Sei sulla pagina 1di 69

Project1 3/11/05 9:04 Page 1

CONTENTS

Section Page

1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 PROBLEM AREAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.1 Erecting and Dismantling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.2 Climbing Up and Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.3 Planks Sliding Off or Breaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2.4 Improper Loading or Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.5 Platforms Not Fully Decked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.6 Platforms without Guardrails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.7 Failure to Install All Required Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.8 Electrical Contact with Overhead Wires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.9 Moving Rolling Scaffolds with Workers on the Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

3 SELECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4 BASIC TYPES of SCAFFOLDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4.1 Standard Tubular Frame Scaffolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4.2 Standard Walk-through Frame Scaffolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.2.1 Spans of Tower Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.3 Rolling Scaffolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.3.1 Electrical Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.4 Fold-up Scaffold Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.5 Adjustable Scaffolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.6 Tube-and-Clamp Scaffolds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.7 Systems Scaffolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.8 Mast Climbing Scaffolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
4.9 Crank-up or Tower Scaffolds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

5 SCAFFOLD COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.1 Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.2 Outrigger Brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.3 Ladders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
5.4 Guardrails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

6 ERECTING and DISMANTLING SCAFFOLDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


6.1 GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.1.1 Foundations and Support Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.1.2 Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.1.3 Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.1.4 Base Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.1.5 Plumb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.1.6 Hoisting Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.1.7 Tie-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.1.8 Fall Protection in Scaffold Erection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.2 ERECTING FRAME SCAFFOLDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.2.1 Fittings and Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
6.2.2 Braces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.2.3 Platform Erection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.2.4 Ladders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
6.2.5 Guardrails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
6.3 ERECTING TUBE-and-CLAMP SCAFFOLDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6.3.1 General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.3.2 Materials and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.3.3 Spacing of Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.3.4 Ledgers and Transoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.3.5 Joints in Standards and Ledgers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.3.6 Intermediate Transoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.3.7 Tie-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.3.8 Bracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.3.9 Drawings and Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.4 ERECTION of SYSTEMS SCAFFOLDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.4.1 Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.4.2 Erection Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
6.4.3 Tie-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6.4.4 Guardrails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6.5 DISMANTLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

7 SCAFFOLD STABILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.1 Three-to-One Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.2 Outrigger Stabilizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.3 Limitations to the Three-to-One Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.4 Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
7.5 Installation Problems and Symptoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.6 Tie-in Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

8 PLATFORMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8.1 Typical Loads and Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8.2 Aluminum/Plywood Platform Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8.3 Laminated Veneer Lumber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
8.4 Sawn Lumber Planks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
8.5 Reinforcing Wood Planks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.6 Securing Platforms to the Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8.7 Wind Uplift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

9 PROPER USE of SCAFFOLDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42


9.1 Ladders and Climbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
9.2 Guardrails Missing or Removed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
9.3 Standing on Objects Above the Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
9.4 Overloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
9.5 Debris on Scaffold Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
9.6 Exposure to Hazardous Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

APPENDIX – Fall Protection Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47


A – Masonry Scaffold Erection Procedures
B – Erecting and Dismantling Frame Shoring Towers
1 INTRODUCTION

Over 600 scaffold accidents occur annually in the each year. The number and severity of injuries
Ontario construction industry. More than half of these involved make scaffold accidents one of the more
are falls. Several fatalities are also related to scaffolds serious safety problems in construction.

2 PROBLEM AREAS

The main problem areas are are only one or two planks wide and guardrails are
missing, as is frequently the case during erection
• erecting and dismantling scaffolds and dismantling.
• climbing up and down scaffolds
• planks sliding off or breaking
2.2 Climbing Up and Down
• improper loading or overloading
Approximately 15% of scaffold-related injuries occur
• platforms not fully planked or “decked”
when workers are climbing up and down. Climbing
• platforms without guardrails up and down frames is a common but unacceptable
• failure to install all required components such as practice that has resulted in numerous injuries and
base plates, connections, and braces fatalities. Climbing up and down braces is also a
frequent cause of accidents. You must provide
• moving rolling scaffolds in the vicinity of overhead
adequate ladders to overcome this problem. In
electrical wires
addition, workers must use proper climbing
• moving rolling scaffolds with workers on the techniques (three-point contact).
platform.

2.3 Planks Sliding Off or Breaking


2.1 Erecting and Dismantling
Many scaffold injuries involve problems with planks. If
From 15 to 20% of scaffold-related injuries involve scaffold planks are uncleated or otherwise unsecured
erecting and dismantling. The most common problem they easily slide off – this causes a surprising number
is the failure to provide an adequate working platform of injuries. Scaffold planks can also break if they
for a worker to use when installing the next lift of are in poor condition or overloaded. It is therefore
scaffold. Working from one or two planks is not important to use proper grades of lumber and to
recommended. inspect planks before erection to ensure that there
The next important consideration involves compo- are no weak areas, deterioration, or cracks. Another
nents, such as tie-ins, which you should install as the common problem is insufficient or excessive over-
assembly progresses. Failure to do so makes the hang of planks at their support. Excessive overhang
scaffold less stable and, while it may not topple, it can cause a plank to tip up when a worker stands on
may sway or move enough to knock someone off the the overhanging portion. Insufficient overhang is a
platform. This happens more often when platforms leading cause of planks slipping off.

