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Mine surveying is as basic to prudent mining operations as is the employment of skilled labor to win

minerals from the earth. The technical expertise needed to accomplish this task varies with the
complexity of the mining operation (whether underground or surface. the size of the mining method,
etc.) and the desires of mine management to comply with regulations and good mining practice. This
chapter looks at two major components of mine surveying. The first is operational surveying. whose
objective is to tie naive mining efforts to spatial and physical control points. The second is exploratory
surveying, which primarily focuses on aerial surveying. and whose major objective is to locate and define
spatial end physical control points prior to commencing mining operations. Exploratory surveying can be
done either in new areas or as support for expansion projects.

To accomplish reviews of these two components of mine surveying requires separate discussions in this
chapter. The first reviews fundamental Operational surveying techniques generally found at operating
mines. This discussion is necessarily short because of the ready availability of instructional information

The second segment discusses the relatively new and emerging practice of aerial mapping techniques
used for exploratory mapping and base surveying control points. Aerial mapping is the least expensive
and best means for large-scale surveying. The use of aerial mapping was pioneered by the US Geological
Survey and has been quickly adopted by the mining industry for nearly all major projects.



Mine surveying practices at underground and surface mines are based on plane surveying methods
dating back to the time of the ancient Egyptians These practices were refined and improved as new
equipment was developed and the demand for accuracy increased.

It is not the goal here to completely and fully discuss the principles of mine surveying-there me many
texts now available to the reader that address this subject move extensively than this Handbook an in
the space svsilable. However, the practice of mine surveying is evolving as new instruments and
technology are introduced. Therefore, it is important the reader be aware of :dvmoanents m this area of
mine engineering.

Of major importance in the field of mine surveying is the introduction and use of computer and laser
technology for common surveying practices Theodolites 1nd electric distanceinasuring (EDM)
instruments are rapidly replacing the mnsit and tape measures. Computers with plotters and CAD
(computer-aided design) capabilities are replacing the old manual metho ods of planimetering and
contouring. These sdvancements have not fully displaced all older methods, but their use is becoming

more commonplace as the technology becomes more cost ‘ petitive. better ”curacy is demanded. and
more personnel tr! trained to use such technology. Uniqueness of Mine Surveying

The functions of the mine surveyor are to (U PFOVidc ‘ network of points of accurately known position.
covering entire mine property. (2) obtain the required data for the prep.“ tiouofusefulmapsmdsections,
(3)pmvidepositioulnddhw 60ml control for the guidnnoeofthe operations. (0mm pmgrcssoftheworhw)
measurethemovetnaitofmckm and (5) nuke miscellaneous W IS needed.

Mining properties range from very small to extremely and from those involving only surface opendons to
those invoht in; extensive underground woddngs. Active mines undamm stunt change. necessitating
continual updating o! the mum Ihedin'mintheehamdmedeposimthemhq mining.
mdtheminingmethodsmultin hrgedifferencsinthe surveyor‘s activities and techniques, but my 01' the
problem involved are common to most mines.

Thesurfaceworkoftheminesurveyorisvaysimilutothu of the plane surveyor in that control points are

established by triangulation. tn'lateution. and traversing. Detail is taken by direct measurement, by
sudia. 1nd by aerial photography. The equipment used. the techniques. and the methods of promising
the resulting (lat: are likewise very similar. However, unda. ground work is quite different:

l. The lines of sight frequently must be curried through constricted openings. often involving short lines
of sight ind awkward setups.

2. The lighting generally is poor. requiring illumination of the backsights and foresights. and the minis. _

3. The ambient conditions often at difficult. including {111. in; water, high temperatures. poor visibility.
and heavy tame through the men being surveyed.
4. The surrounding rock my be unstable. resulting in 1mm~ meat or loss of the surveying stations. as well
as hmrd tothe surveyors.

S. The points to be measured often are difficult or impossible to teach.

6. Steep vertical sights often ere nmary, requin'ng the use of special equipment.

7. Many working levels commonly are involved. requiring the transfer of position and orientation to each
with a high level of precision.

Because of these uniqueness, this segment concentnts onsurveying problems peculiar to the mine
surveyor, chiefly in underground work.

.0 Mine Coordinate System

Asystemofooordimtesismentinlfoullpammentminins Operations. It is very desirable that d] mining

Operations in 3 givmuabededintomcamesysmasthisminimiwmolf lems of boundan'es and connections.
Wherever possible, this systanshouldbcuedimoandmpmormemomgimd