Sei sulla pagina 1di 66

MATRIX

Y cY dY f  Y d Y c Y f 

 Y d Y bY dY e  Y b Y e 
Ybus   
 Y c Y b Y aY bY c  0 
 
 Y f Y e 0 Y eY f Y g 
Separating the entries for Yc:

Y dY f  Y d 0 Y f 
 Y Y bY dY e  Y b Y e 
Ybus   d 
 0 Y b Y aY b  0 
 
 Y f Y e 0 Y eY f Y g 
 Yc 0 Y c 0
 0 0 0 0

Y c 0 Yc 0
 
 0 0 0 0
Rewriting the matrix:

 Yc  Y c  1 3
    

  1  1
 Yc
Y c  Yc   1 1 
 
    
Bus Impedance Matrix

 Z 11 Z 12 Z 13 Z 14 
Z Z 22 Z 23 Z 24 
 Ybus   21
1
Z bus
 Z 31 Z 32 Z 33 Z 34 
 
 Z 41 Z 42 Z 43 Z 44 
Branch and Node Admittances

VS
ES  IZ a  V IS   I  VYa
Za
Branch and Node Admittances
Suppose that only admittance Ya is connected between nodes m
and n as part of a larger network,

Za = branch impedance, primitive impedance

Current and Voltage Equations
I m   1  Vm 
 I    1 I a ; Va  1  1 
 n   Vn 
Vm 
YaVa  I a ; Ya 1 1   I a
Vn 
1 Vm   1  I m 
 1Ya 1  1V    1 I a   I 
   n    n
 Ya  Ya  Vm   I m 
 Y      nodal admittance
 a Ya  Vn   I n  equation for branch Ya

matrix
When n is the reference node, Vn = 0 and

YaVm  I m
This corresponds to the removal of row n and column m from the
coefficient matrix (nodal admittance matrix).

1  1  1
 11  1   1 1  building block
   
• To obtain the overall nodal admittance matrix of a
network, we simply combine the individual branch
matrices by adding together elements with identical
row and column labels.
• Such addition causes the sum of the branch currents
flowing from each node of the network to equal the
total current injected into that node, as required by
KCL.
• Provided at least one of the network branches is
connected to the reference node, the net result is the
Ybus of the system.
Example 1
Single-line diagram:
Example 1
Reactance diagram (per unit):
Example 1
Example 1

3 2 3 1
3 4
 1  1  1  1
1Ya ; 1Yg
3 3
3
 
2  1 1 
Yb ;  
1  1 1 
Yc ; 4

2 1 4 2 4 1
2  1  1 4  1  1 4  1  1
 
1  1 1 
Yd ;  
2  1 1 
Ye ;  
1  1 1 
Yf
Example 1
Combining elements of the matrices having identical row and
column labels,

1 2 3 4
1 Y cY dY f  Y d Y c Y f 
 Y Y bY dY e  Y b Y e 
2  d  Y
3  Y c Y b Y aY bY c  0  bus

4  Y f Y e 0 Y eY f Y g 
Example 1
Nodal admittance equations of the overall network:

 j14.5 j 8 .0 j 4 .0 j 2.5  V1   0 

 j8.0  j17.0 j 4.0 j 5. 0  V   0 
  2    
 j 4 .0 j 4 .0  j 8 .8 0  V3   1.00  900 
    0
 j 2 .5 j 5 .0 0  j8.3 V4  0.68  135 
Mutually Coupled Branches
Two mutually-coupled branches with impedance parameters or
Mutually Coupled Branches
Primitive impedance equations:

Va   Z a Z M I a 
V    Z Z b   I b 
 b  M
Inverse of the primitive impedance matrix:

1
 Za ZM  1  Zb  Z M   Ya YM 
Z    Z  
 M Zb  Z a Zb  Z M
2
 M Z a  YM Yb 

Mutually Coupled Branches
Voltage drop equations:
Vm  Vm 
Va  Vm  Vn  1  1 0 0  Vn  V 
 n
V   V 
 Vq  0 0 1  1 V p 
 A
V p 
 b  p
   
Vq  Vq 
where A = coefficient matrix
Current equations:
I m   1 0 
I    I
 n  1 0   a   AT  a 
I
 I p   0 1   I b  I 
 b
   
 I q   0  1
Mutually Coupled Branches
Substitute voltage drop equations into the primitive impedance
equation,
Vm 
 