1
2.4 Improper Loading or Overloading 2.8 Electrical Contact with
Overloading causes excessive deflection in planks Overhead Wires
and can lead to deterioration and breaking. Scaffolds seldom make contact with overhead
Overloading occurs most often in the masonry electrical lines, but when it does happen it almost
trade where skids of material can exceed 1500 kg always results in a fatality. Failure to maintain safe
(3000 lb.). If material is left overhanging the scaffold distances from overhead powerlines while moving
platform it can cause an imbalance leading to the scaffolds is a major problem. Before attempting to
scaffold overturning.
move rolling scaffolds in outdoor open areas, check
the route carefully to ensure that no overhead wires
are in the immediate vicinity. Partial dismantling may
2.5 Platforms Not Fully Decked be necessary in some situations to ensure that the
This situation is related to injuries not only during scaffold will make the required safe clearances from
erection and dismantling but in general scaffold use. overhead powerlines. The required minimum safe
The Construction Regulation (Ontario Regulation distances are listed in Table 1. Hoisting scaffold mate-
213/91) requires that all scaffold platforms must be at rial by forklift or other mechanical means requires
least 450 mm (18 inches) wide. All platforms above careful planning and should be avoided in the vicinity
2.4 metres (8 feet) must be fully decked. of powerlines. Transporting already-erected scaffolds
by forklift, particularly in residential construction, has
been the cause of many electrical contacts – this is a
2.6 Platforms without Guardrails dangerous practice. Workers handling materials or
Platforms without guardrails are a serious safety equipment while working on the platform must also
problem in construction. Guardrails are an important take care to avoid electrical contact.
fall prevention measure not only for high platforms but
Table 1: Minimum distance from powerlines
also for low ones. Over one-third of the falls from
scaffolds are from platforms less than 3 metres Voltage Rating of Power Line Minimum Distance
(10 feet) in height. Therefore, guardrails are recom-
750 to 150,000 volts 3 metres (10 feet)
mended during normal use for all scaffold platforms
over 1.5 metres (5 feet) high. Guardrails for all 150,001 to 250,000 volts 4.5 metres (15 feet)
working platforms should consist of a top rail, a mid- over 250,000 volts 6 metres (20 feet)
rail, and a toeboard.

2.7 Failure to Install 2.9 Moving Rolling Scaffolds with


All Required Components Workers on the Platform
Failure to use all of the proper scaffold components Moving rolling scaffolds with workers on the platform
is a serious safety problem. Workers are more likely can be dangerous. Where it is impractical for workers
to cut corners when scaffolds are only a few frames to climb down, and the scaffold is over 3 metres
in height. All too frequently they fail to install base (10 feet) in height, each worker must be tied off with
plates, braces, proper securing devices such as a full body harness and lanyard. Lifelines must be
“banana” clips or “pig tails” at the pins of frame attached to a suitable anchor point other than the
scaffolds, and adequate tie-ins. Those erecting the scaffold. Holes, depressions, curbs, etc. have all been
scaffold must have all the necessary components, responsible for scaffolds overturning while being
and must use them to ensure that the scaffold is safe.
moved. In some jurisdictions moving a scaffold with
Furthermore, workers should install these parts as
workers on the platform is prohibited if the platform
the scaffold erection progresses.
exceeds a certain height.

2
3 SELECTION

The safe and efficient use of scaffolding depends first siding, mechanical installation, suspended ceiling
on choosing the right system for the job. If the scaf- installation)
fold’s basic characteristics are unsuited to the task, or • duration of work
if all the necessary components are not available,
• experience of the supervisor and crew with the
personnel are forced to make do and improvise.
types of scaffolds available
These conditions lead to accidents.
• requirements for pedestrian traffic through and
Proper selection of scaffolding and related compo- under the scaffold
nents requires basic knowledge about site conditions
• anticipated weather conditions
and the work to be done. Considerations include
• ladders or other access to the platform
• weight of workers, tools, materials, and equipment
to be carried by the scaffold • obstructions

• site conditions (e.g., interior, exterior, backfill, • configuration of the building or structure being
concrete floors, type and condition of walls, access worked on
for the equipment, variations in elevation, anchor- • special erection or dismantling problems including
age points) providing practical fall protection for the erector
• height or heights to which the scaffold may • the use of mechanical equipment to aid in erecting
be erected the scaffold.
• type of work that will be done from the scaffold
(e.g., masonry work, sandblasting, painting, metal

4 BASIC TYPES of SCAFFOLDS

4.1 Standard Tubular Frame Scaffolds platform level. Again this ladder is not suitable for
high scaffolds. Scaffolds in excess of 9 metres
This is the most frequently used scaffold in
(30 feet) should have built-in stairs with rest platforms.
construction. Historically it has been made of steel
Vertical ladders can reach up to 9 metres, but above
tubing, but aluminum is gaining popularity. The
2.2 metres (7 feet) they require a safety cage.
scaffold is manufactured in various configurations
and spans. On some systems, ladder rungs are built The advantages of the frame scaffold are that it is
into the end frames (Figure 4.1). These ladders are simple to assemble, many construction trades are
not suitable for tall scaffold towers unless rest familiar with its use, and the components can be
platforms are installed at regular intervals and trap- lifted manually by workers. However, as with other
doors are provided in the platforms. Other models are systems, all parts must be used. Failure to install any
equipped with ladders that attach to the end frames of the components, such as bracing and base plates,
(Figure 4.3). The ladder shown in Figure 4.3 is may lead to accidents.
continuous and workers gain access via gates at the

