This will show you the step by step calculation of load flow using admittance matrix

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This will show you the step by step calculation of load flow using admittance matrix

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MATRIX

Admittance Diagram

Bus Admittance Matrix

Y d Y bY dY e Y b Y e

Ybus

Y c Y b Y aY bY c 0

Y f Y e 0 Y eY f Y g

Bus Admittance Matrix

Separating the entries for Yc:

Y dY f Y d 0 Y f

Y Y bY dY e Y b Y e

Ybus d

0 Y b Y aY b 0

Y f Y e 0 Y eY f Y g

Yc 0 Y c 0

0 0 0 0

Y c 0 Yc 0

0 0 0 0

Bus Admittance Matrix

Rewriting the matrix:

Yc Y c 1 3

1 1

Yc

Y c Yc 1 1

Bus Impedance Matrix

Z 11 Z 12 Z 13 Z 14

Z Z 22 Z 23 Z 24

Ybus 21

1

Z bus

Z 31 Z 32 Z 33 Z 34

Z 41 Z 42 Z 43 Z 44

Branch and Node Admittances

VS

ES IZ a V IS I VYa

Za

Branch and Node Admittances

Suppose that only admittance Ya is connected between nodes m

and n as part of a larger network,

Ya = branch admittance, primitive admittance

Current and Voltage Equations

I m 1 Vm

I 1 I a ; Va 1 1

n Vn

Vm

YaVa I a ; Ya 1 1 I a

Vn

1 Vm 1 I m

1Ya 1 1V 1 I a I

n n

Ya Ya Vm I m

Y nodal admittance

a Ya Vn I n equation for branch Ya

nodal admittance

matrix

Nodal Admittance Matrix

When n is the reference node, Vn = 0 and

YaVm I m

This corresponds to the removal of row n and column m from the

coefficient matrix (nodal admittance matrix).

1 1 1

11 1 1 1 building block

Nodal Admittance Matrix

• To obtain the overall nodal admittance matrix of a

network, we simply combine the individual branch

matrices by adding together elements with identical

row and column labels.

• Such addition causes the sum of the branch currents

flowing from each node of the network to equal the

total current injected into that node, as required by

KCL.

• Provided at least one of the network branches is

connected to the reference node, the net result is the

Ybus of the system.

Example 1

Single-line diagram:

Example 1

Reactance diagram (per unit):

Example 1

Admittance diagram:

Example 1

3 2 3 1

3 4

1 1 1 1

1Ya ; 1Yg

3 3

3

2 1 1

Yb ;

1 1 1

Yc ; 4

2 1 4 2 4 1

2 1 1 4 1 1 4 1 1

1 1 1

Yd ;

2 1 1

Ye ;

1 1 1

Yf

Example 1

Combining elements of the matrices having identical row and

column labels,

1 2 3 4

1 Y cY dY f Y d Y c Y f

Y Y bY dY e Y b Y e

2 d Y

3 Y c Y b Y aY bY c 0 bus

4 Y f Y e 0 Y eY f Y g

Example 1

Nodal admittance equations of the overall network:

j8.0 j17.0 j 4.0 j 5. 0 V 0

2

j 4 .0 j 4 .0 j 8 .8 0 V3 1.00 900

0

j 2 .5 j 5 .0 0 j8.3 V4 0.68 135

Mutually Coupled Branches

Two mutually-coupled branches with impedance parameters or

with admittance parameters:

Mutually Coupled Branches

Primitive impedance equations:

Va Z a Z M I a

V Z Z b I b

b M

Inverse of the primitive impedance matrix:

1

Za ZM 1 Zb Z M Ya YM

Z Z

M Zb Z a Zb Z M

2

M Z a YM Yb

Mutually Coupled Branches

Voltage drop equations:

Vm Vm

Va Vm Vn 1 1 0 0 Vn V

n

V V

Vq 0 0 1 1 V p

A

V p

b p

Vq Vq

where A = coefficient matrix

Current equations:

I m 1 0

I I

n 1 0 a AT a

I

I p 0 1 I b I

b

I q 0 1

Mutually Coupled Branches

Substitute voltage drop equations into the primitive impedance

equation,

Vm

Ya YM Vn I a

Y A

M Yb V p I b

Vq

Premultiply by AT,

Vm I m

V I

Ya YM n T a

I n

T

A A A

YM Yb V p I I

b p

Vq I q

Mutually Coupled Branches

Nodal admittance equations of the two mutually-coupled branches:

m n p q

m Ya Ya YM YM Vm I m

Y

n a Ya YM YM Vn I n

p YM YM Yb Yb V p I p

q YM YM Yb Yb Vq I q

matrix of the overall system. The pointers m, n, p, q indicate the rows

and columns of the system matrix.