 Ya YM  Vn   I a 
Y  A  
 M Yb  V p   I b 
 
Vq 
Premultiply by AT,

Vm  I m 
V  I 
 Ya YM   n  T  a
I  n
T
A  A  A 
YM Yb  V p  I  I 
 b p
   
Vq   I q 
Mutually Coupled Branches
Nodal admittance equations of the two mutually-coupled branches:

m n p q
m  Ya  Ya YM  YM  Vm   I m 
 Y    
n  a Ya  YM YM  Vn   I n 

p  YM  YM Yb  Yb  V p   I p 
    
q  YM YM  Yb Yb  Vq   I q 

The 4 x 4 submatrices above form part of the larger nodal admittance

matrix of the overall system. The pointers m, n, p, q indicate the rows
and columns of the system matrix.
Mutually Coupled Branches
Nodal admittance matrix by inspection:

• If node n is the reference, we may eliminate the row and column of

that node.
• If n and q are one and the same node, columns n and q are
combined (since Vn=Vq), and the corresponding rows are added
because In and Iq are parts of the common injected current.
Example 2

-1
 j 0.25 j 0.15  j 6.25 j3.75 
 j 0.15 j 0.25   j3.75  j 6.25
   
Example 2
Example 2
Adding the columns and rows of the common node 3,
1 2 3
1   j 6.25 j3.75 j 6.25  j3.75 
2  j 3 .75  j 6.25  j 3 .75  j 6 . 25 
 
3  j 6.25  j 3.75  j 3.75  j 6.25  j 6.25  j 6.25  j 3.75  j 3.75
 
Nodal equations:

 j 6.25 j3.75 j 2.50  V1   I1 

 j3.75  j 6.25 j 2.50  V    I 
  2   2 
 j 2.50 j 2.50  j5.00 V3   I 3 
Three Branches with Mutual Coupling

1
 Z a Z M 1 Z M 2   Ya YM 1 YM 2 
Z Z 0   Y Y Y 
 M1 b   M1 b M3

 Z M 2 0 Z c  YM 2 YM 3 Yc 
Three Branches with Mutual Coupling

Ybus for a network with mutually-coupled branches:

1. Invert primitive impedance matrices of the network
branches to obtain the corresponding admittance
matrices.
2. Multiply the elements of each primitive admittance
matrix by the 2 x 2 building-block matrix.
3. Label the two rows and the two columns of each
diagonal building-block matrix with the end-node
numbers of the corresponding self-admittance. For
mutually-coupled branches, it is important to label
in the order of the marked (dotted) --- then ---
unmarked (undotted) node numbers.
Three Branches with Mutual Coupling

4. Label the two rows of each off-diagonal building-

block matrix with node numbers aligned and
consistent with the row labels assigned in (3); then
label the columns consistent with the column labels
of (3).
5. Combine, by adding together, those elements with
identical row and column labels to obtain the nodal
admittance matrix of the overall network. If one of
the nodes encountered is the reference node, omit
its row and column to obtain the system Ybus.
Two mutually-coupled branches with impedance parameters or
The equation for the current at node m is given by

I m  YaVm  YaVn  YM V p  YM Vq

Adding and subtracting the term YMVM on the right-hand side and
combining terms with common coefficient, we obtain KCL
equation at node m:

I m  Ya Vm  Vn    YM Vm  V p   YM Vm  Vq 

I m  I mn  I mp  I mq
The previous equation represents the partial network shown:
Similarly, I n  Ya Vn  Vm    YM Vn  Vq   YM Vn  V p 
I n  I nm  I nq  I np
Similarly, I p  Yb V p  Vq    YM V p  Vm   YM V p  Vn 
I p  I pq  I pm  I pn

Note: The fourth

node equation does
not yield a separate
partial network
because it is not
independent of the
other equations.
Combining the three partial networks without duplicating branches,

Note: This lattice

network has no
mutually-coupled
branches.
For two coupled branches that are physically connected among
three independent nodes (n and q are the same):
Example 3
Example 3
Nodal admittance matrix of two mutually-coupled branches:

1 2 3

1  j 6.25 j 3.75 j 2.50 

2  j 3.75  j 6.25 j 2.50 
 
3  j 2.50 j 2.50  j 5.00
Example 3
Replacing the coupled branches by their equivalent circuits,
Example 3

 j16.75 j11.75 j 2.50 j 2.50  Vm   0 

 j11.75  j19.25 j 2.50 j 5 . 00  V   0 
  n    
 j 2.50 j 2.50  j 5.80 0  V p   1  900 
    0
 j 2 . 50 j 5 . 00 0  j 8 . 30   q  
V 0 . 68  135 
Modification of Ybus

2. Change the admittance value of a single branch:

Add a new branch between the same end nodes m and n
such that the parallel combination of the old and the new
branches yields the desired value.
3. Remove a branch admittance Ya already connected between
node m and n:
Subtract ∆Ybus from the existing Ybus.
Modification of Ybus

network:

5. Remove one of two mutually-coupled branches:

First, remove all entries for the mutually-coupled pair
from the Ybus. Then, add entries for the branch to be
retained.
Example 4
Remove the effects of mutual coupling from the Ybus of Example 3.