3
Aluminum/plywood
combination platform
Ladder rungs built into
frame not more than
12” centre to centre

FIGURE 4.1
STANDARD FRAME
SCAFFOLD

Note: Walk-through frame allows


easier distribution of
materials

Wooden guardrails
secured to frame

Tube-and-clamp
guardrails to
protect
outrigger
platform

Horizontal bracing

FIGURE 4.2
WALK-THROUGH
SCAFFOLD

4
4.2 Standard Walk-through 4.3 Rolling Scaffolds
Frame Scaffolds Rolling scaffolds are best suited where short-duration
This is a variation of the standard tubular frame work must be carried out at multiple locations. They
scaffold. An example is shown in Figure 4.2. Although are used mainly by mechanical and electrical trades.
primarily designed to accommodate pedestrian traffic There are two main types of rolling scaffold.
at the ground or street level, the walk-through scaffold • Castor Type. This type of scaffold is best suited for
is frequently used by the masonry trade to provide work on smooth floors and is typically used inside
greater height per tier and easier distribution of buildings. All castors should be equipped with
materials on platforms at intermediate levels. braking devices (Figure 4.3). This kind of scaffold
should be erected so that its height-to-width ratio
is no greater than 3 to 1. This limits the height
4.2.1 Spans of Tower Base of platforms with standard outrigger stabilizers
and single span towers to approximately 9 metres
Span lengths are varied using different lengths of
(30 feet).
vertical bracing. Most manufacturers have braces
providing spans between 5 and 10 feet in length, with • Farm Wagon Type. Scaffolds erected on farm
7-foot spans being the most common. The use of wagons or other devices with pneumatic tires are
7-foot spans is ideal when using 16-foot planks as frequently used for installing sheet metal siding
this allows a 1-foot overhang at each end. When and similar materials on industrial buildings. For
using spans in excess of 7 feet, the load-bearing safe, effective use, the area around the building
capacity of the platforms is reduced and must be should be well compacted, relatively smooth and
accounted for in the design. level. This type of scaffold must also have outrigger
beams with levelling devices (Figure 4.4). It is
subject to the 3-to-1 height-to-width ratio and is
impractical for heights greater than 7.5 metres
(25 feet). The scaffold should always be resting on
the outriggers while workers are on it. It should
never be used as a work platform while it is
“on rubber.”
Gate

Banana
clip

Castor wheel with brake

Horizontal
Bracing FIGURE 4.3
Brake
ROLLING SCAFFOLD

5
NOTE: Access to
this scaffold should
be via ladder. The
ladder is omitted
here for clarity.
NOTE: Screw Jacks should be
adjusted to lift wheels off ground
before workers mount the scaffold.

FIGURE 4.4
FARM WAGON
ROLLING SCAFFOLD

Rolling scaffolds other than those that are lifted off the manufacturer. Scaffolds that are not securely
the ground on outriggers should have brakes on pinned together can separate if they drop into a hole
all wheels. All brakes should be applied when the or depression, or run into an obstacle at ground level.
scaffold reaches the desired location. Horizontal bracing is necessary on a standard frame
scaffold to keep it from folding up because the con-
It is best not to move rolling scaffolds over one frame nections between frames and braces are essentially
in height while a person is on the platform. If people pinned joints.
must remain on the platform when the scaffold is
being moved they should be tied off to an indepen- Castors should be secured to the frame. A castor
dent structure using a fall-arrest system. In some dropping off in a hole or depression in floors has
jurisdictions moving a scaffold with workers on the been the cause of serious accidents and injuries.
platform is prohibited if the scaffold exceeds a certain Each castor should have a brake which is in good
height. The area through which the scaffold is to be working order and can be applied easily. The castors
moved should be free of bumps or depressions or wheels should be suitable for the surface on
and cleared of all debris. Overhead hazards, espe- which the scaffold is being used. Small wheels are
cially powerlines, should be identified. suitable for pavement or concrete floors. You need
larger pneumatic wheels when soils are the working
Rolling scaffolds should always have guardrails. They surface. Before using rolling scaffolds, the surface
should also be securely pinned together and be must be smooth, free of depressions and reason-
fitted with horizontal bracing as recommended by ably level.

6
FIGURE 4.5
FOLD-UP SCAFFOLD

4.3.1 Electrical Contact


One of the biggest concerns with rolling scaffolds
is the possibility of contact with overhead electrical
wires. Scaffolds making accidental contact with
powerlines have caused many deaths. Before moving
a rolling scaffold, check the intended path of travel
and maintain the required minimum clearances as
set out in Table 1.

4.4 Fold-up Scaffold Frames


Fold-up scaffold frames (Figure 4.5) are frequently
used by trades such as electricians, painters, and
suspended ceiling erectors. Widths range from
dimensions that will pass through a 750-mm (30-inch)
opening to the standard width of about 1.5 metres
(5 feet). Frequently made of aluminum, this type of
scaffold is easily and quickly transported, erected,
and moved about construction sites and from job to
job. It should be used only on a smooth, hard surface.

4.5 Adjustable Scaffolds


Figure 4.6 illustrates another type of scaffold with
uses similar to the fold-up model. Although it is not so
easily erected, the system is light and very easily
adjusted for height. It breaks down into a minimum of
FIGURE 4.6
components readily transported from job to job.
These devices should also be used only on smooth, SCAFFOLD with
hard surfaces. They are not intended to carry ADJUSTABLE PLATFORM HEIGHT
heavy loads.

7
4.6 Tube-and-Clamp Scaffolds Personnel erecting tube-and-clamp scaffolds must
be experienced. It is strongly recommended that, for
Tube-and-clamp scaffolds (Figure 4.7) are frequently
each application, a sketch or drawing be prepared by
used where obstructions or non-rectangular
someone who understands general structural design
structures are encountered. The scaffolds are infinitely
and the need for diagonal and cross bracing. In
adjustable in height and width. They can also be used
general, this type of scaffold takes longer to erect
for irregular and circular vertical configurations.
than the standard tubular frame type. Tube-and-
clamp scaffolds above 10 metres (33 feet) must be
designed by a professional engineer.

Node point

Clamp bolted
to structure

Gate

FIGURE 4.7
TUBE-and-CLAMP
SCAFFOLD

8
4.7 Systems Scaffolds or drawing of the scaffold to be erected is recom-
mended for each application. Systems scaffolds
European scaffold systems have become very
above 10 metres (33 feet) in height must be designed
popular in applications that were traditionally
by a professional engineer.
suited to tube-and-clamp. Although they are not as
adjustable as tube-and-clamp scaffolds, they can be There are a great many systems available, ranging
applied to a wide variety of non-rectangular, circular, from light-duty aluminum to heavy-duty steel support
or dome-shaped structures. A typical example is structures. They all employ different patented locking
shown in Figure 4.8. As with tube-and-clamp devices (wedges, locking pins, etc.) which are not
scaffolds, personnel carrying out the erection should intended to be interchanged with other systems.
be experienced with that type of system and a sketch

