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BUS ADMITTANCE

MATRIX
Admittance Diagram
Bus Admittance Matrix

Y cY dY f  Y d Y c Y f 


 Y d Y bY dY e  Y b Y e 
Ybus   
 Y c Y b Y aY bY c  0 
 
 Y f Y e 0 Y eY f Y g 
Bus Admittance Matrix
Separating the entries for Yc:

Y dY f  Y d 0 Y f 
 Y Y bY dY e  Y b Y e 
Ybus   d 
 0 Y b Y aY b  0 
 
 Y f Y e 0 Y eY f Y g 
 Yc 0 Y c 0
 0 0 0 0

Y c 0 Yc 0
 
 0 0 0 0
Bus Admittance Matrix
Rewriting the matrix:

 Yc  Y c  1 3
    

  1  1
 Yc
Y c  Yc   1 1 
 
    
Bus Impedance Matrix

 Z 11 Z 12 Z 13 Z 14 
Z Z 22 Z 23 Z 24 
 Ybus   21
1
Z bus
 Z 31 Z 32 Z 33 Z 34 
 
 Z 41 Z 42 Z 43 Z 44 
Branch and Node Admittances

VS
ES  IZ a  V IS   I  VYa
Za
Branch and Node Admittances
Suppose that only admittance Ya is connected between nodes m
and n as part of a larger network,

Za = branch impedance, primitive impedance


Ya = branch admittance, primitive admittance
Current and Voltage Equations
I m   1  Vm 
 I    1 I a ; Va  1  1 
 n   Vn 
Vm 
YaVa  I a ; Ya 1 1   I a
Vn 
1 Vm   1  I m 
 1Ya 1  1V    1 I a   I 
   n    n
 Ya  Ya  Vm   I m 
 Y      nodal admittance
 a Ya  Vn   I n  equation for branch Ya

nodal admittance
matrix
Nodal Admittance Matrix
When n is the reference node, Vn = 0 and

YaVm  I m
This corresponds to the removal of row n and column m from the
coefficient matrix (nodal admittance matrix).

1  1  1
 11  1   1 1  building block
   
Nodal Admittance Matrix
• To obtain the overall nodal admittance matrix of a
network, we simply combine the individual branch
matrices by adding together elements with identical
row and column labels.
• Such addition causes the sum of the branch currents
flowing from each node of the network to equal the
total current injected into that node, as required by
KCL.
• Provided at least one of the network branches is
connected to the reference node, the net result is the
Ybus of the system.
Example 1
Single-line diagram:
Example 1
Reactance diagram (per unit):
Example 1
Admittance diagram:
Example 1

3 2 3 1
3 4
 1  1  1  1
1Ya ; 1Yg
3 3
3
 
2  1 1 
Yb ;  
1  1 1 
Yc ; 4

2 1 4 2 4 1
2  1  1 4  1  1 4  1  1
 
1  1 1 
Yd ;  
2  1 1 
Ye ;  
1  1 1 
Yf
Example 1
Combining elements of the matrices having identical row and
column labels,

1 2 3 4
1 Y cY dY f  Y d Y c Y f 
 Y Y bY dY e  Y b Y e 
2  d  Y
3  Y c Y b Y aY bY c  0  bus

4  Y f Y e 0 Y eY f Y g 
Example 1
Nodal admittance equations of the overall network:

 j14.5 j 8 .0 j 4 .0 j 2.5  V1   0 


 j8.0  j17.0 j 4.0 j 5. 0  V   0 
  2    
 j 4 .0 j 4 .0  j 8 .8 0  V3   1.00  900 
    0
 j 2 .5 j 5 .0 0  j8.3 V4  0.68  135 
Mutually Coupled Branches
Two mutually-coupled branches with impedance parameters or
with admittance parameters:
Mutually Coupled Branches
Primitive impedance equations:

Va   Z a Z M I a 
V    Z Z b   I b 
 b  M
Inverse of the primitive impedance matrix:

1
 Za ZM  1  Zb  Z M   Ya YM 
Z    Z  
 M Zb  Z a Zb  Z M
2
 M Z a  YM Yb 

primitive admittance matrix


Mutually Coupled Branches
Voltage drop equations:
Vm  Vm 
Va  Vm  Vn  1  1 0 0  Vn  V 
 n
V   V 
 Vq  0 0 1  1 V p 
 A
V p 
 b  p
   
Vq  Vq 
where A = coefficient matrix
Current equations:
I m   1 0 
I    I
 n  1 0   a   AT  a 
I
 I p   0 1   I b  I 
 b
   
 I q   0  1
Mutually Coupled Branches
Substitute voltage drop equations into the primitive impedance
equation,
Vm 
 