Mutually Coupled Branches

Nodal admittance matrix by inspection:

that node.

• If n and q are one and the same node, columns n and q are

combined (since Vn=Vq), and the corresponding rows are added

because In and Iq are parts of the common injected current.

Example 2

Primitive admittances:

-1

j 0.25 j 0.15 j 6.25 j3.75

j 0.15 j 0.25 j3.75 j 6.25

Example 2

Nodal admittance matrix:

Example 2

Adding the columns and rows of the common node 3,

1 2 3

1 j 6.25 j3.75 j 6.25 j3.75

2 j 3 .75 j 6.25 j 3 .75 j 6 . 25

3 j 6.25 j 3.75 j 3.75 j 6.25 j 6.25 j 6.25 j 3.75 j 3.75

Nodal equations:

j3.75 j 6.25 j 2.50 V I

2 2

j 2.50 j 2.50 j5.00 V3 I 3

Three Branches with Mutual Coupling

1

Z a Z M 1 Z M 2 Ya YM 1 YM 2

Z Z 0 Y Y Y

M1 b M1 b M3

Z M 2 0 Z c YM 2 YM 3 Yc

Three Branches with Mutual Coupling

1. Invert primitive impedance matrices of the network

branches to obtain the corresponding admittance

matrices.

2. Multiply the elements of each primitive admittance

matrix by the 2 x 2 building-block matrix.

3. Label the two rows and the two columns of each

diagonal building-block matrix with the end-node

numbers of the corresponding self-admittance. For

mutually-coupled branches, it is important to label

in the order of the marked (dotted) --- then ---

unmarked (undotted) node numbers.

Three Branches with Mutual Coupling

block matrix with node numbers aligned and

consistent with the row labels assigned in (3); then

label the columns consistent with the column labels

of (3).

5. Combine, by adding together, those elements with

identical row and column labels to obtain the nodal

admittance matrix of the overall network. If one of

the nodes encountered is the reference node, omit

its row and column to obtain the system Ybus.

Equivalent Admittance Method

Two mutually-coupled branches with impedance parameters or

with admittance parameters:

Equivalent Admittance Method

The equation for the current at node m is given by

I m YaVm YaVn YM V p YM Vq

Adding and subtracting the term YMVM on the right-hand side and

combining terms with common coefficient, we obtain KCL

equation at node m:

I m I mn I mp I mq

Equivalent Admittance Method

The previous equation represents the partial network shown:

Equivalent Admittance Method

Similarly, I n Ya Vn Vm YM Vn Vq YM Vn V p

I n I nm I nq I np

Equivalent Admittance Method

Similarly, I p Yb V p Vq YM V p Vm YM V p Vn

I p I pq I pm I pn

node equation does

not yield a separate

partial network

because it is not

independent of the

other equations.

Equivalent Admittance Method

Combining the three partial networks without duplicating branches,

network has no

mutually-coupled

branches.

Equivalent Admittance Method

For two coupled branches that are physically connected among

three independent nodes (n and q are the same):

Example 3

Example 3

Nodal admittance matrix of two mutually-coupled branches:

1 2 3

2 j 3.75 j 6.25 j 2.50

3 j 2.50 j 2.50 j 5.00

Example 3

Replacing the coupled branches by their equivalent circuits,

Example 3

Nodal admittance equations:

j11.75 j19.25 j 2.50 j 5 . 00 V 0

n

j 2.50 j 2.50 j 5.80 0 V p 1 900

0

j 2 . 50 j 5 . 00 0 j 8 . 30 q

V 0 . 68 135

Modification of Ybus

Add a new branch between the same end nodes m and n

such that the parallel combination of the old and the new

branches yields the desired value.