Typical rosette
and wedge joint

FIGURE 4.8
SYSTEMS SCAFFOLD

9
4.8 Mast Climbing Scaffolds Although not shown here, the working platform can
be a set distance below the material platform. This
The use of mast climbing scaffolds is becoming
allows material to be stacked at a convenient height
increasingly common, particularly in the masonry
for the worker. The entire scaffold can be raised to
industry. They are best suited for medium to high-rise
whatever height is required. As such it has
projects, and are used also by siding installers,
significant ergonomic advantages.
window installers, drywallers, and other trades. For
low to medium-height projects they can be free- Engineered drawings should accompany this scaffold
standing, depending on ground conditions and outlining such components as load capacity, tie-in
manufacturers’ instructions. For high-rise applications requirements, and bracing.
they can be tied to the structure at regular intervals
as set out by the manufacturer. The potential for fall-related accidents is reduced
when using mast-climbing scaffolds since workers
Mast climbing scaffolds can be used as a single stay on a wide, secured platform even during erection
tower or as multiple towers braced together. The and dismantling. Manufacturers’ instructions must
scaffold climbs the mast, normally powered by an be followed at all times. A competent worker should
electric or gas engine. The climbing mechanism will supervise the erection.
have a failsafe system to prevent accidental lowering
or failing of the scaffold platform.

FIGURE 4.9
MAST CLIMBING
SCAFFOLD

10
4.9 Crank-up or Tower Scaffolds
Although crank-up scaffolds are more popular in the
United States, some Canadian masonry contractors
use them. They consist of towers, bases, and
platforms that can be lifted by winches.

The working platform is located 600 to 900 mm


(2 to 3 feet) below the material platform, which is
in an ergonomically good position for the worker.

The entire scaffold can be raised easily, allowing


the worker a comfortable working height.

Crews must be trained to erect, use, dismantle, and


maintain tower scaffolding safely and efficiently.
Manufacturers’ instructions must be followed
at all times.

Tower scaffolds must be tied to the structure


according to manufacturer’s instructions.

FIGURE 4.10
TOWER SCAFFOLD

11
5 SCAFFOLD COMPONENTS

Tubular Frame Scaffolds: There are many tubular – horizontal braces on every third tier of frames
frame scaffold components available (Figures 5.1, – platform materials to fully deck in the intended
5.2). Some components are necessary in almost all working level
situations; others are optional depending on use and
– guardrails complete with toeboards
manufacturers’ instructions. In addition to scaffold
end frames, the minimum components required are – guardrail posts where working platforms
will be at the top level
– base plates or castors
– ladders or stairs for access
– mudsills
– intermediate platforms where required—not more
– adjustable screw jacks than 9 metres (30 feet) apart and adjacent to
– vertical braces on both sides of frames unless vertical ladders.
• frames are designed with “non-pinned” joints Tube-and-Clamp Scaffolds and Systems
Scaffolds have individual components unique to
• additional bracing is provided by a designed
each type. These components are identified and
system using tube-and-clamp accessories
discussed in detail in Chapter 6.

Frames

Fixed base plate


Swivel base plate
Castors

Coupling pins—used to Pig tail—used to connect


connect frames together frames to coupling pins

FIGURE 5.1
FRAME SCAFFOLD COMPONENTS

12
Manufactured
Toeboard bracket guardrail
section

Spring-
loaded
pin lock

Gravity locking pin

Vertical braces

Guardrail
posts

Guardrail

Horizontal
brace

FIGURE 5.2
FRAME SCAFFOLD COMPONENTS

13
5.1 Platforms • Inspect brackets as they are being installed on
the scaffold to ensure that only sound brackets
Platforms for frame scaffolds are normally either
with no defects are used.
aluminum/ plywood platforms or wood planks. Planks
normally come in 8-foot or 16-foot lengths to cover • Tag for repair any brackets that have deformed or
one or two 7-foot bays with adequate overhang. cracked hooks, cracked welds, or other defects.
Platforms are dealt with in depth in Chapter 8. • Make sure that brackets are mounted securely
on the frame all the way down.
• Never stock material on the bracket working
5.2 Outrigger Brackets platform. The working platform is for the
The use of outrigger brackets (Figure 5.3) is very worker only.
popular in the masonry industry. They are attached to • Make sure that planks laid on the brackets
the inside of the frame and accommodate a platform extend at least 150 mm (6 inches) beyond the
approximately 20" (two planks) wide. They provide a frames at either end.
work platform for the mason at an ergonomically
• Place brackets so the level where the worker
convenient location, lower than the material platform.
stands is no more than 1 metre (40 inches) below
Intended as a work platform only, they are not to be
the level where the material is stored.
used for material storage.
Beware of common hazards with outrigger brackets:
Instances have been reported of brackets installed
on the “wrong” side of the scaffold—facing the forklift, • hooks bent or deformed to the extent that they will
for example, to provide a landing area for skids of roll off the frame under load
material. This is not acceptable because outrigger • hooks bent back into place, thereby causing
brackets are not designed for supporting material. cracks in the metal or welds which then break
Furthermore, the practice may lead to unbalanced under load
loading of the scaffold, causing tip-over.
• homemade brackets that are poorly designed
Figure 5.4 illustrates typical outrigger brackets and fabricated, too flimsy to bear the load,
attached to the scaffold for masonry use. For efficient, or not sized properly to hold two planks
comfortable work, the outrigger brackets should be • failure to inspect brackets during erection
adjustable in lifts of no more than 600 mm (24 inches). to ensure that they are not damaged
A space no greater than 150 mm (6 inches) should
• failure to use planks that have double cleats
be maintained between the outrigger platform and
on one end.
the wall. Although the outrigger brackets illustrated
are side brackets, end brackets are also available
from most manufacturers.

Use the following good work practices:


• Do not drop or roughly handle outrigger brackets
during erection or dismantling. This can bend or
damage hooks.
• Use planks that are double-cleated at one end to
ensure that the cleats are engaged over a bracket
to prevent the bracket from pivoting.