 Ya YM  Vn   I a 
Y  A  
 M Yb  V p   I b 
 
Vq 
Premultiply by AT,

Vm  I m 
V  I 
 Ya YM   n  T  a
I  n
T
A  A  A 
YM Yb  V p  I  I 
 b p
   
Vq   I q 
Mutually Coupled Branches
Nodal admittance equations of the two mutually-coupled branches:

m n p q
m  Ya  Ya YM  YM  Vm   I m 
 Y    
n  a Ya  YM YM  Vn   I n 

p  YM  YM Yb  Yb  V p   I p 
    
q  YM YM  Yb Yb  Vq   I q 

The 4 x 4 submatrices above form part of the larger nodal admittance


matrix of the overall system. The pointers m, n, p, q indicate the rows
and columns of the system matrix.
Mutually Coupled Branches
Nodal admittance matrix by inspection:

• If node n is the reference, we may eliminate the row and column of


that node.
• If n and q are one and the same node, columns n and q are
combined (since Vn=Vq), and the corresponding rows are added
because In and Iq are parts of the common injected current.
Example 2

Primitive admittances:

-1
 j 0.25 j 0.15  j 6.25 j3.75 
 j 0.15 j 0.25   j3.75  j 6.25
   
Example 2
Nodal admittance matrix:
Example 2
Adding the columns and rows of the common node 3,
1 2 3
1   j 6.25 j3.75 j 6.25  j3.75 
2  j 3 .75  j 6.25  j 3 .75  j 6 . 25 
 
3  j 6.25  j 3.75  j 3.75  j 6.25  j 6.25  j 6.25  j 3.75  j 3.75
 
Nodal equations:

 j 6.25 j3.75 j 2.50  V1   I1 


 j3.75  j 6.25 j 2.50  V    I 
  2   2 
 j 2.50 j 2.50  j5.00 V3   I 3 
Three Branches with Mutual Coupling

1
 Z a Z M 1 Z M 2   Ya YM 1 YM 2 
Z Z 0   Y Y Y 
 M1 b   M1 b M3

 Z M 2 0 Z c  YM 2 YM 3 Yc 
Three Branches with Mutual Coupling

Ybus for a network with mutually-coupled branches:


1. Invert primitive impedance matrices of the network
branches to obtain the corresponding admittance
matrices.
2. Multiply the elements of each primitive admittance
matrix by the 2 x 2 building-block matrix.
3. Label the two rows and the two columns of each
diagonal building-block matrix with the end-node
numbers of the corresponding self-admittance. For
mutually-coupled branches, it is important to label
in the order of the marked (dotted) --- then ---
unmarked (undotted) node numbers.
Three Branches with Mutual Coupling

4. Label the two rows of each off-diagonal building-


block matrix with node numbers aligned and
consistent with the row labels assigned in (3); then
label the columns consistent with the column labels
of (3).
5. Combine, by adding together, those elements with
identical row and column labels to obtain the nodal
admittance matrix of the overall network. If one of
the nodes encountered is the reference node, omit
its row and column to obtain the system Ybus.
Equivalent Admittance Method
Two mutually-coupled branches with impedance parameters or
with admittance parameters:
Equivalent Admittance Method
The equation for the current at node m is given by

I m  YaVm  YaVn  YM V p  YM Vq

Adding and subtracting the term YMVM on the right-hand side and
combining terms with common coefficient, we obtain KCL
equation at node m:

I m  Ya Vm  Vn    YM Vm  V p   YM Vm  Vq 


I m  I mn  I mp  I mq
Equivalent Admittance Method
The previous equation represents the partial network shown:
Equivalent Admittance Method
Similarly, I n  Ya Vn  Vm    YM Vn  Vq   YM Vn  V p 
I n  I nm  I nq  I np
Equivalent Admittance Method
Similarly, I p  Yb V p  Vq    YM V p  Vm   YM V p  Vn 
I p  I pq  I pm  I pn

Note: The fourth


node equation does
not yield a separate
partial network
because it is not
independent of the
other equations.
Equivalent Admittance Method
Combining the three partial networks without duplicating branches,

Note: This lattice


network has no
mutually-coupled
branches.
Equivalent Admittance Method
For two coupled branches that are physically connected among
three independent nodes (n and q are the same):
Example 3
Example 3
Nodal admittance matrix of two mutually-coupled branches:

1 2 3

1  j 6.25 j 3.75 j 2.50 


2  j 3.75  j 6.25 j 2.50 
 
3  j 2.50 j 2.50  j 5.00
Example 3
Replacing the coupled branches by their equivalent circuits,
Example 3
Nodal admittance equations:

 j16.75 j11.75 j 2.50 j 2.50  Vm   0 


 j11.75  j19.25 j 2.50 j 5 . 00  V   0 
  n    
 j 2.50 j 2.50  j 5.80 0  V p   1  900 
    0
 j 2 . 50 j 5 . 00 0  j 8 . 30   q  
V 0 . 68  135 
Modification of Ybus

1. Addition of a branch admittance Ya between nodes m and n:

2. Change the admittance value of a single branch:


Add a new branch between the same end nodes m and n
such that the parallel combination of the old and the new
branches yields the desired value.
3. Remove a branch admittance Ya already connected between
node m and n:
Subtract ∆Ybus from the existing Ybus.
Modification of Ybus

4. Remove a pair of mutually-coupled branches from the


network:

5. Remove one of two mutually-coupled branches:


First, remove all entries for the mutually-coupled pair
from the Ybus. Then, add entries for the branch to be
retained.
Example 4
Remove the effects of mutual coupling from the Ybus of Example 3.

