mass of CuO = 79.545 g/m

2. Determine the percent of oxygen in each of the two forms of copper oxide by mass.

a. Percent mass of oxygen in Cu2 O = 15.999g / 143.09g = 0.1118g x 100 = 11.18%

b. Percent Mass of CuO = 15.999g / 79.545g = 0.201g x 100 = 20.11%

a. 5.15%

Jem Van Tyn Sage Davis

Chemistry _ 3

03.05.19

4. Based on your percent oxygen mass, which oxide most likely was formed?

a. The oxide that was most likely formed was a combination of the two and unoxidized copper.

5. Do your qualitative observations support the claim above?

a. We saw the color turn red then quickly black. This means that at least the top

layer experienced both oxide stages. The comparatively low mass increase was probably due to the fact that after the top layer solidified, oxygen couldn’t penetrate to oxidize the copper beneath. This is supported by the fact that when we scraped some of the black away, we could see red and even some un-oxidized copper.

6. Using the percent oxygen by mass that you measured as your experimental value and

the percent oxygen by mass of the actual oxide as your theoretical value, calculate the percent error using the formula.

a. Based on Copper (I) Oxide, the percent error comes out to 54%

7. How would the following scenarios affect the accuracy of your results and type of copper oxide you think you formed?

a. Spilling some copper oxide before making the final mass measurement

i. This could affect how quickly the copper oxidizes as well as how long you heat it for. It can also cause confusion in the data because if you spill some and the reaction was supposed to have gone up or stayed the same, you can get an incorrect result. A loss of mass will make you underestimate the amount of oxygen that got added to the solution, and thus think that there was less oxide than there was. This could lead you to identify it as the wrong copper oxide.

b. Not heating the sample long enough or hot enough to cause a complete reaction

i. Not heating the sample long enough or hot enough to cause a complete reaction would throw off your measurements and give you a wrong mass increase (%). This will make you underestimate the amount of oxygen

that reacted into the copper. This could also cause you to identify it as the wrong copper oxide, giving you incorrect results.

c. Not zeroing the scale

i. Not zeroing the scale could cause your measurements to be wrong and throw off any future calculations. This could lead to error in either direction, either making you calculate more or less oxide than was actually present.

d. You use solid copper wire instead of copper powder

i. If we used solid copper wire instead of the copper powder then there is less surface area to oxidize. This could make you think that you never got any Copper (II) Oxide because there was not enough weight.

Jem Van Tyn Sage Davis

Chemistry _ 3

03.05.19

8. What measurement uncertainties or experimental errors could account for the amount and direction YOUR measured value differs from the expected value?

a. Once the copper reached copper (II) oxide, it hardened, making it so that the oxygen could not penetrate to the copper below.

b. The oxygen powder was comprised of particles MUCH bigger than one atom across. This means that any copper on the inside of these particles could not oxidize.

c. The deeper you pour the copper powder, the less of the powder gets oxidized.

d. If you accidentally pour some of the copper out before you make the final measurements, it will make it so that you calculate less oxygen added to the copper.

9. How might you modify your procedure to improve the accuracy of your results?

a. Lay all of the powder out equally so that the heat hit the powder at the same time.

b. Use a ball mill to make the powder much finer.

c. Use something to stir the powder as it oxidizes.