14
When purchasing outrigger brackets, look for the
following features, numbered to correspond with
Figure 5.3.

1. Hook tops out at a V-point to sit securely


on varying diameters of horizontal
frame members
2. Hook and bottom shoe are prepared
to receive pin
3. Hook is heavy-gauge, fabricated from
one piece of steel
FIGURE 5.3 4. Ensure that the lower shoe won’t interfere
with braces, locks, or other features of
OUTRIGGER
different manufacturer’s frames
BRACKET
5. Hook plate is wrapped around vertical
member and welded on three sides only

Other features to look for are • use manufactured platform components which
do not project beyond the support
• manufacturer’s plate showing name and model
• use a portable ladder where platform elevations
number
are less than 9 metres (30 feet) in height
• brackets that are hot-dipped galvanized (Figure 5.5)
• manufacturer’s literature stating that the bracket • use a stand-off vertical ladder with a cage if the
has been designed and fabricated to meet scaffold is above 3 metres (10 feet).
loading requirements specified in the Ontario
Ladder rails should extend at least 900 mm (3 feet)
regulations and applicable CSA standards.
above the platform level to facilitate getting on and
off. Injuries are often connected with stepping on and
5.3 Ladders stepping off the ladder at the platform level.

Whether built into frames, attached as a separate Rest stations should be decked in on scaffold
component, or portable, ladders are an important towers at intervals no greater than every 9 metres
means of access to scaffold platforms. We would (30 feet). Climbing is strenuous work and accidents
substantially reduce the number of falls connected happen more frequently when climbers suffer from
with climbing up and down scaffolds if workers always overexertion.
used adequate and properly erected ladders.
Unfortunately, suitable ladders are not often provided
or used. 5.4 Guardrails
A major problem with ladders built into the frame is Failing to use guardrails is one of the main reasons
that planks sometimes stick out so far that it’s difficult for falls from scaffold platforms. Manufacturers of
to get from the ladder to the platform. This situation frame scaffolds have guardrail components which
results in many injuries but can be overcome in one can be attached to the scaffold frames. These have
posts that sit directly onto the connector pins and to
of three ways:
which the rails are attached using wing nuts.

15
Tube-and-clamp end guardrails FIGURE 5.4
for outrigger platform
MASONRY SCAFFOLD with
OUTRIGGER BRACKETS

Cube of masonry
laid directly over
frame

Outrigger
bracket

Tie-in

Note:
Ladder and
horizontal
bracing
omitted
for clarity

16
NOTE:
Ladder rails should
extend at least 1 m
(3 ft) above platform

FIGURE 5.5

Where manufactured guardrails are not available, • a toeboard at least 89 mm (3-1/2") high at the
guardrails can be constructed from lumber platform level if made from wood, and
(Figure 5.6) or tube-and-clamp components. • posts no more than 2.4 metres (8 feet) apart if
made from wood. Guardrail posts can be farther
Tube-and-clamp guardrails may be constructed from
apart if the materials used are adequate to support
standard aluminum scaffold tubing using parallel
the loads specified.
clamps to attach the vertical posts to each frame leg
(Figure 5.6). Top rails and mid-rails should be Guardrails should be designed to resist the forces
attached to the vertical posts using right-angle specified in the Construction Regulation.
clamps. Connections in these rails should be made
with end-to-end clamps. Frequently, guardrails must be removed to allow
material to be placed on the scaffold platform.
Most manufacturers have toeboard clips to fasten Workers must protect themselves from falling by
toeboards quickly and easily to standard tubular using a fall-arrest system properly worn, used, and
posts on either frames or guardrail posts. tied off. The fall-arrest system should be worn while
the worker is removing the guardrail, receiving the
A guardrail should consist of:
material, and replacing the guardrail. Too often,
• a top rail about 1 metre (40 inches) above guardrails are removed to receive materials and then
the platform not replaced. Many workers have fallen because
• a mid-rail about halfway between the platform and other workers have left unguarded openings on scaf-
the top rail fold platforms.

17
2" x 4" Top Rail
(wide edge is horizontal)

2" x 4" Mid-Rail


(positioned inside post)

1" x 6" Toeboard


(positioned
inside post)

2" x 4" posts securely


nailed to flat bar u-clips
at 2 locations

Wooden guardrail system

Swivel clamps on
side of guardrail
Right-angle clamps
on corners of
guardrail

Tube-and-clamp
guardrail system
Posts fastened to frame
with parallel clamps

FIGURE 5.6
GUARDRAILS

18
6 ERECTING and DISMANTLING SCAFFOLDS

6.1 General Scaffolds erected on any type of soil should


have a mudsill. At minimum the mudsill should be a
Scaffolds should always be erected under the
48 mm x 248 mm (2" x 10") plank (full size) and
supervision of a competent worker. Although scaffold
should be continuous under at least two consecutive
systems vary between manufacturers, certain
supports. The scaffold feet should rest centrally
fundamental requirements are common to all scaffold
on the mudsill and the sill should, where possible,
systems. Frame scaffolds over 15 metres (50 feet)
project at least 300 mm (1 foot) beyond the scaffold
in height, and tube-and-clamp and systems scaffolds
foot at the ends. Mudsills may be placed either along
over 10 metres (33 feet), must be designed by a
the length or across the width of the frames.
professional engineer. Supervisors must ensure
that the scaffolds are constructed in accordance with Do not use blocking or packing such as bricks,
that design. short pieces of lumber, or other scrap materials
either under scaffold feet or under mudsills
(Figure 6.2). If the scaffold is subjected to heavy
6.1.1 Foundations and Support Surfaces loading, bricks or blocks can break. Vibration can
Scaffolds must be erected on surfaces that can cause blocking to move or shift, leaving a scaffold
adequately support all loads applied by the scaffold. leg unsupported. In such conditions the scaffold can
To support scaffolds, backfilled soils must be well topple when heavy loads are applied.
compacted and levelled. Mud and soft soil should be
Take particular care when erecting scaffolds on
replaced with compacted gravel or crushed stone.
frozen ground. Thawing soil is often water-soaked,
Embankments that appear unstable or susceptible to
resulting in considerable loss of bearing capacity. You
erosion by rain must be contained. Otherwise, the
must take thawing into account when tarps or other
scaffold must be set far enough back to avoid
covers will be placed around a scaffold and the
settlement or failure of the embankment.
enclosure will be heated.
Where mudsills must be placed on sloping ground,
levelling the area should be done, wherever possible,
by excavating rather than backfilling (Figure 6.1).