Sol’n: To remove the two-mutually coupled branches, subtract


Example 4
To reconnect the uncoupled branch between 1 and 3 with admittance
(j0.25)-1 = -j4.0, add

To reconnect the uncoupled branch between 2 and 3, add


Example 4
The new bus admittance matrix:
The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

Consider the network


The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

Branch equations:

Or
YprVpr = Ipr

where Vpr and Ipr are the branch voltages and currents, and Ypr is
the primitive admittance matrix.
The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

Branch-to-node incidence matrix Â:


one row  branch, one column  node
if branch i is not connected to node (j)
if current in branch i is directed away from node (j)
if current in branch i is toward node (j)
For the given network,
The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

Branch-to-node matrix A: Voltage drops across the branches:

or Vpr = AV
The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

KCL at nodes 1 to 4:

or ATIpr = I
The Network Incidence Matrix and Ybus

Multiplying the branch current equations by the transpose of A,

A T Ypr Vpr  A T I pr
A T

Ypr A V  I
Ybus V  I
Ybus  A Ypr A
T
Example 5
Referring to example 3,
Example 5
Properties of the Ybus
1. The matix is complex and symmetric.
2. The matrix is sparse since each bus is connected to only a few
nearby buses.
3. When there is a net non-zero admittance tie to the reference bus, Ybus
is nonsingular. When there are no ties to the reference bus, Ybus is
singular.
4. If the Ybus is augmented with a row and column corresponding to the
reference bus, a (n+1)x(n+1) admittance matrix is obtained called
the indefinite bus admittance matrix. It is always singular.
5. The indefinite bus admittance matrix entries are formed with exactly
the same building algorithm as that of the conventional bus
admittance matrix. If the (n+1)st axis is “0”, entries are:
𝑌00 = 𝑦 connected to bus 0
𝑌0𝑖 = −𝑦 between buses 0 and i, i ≠ 0
𝑎𝑢𝑔
The sum of every row of the augmented matrix 𝑌𝑏𝑢𝑠 is zero. The column sums
are also zero.
Changes in Ybus to Reflect System Changes
1. Line Outage
 Mathematically equivalent to adding a new line of admittance –yout
in parallel with the line to be “outaged”
 Procedure to modify Ybus :
a. Diagonal entries: Add –yout to the ii and jj entries.
b. Off-diagonal entries: Add yout to the ij and ji entries.
2. Deletion of a Bus
 Consider a system of n buses in which m buses (m<n) are
considered to be “uninteresting” and about which no electrical
information is sought. Partition Ibus and Vbus such that

If no injection currents are received at the m “uninteresting


buses, 𝑰𝑏 = 𝟎.
Changes in Ybus to Reflect System Changes

𝑒𝑞
Find 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 with the m “uninteresting” buses deleted.

Kron’s reduction formula


Example 6

Admittances shown are in per unit mhos.


Example 6

Bus 4 is to be deleted from consideration (I4 = 0). Rearrange 𝐘𝒃𝒖𝒔


such that bus 4 is last (order is 1,2,3,5,4):
Example 6
Partitioning 𝐘𝒃𝒖𝒔 ,

Applying Kron’s reduction formula,


Example 6
Therefore,
Example 7
Eliminate buses 2 and 4.
Sol’n: Reordering 1,3,5,2,4:
Example 7
Change of Reference Bus

Let 𝑉𝑗 (𝑖) = voltage at bus j with respect to bus i


𝐼𝑗 (𝑖) = current at bus j with respect to bus i

The diagonal and off-diagonal elements of 𝐘𝒃𝒖𝒔 may be viewed as the


appropriate partial derivative of the KCL equation at bus j (row j of
𝐈𝒃𝒖𝒔 = 𝐘𝒃𝒖𝒔 𝐕𝒃𝒖𝒔 ):

The partial derivatives imply that all other voltages are held fixed.
Therefore, 𝜕𝐼𝑗 /𝜕𝑉𝑗 implies that the voltages at bus 0 and bus i are fixed.
Change of Reference Bus

Thus,

Same injection current into bus j no


matter what reference bus is used.

Therefore,

(0) (𝑖)
𝑌𝑏𝑢𝑠 is not identical to 𝑌𝑏𝑢𝑠 because
different axes appear in these matrices.

(𝑏) (𝑎)
• To find 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 using 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 , form the indefinite bus admittance matrix by
(𝑎)
augmenting 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 with an “a” axis formed using the 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 building algorithm.
This “a” axis is simply the negative of the sum of the previous n axes. Then
(𝑏)
delete the “b” axis. The resulting nxn matrix is 𝐘𝑏𝑢𝑠 .
Example 8
Consider the previous sample system. Change the reference bus to bus 3.

Sol’n:
The indefinite admittance matrix is found by adding a bus “0” axis.
Example 8
Deleting axis (3):