3. Remove a branch admittance Ya already connected between

node m and n:

Subtract ∆Ybus from the existing Ybus.

Modification of Ybus

network:

First, remove all entries for the mutually-coupled pair

from the Ybus. Then, add entries for the branch to be

retained.

Example 4

Remove the effects of mutual coupling from the Ybus of Example 3.

Example 4

To reconnect the uncoupled branch between 1 and 3 with admittance

(j0.25)-1 = -j4.0, add

Example 4

The new bus admittance matrix:

The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

Branch equations:

Or

YprVpr = Ipr

where Vpr and Ipr are the branch voltages and currents, and Ypr is

the primitive admittance matrix.

The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

one row branch, one column node

if branch i is not connected to node (j)

if current in branch i is directed away from node (j)

if current in branch i is toward node (j)

For the given network,

The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

or Vpr = AV

The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

KCL at nodes 1 to 4:

or ATIpr = I

The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

A T Ypr Vpr A T I pr

A T

Ypr A V I

Ybus V I

Ybus A Ypr A

T

Example 5

Referring to example 3,

Example 5

Properties of the Ybus

1. The matix is complex and symmetric.

2. The matrix is sparse since each bus is connected to only a few

nearby buses.

3. When there is a net non-zero admittance tie to the reference bus, Ybus

is nonsingular. When there are no ties to the reference bus, Ybus is

singular.

4. If the Ybus is augmented with a row and column corresponding to the

reference bus, a (n+1)x(n+1) admittance matrix is obtained called

the indefinite bus admittance matrix. It is always singular.

5. The indefinite bus admittance matrix entries are formed with exactly

the same building algorithm as that of the conventional bus

admittance matrix. If the (n+1)st axis is “0”, entries are:

𝑌00 = 𝑦 connected to bus 0

𝑌0𝑖 = −𝑦 between buses 0 and i, i ≠ 0

𝑎𝑢𝑔

The sum of every row of the augmented matrix 𝑌𝑏𝑢𝑠 is zero. The column sums

are also zero.

Changes in Ybus to Reflect System Changes

1. Line Outage

Mathematically equivalent to adding a new line of admittance –yout

in parallel with the line to be “outaged”

Procedure to modify Ybus :

a. Diagonal entries: Add –yout to the ii and jj entries.

b. Off-diagonal entries: Add yout to the ij and ji entries.

2. Deletion of a Bus

Consider a system of n buses in which m buses (m<n) are

considered to be “uninteresting” and about which no electrical

information is sought. Partition Ibus and Vbus such that

buses, 𝑰𝑏 = 𝟎.

Changes in Ybus to Reflect System Changes

𝑒𝑞

Find 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 with the m “uninteresting” buses deleted.

Example 6

Example 6

such that bus 4 is last (order is 1,2,3,5,4):

Example 6

Partitioning 𝐘𝒃𝒖𝒔 ,

Example 6

Therefore,

Example 7

Eliminate buses 2 and 4.

Sol’n: Reordering 1,3,5,2,4:

Example 7

Change of Reference Bus

𝐼𝑗 (𝑖) = current at bus j with respect to bus i

appropriate partial derivative of the KCL equation at bus j (row j of

𝐈𝒃𝒖𝒔 = 𝐘𝒃𝒖𝒔 𝐕𝒃𝒖𝒔 ):

The partial derivatives imply that all other voltages are held fixed.

Therefore, 𝜕𝐼𝑗 /𝜕𝑉𝑗 implies that the voltages at bus 0 and bus i are fixed.

Change of Reference Bus

Thus,

matter what reference bus is used.

Therefore,

(0) (𝑖)

𝑌𝑏𝑢𝑠 is not identical to 𝑌𝑏𝑢𝑠 because

different axes appear in these matrices.

(𝑏) (𝑎)

• To find 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 using 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 , form the indefinite bus admittance matrix by

(𝑎)

augmenting 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 with an “a” axis formed using the 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 building algorithm.

This “a” axis is simply the negative of the sum of the previous n axes. Then

(𝑏)

delete the “b” axis. The resulting nxn matrix is 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 .

Example 8

Consider the previous sample system. Change the reference bus to bus 3.

Sol’n:

The indefinite admittance matrix is found by adding a bus “0” axis.

Example 8

Deleting axis (3):

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