In some cases it may be necessary to use half-


frames to accommodate grade changes. For these
situations the side bracing is usually provided by
using tube-and-clamp components.

Floors are usually adequate to support scaffold loads FIGURE 6.1


of workers, tools, and light materials. As loads MUDSILL
become greater, floors, especially the older wooden
on SLOPING
types, should be examined to ensure that they will
support the anticipated loads. In some cases, shoring
GROUND
below the floor and directly under the scaffold legs
may be necessary. In other situations, you may need
sills that span the floor support structure.

19
FIGURE 6.2
IMPROPER SUPPORT

Mudsills should always be used


under base plates when scaffold
is placed on soil.

Vibration from activity on the scaffold can knock


the legs off makeshift supports. Concrete blocks
may not provide sufficient support for a heavily
loaded scaffold.

If the scaffold is inside a building, preparing the • levelling and compacting loose backfill
foundation may mean • stabilizing or protecting embankments
• clearing away debris or construction materials and • providing protection against erosion from rain
equipment stored in the way or thawing
• using sills or placing shoring under old wooden • using mudsills.
floors.
Foundation preparation is important with any
For a scaffold on the outside of a building, preparing scaffold. It is especially important when scaffolds will
the foundation may include be heavily loaded, as in masonry work. Differential
• replacing mud and soft ground with gravel or settlement may damage scaffold components even
crushed stone if no serious incident or collapse occurs.

20
6.1.2 Inspection factors. Generally, bearing capacity will be increased
by running sills longitudinally because the sill has
Scaffold materials should be inspected before use for
more contact with the ground.
• damage to structural components
• damage to hooks on manufactured platforms
6.1.5 Plumb
• splits, knots, and dry rot in planks
When the first tier of scaffold has been erected it
• delamination in laminated veneer lumber planks
should be checked for plumb, alignment, and level.
• presence of all necessary components for the job Where necessary, adjustments can be made using
• compatibility of components. the screw jacks.

Structural components which are bent, damaged, Settlement or slight variations in the fit of the com-
or severely rusted should not be used. Similarly, ponents may require additional adjustments as tiers
platforms with damaged hooks should not be used are added to the scaffold tower. Braces should fit
until properly repaired. Planks showing damage easily if the scaffold tower is level. If braces do not fit
should be discarded and removed from the site so easily it is an indication that the scaffold is out of
that they cannot be used for platform material. plumb or out of alignment.

6.1.3 Location 6.1.6 Hoisting Materials


Before erecting a scaffold, check the location for Where scaffolds will be more than three frames high,
• ground conditions a well wheel or “gin” wheel and a hoist arm or davit
will make the hoisting of materials easier during
• overhead wires
erection (Figure 6.3).
• obstructions
While materials can be pulled up by rope without
• variation in surface elevation
these devices, the well wheel and hoist arm allow the
• tie-in locations and methods. hoisting to be done by workers on the ground. This is
much safer and eliminates the risk of workers falling
Checking the location thoroughly beforehand will
from the scaffold platform as they pull materials up by
eliminate many of the problems that develop during
rope. Loads lifted by a well wheel should normally
erection and will allow erection to proceed smoothly,
be no more than 50 kg (100 lb.) unless special
efficiently, and safely.
structural provisions are made.

The use of forklifts or other mechanical means


6.1.4 Base Plates of hoisting scaffold materials has become more
Base plates and adjustable screw jacks should be common particularly in masonry applications. The
used whether the scaffold is outside on rough ground use of this type of equipment greatly reduces the
or indoors on a smooth level surface. Base plates potential for overexertion injuries due to lifting and
should be centred on the width of the sill and nailed pulling. However, extra precaution must be taken
securely after the first tier has been erected. Sills may to prevent powerline contact and other potential
run either across the width or along the length of the hazards such as overloading.
scaffold depending on grade conditions and other

21
FIGURE 6.3
WELL WHEEL and DAVIT

22
6.1.7 Tie-ins In all cases ensure that procedures comply with the
regulations. You must use engineered design and
Scaffolds must be tied in to a structure or otherwise
procedures when required, and competent workers
stabilized—in accordance with manufacturer’s
must review the installed scaffold before use. Pay
instructions and the Construction Regulation—as
special care and attention to anchorages.
erection progresses. Leaving such items as tie-ins or
positive connections until the scaffold is completely A competent person must give adequate oral and
erected will not save time if it results in an accident or written instructions to all workers using fall protection
injury. Moreover, in most jurisdictions it is prohibited. systems. Like all scaffolds, this equipment must be
For further information on tie-in requirements see used under the supervision of a competent person.
Section 7.6.