Sol’n: To remove the two-mutually coupled branches, subtract

Example 4
To reconnect the uncoupled branch between 1 and 3 with admittance
(j0.25)-1 = -j4.0, add

To reconnect the uncoupled branch between 2 and 3, add

Example 4
The new bus admittance matrix:
The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

Consider the network

The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

Branch equations:

Or
YprVpr = Ipr

where Vpr and Ipr are the branch voltages and currents, and Ypr is
the primitive admittance matrix.
The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

Branch-to-node incidence matrix Â:

one row  branch, one column  node
if branch i is not connected to node (j)
if current in branch i is directed away from node (j)
if current in branch i is toward node (j)
For the given network,
The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

Branch-to-node matrix A: Voltage drops across the branches:

or Vpr = AV
The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

KCL at nodes 1 to 4:

or ATIpr = I
The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

Multiplying the branch current equations by the transpose of A,

A T Ypr Vpr  A T I pr
A T

Ypr A V  I
Ybus V  I
Ybus  A Ypr A
T
Example 5
Referring to example 3,
Example 5
Properties of the Ybus
1. The matix is complex and symmetric.
2. The matrix is sparse since each bus is connected to only a few
nearby buses.
3. When there is a net non-zero admittance tie to the reference bus, Ybus
is nonsingular. When there are no ties to the reference bus, Ybus is
singular.
4. If the Ybus is augmented with a row and column corresponding to the
reference bus, a (n+1)x(n+1) admittance matrix is obtained called
the indefinite bus admittance matrix. It is always singular.
5. The indefinite bus admittance matrix entries are formed with exactly
the same building algorithm as that of the conventional bus
admittance matrix. If the (n+1)st axis is “0”, entries are:
𝑌00 = 𝑦 connected to bus 0
𝑌0𝑖 = −𝑦 between buses 0 and i, i ≠ 0
𝑎𝑢𝑔
The sum of every row of the augmented matrix 𝑌𝑏𝑢𝑠 is zero. The column sums
are also zero.
Changes in Ybus to Reflect System Changes
1. Line Outage
 Mathematically equivalent to adding a new line of admittance –yout
in parallel with the line to be “outaged”
 Procedure to modify Ybus :
a. Diagonal entries: Add –yout to the ii and jj entries.
b. Off-diagonal entries: Add yout to the ij and ji entries.
2. Deletion of a Bus
 Consider a system of n buses in which m buses (m<n) are
considered to be “uninteresting” and about which no electrical
information is sought. Partition Ibus and Vbus such that

If no injection currents are received at the m “uninteresting

buses, 𝑰𝑏 = 𝟎.
Changes in Ybus to Reflect System Changes

𝑒𝑞
Find 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 with the m “uninteresting” buses deleted.

Example 6

Example 6

Bus 4 is to be deleted from consideration (I4 = 0). Rearrange 𝐘𝒃𝒖𝒔

such that bus 4 is last (order is 1,2,3,5,4):
Example 6
Partitioning 𝐘𝒃𝒖𝒔 ,

Applying Kron’s reduction formula,

Example 6
Therefore,
Example 7
Eliminate buses 2 and 4.
Sol’n: Reordering 1,3,5,2,4:
Example 7
Change of Reference Bus

Let 𝑉𝑗 (𝑖) = voltage at bus j with respect to bus i

𝐼𝑗 (𝑖) = current at bus j with respect to bus i

The diagonal and off-diagonal elements of 𝐘𝒃𝒖𝒔 may be viewed as the

appropriate partial derivative of the KCL equation at bus j (row j of
𝐈𝒃𝒖𝒔 = 𝐘𝒃𝒖𝒔 𝐕𝒃𝒖𝒔 ):

The partial derivatives imply that all other voltages are held fixed.
Therefore, 𝜕𝐼𝑗 /𝜕𝑉𝑗 implies that the voltages at bus 0 and bus i are fixed.
Change of Reference Bus

Thus,

Same injection current into bus j no

matter what reference bus is used.

Therefore,

(0) (𝑖)
𝑌𝑏𝑢𝑠 is not identical to 𝑌𝑏𝑢𝑠 because
different axes appear in these matrices.

(𝑏) (𝑎)
• To find 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 using 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 , form the indefinite bus admittance matrix by
(𝑎)
augmenting 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 with an “a” axis formed using the 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 building algorithm.
This “a” axis is simply the negative of the sum of the previous n axes. Then
(𝑏)
delete the “b” axis. The resulting nxn matrix is 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 .
Example 8
Consider the previous sample system. Change the reference bus to bus 3.

Sol’n:
The indefinite admittance matrix is found by adding a bus “0” axis.
Example 8
Deleting axis (3):