6.2 ERECTING FRAME SCAFFOLDS


6.1.8 Fall Protection in Scaffold Erection
Frame scaffolds are the most common types of
Providing practical fall protection for workers erecting scaffolds used in Ontario. Too often they are erected
and dismantling scaffold and shoring has been by people who are inexperienced and do not know or
challenging for the construction industry. recognize the potential hazards. Erectors must be
aware of the potential dangers not only to themselves
In Ontario, revised fall protection requirements
but also to the end user of the scaffold.
(Section 26 of the Construction Regulation) were
introduced in June 2000 and require that workers
erecting, using, or dismantling scaffolds must 6.2.1 Fittings and Accessories
be protected from falling by using guardrails,
travel restraint, fall-restricting systems, or fall-arrest People are sometimes reluctant to install all the parts,
systems. fittings, and accessories required for a properly built
frame scaffold. This poor practice continues because
For fall protection while workers are using a scaffold parts are frequently lost or otherwise not available
as a work platform, the safest solution is guardrails, at the site. Other times, it is due to haste, lack of
provided they can be erected safely. Workers involved training, or carelessness.
in erecting or dismantling scaffolds face a different
challenge. Erecting guardrails and using fall-arrest Always use base plates with adjustable screw jacks.
equipment requires specialized procedures since They allow for minor adjustments to keep the scaffold
normally there is nothing above the erector on which plumb and level. Base plates usually have holes so
to anchor the fall protection system. you can nail them to mudsills. This is good practice
and should be done as soon as the first tier is erected
Recognizing that development and innovation and plumbed with base plates centred on the sills.
continues in this field, we are offering a sampling of
fall protection techniques (fall prevention and fall- You must brace in the vertical plane on both sides of
arrest) in Appendix A and B. These generic examples every frame. Bracing in the horizontal plane should
allow individual employers, trade groups, unions, and be done at the joint of every third tier of frames
others to adapt the guidelines to their site-specific starting with the first tier. Horizontal bracing should
needs and to trigger further development. Appendix B coincide with the point at which the scaffold is tied to
is aimed specifically at shoring frames, but the the building. Horizontal bracing is needed to maintain
concepts can be used for frame scaffold erection. scaffold stability and full load-carrying capacity. The
use of horizontal bracing on the first tier helps
to square up the scaffold before nailing base plates
to mudsills.

23
Every scaffold manufacturer provides coupling 6.2.2 Braces
devices to connect scaffold frames together vertically.
Once you have fitted the adjustable base plates
Figure 6.4 illustrates various types. Erectors often
on the frames you must then attach the braces for
ignore these devices, believing that the bearing
each tower span. The braces should slide into place
weight of the scaffold and its load will keep the frame
easily. If force is required, either the braces are bent
above firmly connected to the frame below. This will
or damaged or the frames are out of plumb
probably hold true until the scaffold moves or sways.
or alignment.
Then the joint may pull apart, causing a scaffold
collapse. Coupling devices should always be used Secure braces at each end. The erection crew must
and installed properly on every leg of the scaffold, at ensure that self-locking devices move freely and have
every joint, as assembly proceeds. fallen into place. Rust or slight damage can prevent
some of these devices from working properly and
they then require force to secure them in position.
Maintain moving parts in good condition to prevent
this situation from developing.

Pig Thumb Banana


tail screw clip
6.2.3 Platform Erection
Ensure that parts and fittings are in place and secure
before placing platform components on a scaffold tier.

When proceeding with the next tier, workers should


use platform sections or planks from the previous tier,
leaving behind either one platform section or two
FIGURE 6.4 planks. While this requires more material it speeds
up erection because workers have platforms to stand
COUPLING DEVICES on when erecting or dismantling the platform above.
At heights above 3 metres (10 feet), all workers
involved in the erection or dismantling of scaffolds
If wheels or castors are used they should be securely
must be protected by a guardrail or by other means
attached to the scaffold and be equipped with brakes.
of fall protection.
Failure to attach wheels or castors properly to the
frame has been the cause of many serious Frequently, low scaffolds one or two frames in height
accidents and fatalities involving rolling scaffolds. are not fully decked in. This can lead to accidents
Wheels or castors must have brakes which are well and serious injury. Many lost-time injuries occur
maintained and easily applied. each year in Ontario because platforms are
inadequately decked.
Scaffolds should always have guardrails.
Unfortunately, people frequently leave them out,
especially on scaffolds of low to moderate height. 6.2.4 Ladders
Workers have been seriously injured as a result.
Where frames are not equipped with ladder rungs,
ladders should be installed as the erection of each
tier proceeds. Injuries involving scaffolds frequently
occur when workers are climbing up or down the

24
scaffold. Providing proper ladders will help prevent previous level and can provide a protected work
such injuries. See Section 5.3 for more information platform for the worker to install the next level of
on ladders. components. Each type of guardrail has a unique
design and system of attachment to the scaffold.

6.2.5 Guardrails Figure 6.5 shows one example of an “advanced


guardrail” with the platform fully enclosed. The
Guardrails must be installed at each working level as guardrail is positioned on a bracket which is mounted
the scaffold is erected and also at the top level of the from below on the outside of the scaffold, and does
scaffold. This applies to all scaffolds regardless not interfere with the placement of subsequent
of height. While most jurisdictions do not require frames and braces. As the scaffold goes up the
guardrails until scaffolds are 3 metres (10 feet) high, guardrail may be raised as well, or left in position
a considerable number of severe injuries and even to form the permanent guardrail. The erector must
fatalities are due to falls from lower scaffolds. use another fall protection method—permanent
Some manufacturers have recently introduced guardrails or a full body harness with a lanyard
temporary guardrails workers can use when erecting attached to the scaffold—while moving either the
scaffolds. A guardrail can be set in position from the platforms or the temporary guardrail.

Bracket
mounted
on frame
to accept
guardrail

FIGURE 6.5
ADVANCED TEMPORARY GUARDRAIL

25
6.3 ERECTING TUBE-and-CLAMP
SCAFFOLDS The most important difference between the two is the
additional degree of skill and knowledge necessary to
Most of the general rules that apply to frame erect tube-and-clamp scaffolds safely and efficiently.
scaffolding also apply to tube-and-clamp scaffolding. Tube-and-clamp scaffolds should not be erected
The requirements for mudsills, platforms, and by an unskilled or inexperienced crew. Basic
guardrails are exactly the same for both types. terms are identified in Figure 6.6.

Base

Standard

Transoms
Ledger

Bracing

FIGURE 6.6
ERECTION of TUBE-and-CLAMP SCAFFOLD

26
6.3.1 General Requirements Before using clamps, check them carefully for
damage to wedges or threads on bolts and distortion
Tube-and-clamp scaffolds are erected plumb and
of the clamp body.
level like frame scaffolds but the erection system is
quite different. The scaffold must start with a set of
ledgers and transoms immediately above the base 6.3.3 Spacing of Standards
plates. This is necessary to hold the base plates in
their proper position. The typical erection sequence The spacing of standards depends on the load-
for a simple tower is shown in Figure 6.6. Each carrying requirements of the scaffold. Wherever
vertical and horizontal member should be checked possible, tube-and-clamp scaffolding should have
with a spirit level as erection proceeds. bay and elevation spacing of about 2 metres (6'-6")
longitudinally and vertically. This allows for the front
sway bracing to be located at approximately 45° to
6.3.2 Materials and Components the horizontal. It also facilitates the use of 5-metre
(16-foot) planks with adequate overhang. The
The tubing normally used for tube-and-clamp
width of these platforms can vary but is usually
scaffolding in Ontario is schedule 40, 1.9” OD
approximately 1 metre (3 feet). This spacing allows
(11/ 2 ID) aluminum pipe manufactured of either
the aluminum tubing specified earlier to carry normal
6061 or 6063 alloys.
construction loads adequately. An advantage of
Clamps are usually made of steel and have a variety tube-and-clamp scaffolding is that the platform height
of configurations. Depending on the manufacturer, can be easily adjusted to the most appropriate level
clamps can be fastened using wedges, bolts, or other for the work being done.
methods. The following types are used.

• Right-Angle Clamp—a clamp used for connect- 6.3.4 Ledgers and Transoms
ing tubes at right angles. They maintain the right-
Ledgers should be connected to standards using
angled orientation providing rigidity to the structure.
right-angle clamps. These clamps maintain a rigid
• End-to-End Clamp—an externally applied clamp 90° angle between members.
to connect two tubes end-to-end.
Transoms should be placed above the ledgers and
• Swivel Clamp—a clamp used to connect two
both should be maintained in a horizontal position
tubes when right-angle clamps cannot be used.
by levelling with a spirit level. Transoms may be
They usually connect bracing.
connected to either standards or ledgers by using
• Parallel Clamp—a clamp used for lap jointing right-angle clamps.
two tubes together. It can be used to connect
short guardrail posts to the standards or legs of
frame scaffolds. 6.3.5 Joints in Standards and Ledgers
• Concrete Tie Clamp—a clamp used to connect Joints in standards and ledgers should be made with
a tube to concrete or other surfaces using a end-to-end clamps. These joints should be as close
bolt or concrete anchor. to the node points as the clamp arrangements will
allow. Joints in vertically-adjacent ledgers should not
These and other devices are shown in Figure 6.8
occur in the same bay but should be staggered to
depicting a typical tube-and-clamp scaffold.
provide rigidity.

27
A node point is the point at which the ledger-to- 6.3.8 Bracing
standard, transom-to-standard, and bracing-to-
Internal bracing (Figure 6.8) is connected standard-
standard connections come together. An example
to-standard using swivel clamps. It should be
of a node point is shown in Figure 4.7 and below.
clamped as close to the node as possible. Internal
bracing should normally be placed at every third
Node point standard. The location should coincide with tie-in
points. You should also install bracing for tube-and-
clamp scaffolding as erection progresses.

Face sway bracing should be installed to the full


height of the scaffold. It may be located in a single
bay or extend across several bays (Figure 6.7).
Where the bracing is located in single bays it should
be in the end bays and at least in every sixth bay
longitudinally. In practice, it becomes difficult to get
bracing close enough to the node points if it extends
6.3.6 Intermediate Transoms more than four bays in width (see ends of bracing
in Figure 6.7).
You should install intermediate transoms when the
scaffold will be supporting heavy loads. You can also
use them to avoid lapping planks and the tripping
hazard that comes with it.

6.3.7 Tie-ins
Tie-ins are required with tube-and-clamp scaffolding.
They should be located at every second node
vertically and every third standard horizontally. The
tie-in tube should be connected to both standards or
both ledgers, near the standard to provide rigidity.
Connections should be made with right-angle
clamps. Tie-ins should be capable of withstanding
both tension (pull) and compression (push) forces
(Figure 6.8).

FIGURE 6.7
TUBE-and-CLAMP
BRACING

28
6.3.9 Drawings and Inspections Where the platform will be more than 10 metres
(33 feet) high or where unusual structures such as
We strongly recommend that a sketch or drawing be
cantilevered platforms are involved, a professional
prepared before erecting tube-and-clamp scaffolding.
engineer must design the scaffold. A professional
It is important that you place the standard to accom-
engineer or a competent worker must inspect the
modate the anticipated loads adequately. Bracing
scaffold before it is used to ensure that it is erected
must also be designed to provide stability and to
in accordance with the design drawings.
transfer horizontal loads to tie-in points.

Right-angle Swivel Concrete tie End-to-end Base


clamp clamp clamp clamp plate

Intermediate transoms Top rail, mid-rail and toeboard


fixed with right-angle fixed to standards
clamps allow planks to
meet without overlap
Maximum 6'-6"

Maximum
6'-6"
Reveal Push-
tie pull
tie
End-to-end
clamps

Note: Face
End-to-end sway
joints in bracing
ledgers should
be close to Internal
standards and bracing Ledgers fixed to standards with
2" x 10" right-angle clamps – maximum
in staggered Timber
bays. vertical spacing 6'-6".
sills

FIGURE 6.8
COMPLETED TUBE-and-CLAMP SCAFFOLD

29
6.4 ERECTION of SYSTEMS Starter Collars are short standards with one set
SCAFFOLDS of system rings or rosettes attached. They are
convenient to use because they allow one person
Erection of systems scaffold is very similar to that to put the first set of transoms and ledgers in place
of tube-and-clamp scaffold. The requirements for easily (Figure 6.10).
mudsills, platforms, and guardrails are the same as
is the requirement for being built level and plumb. The Ledgers or Runners for each system are available in
main differences are the method of connecting varying lengths and have built-in connection devices
individual members together and the fact that for connecting to the standards. The connection is
all the members are of a fixed length. As with secured by wedging, bolting, or by other methods.
tube-and-clamp scaffolds, all systems scaffolds
Transoms or Bearers are made wide enough
above 10 metres (33 feet) must be designed by a
for four or five planks. They normally have end
professional engineer.
connections similar to those of ledgers and connect
directly to the standard. Normally transoms have a lip
6.4.1 Components or groove—particular to the individual manufacturer
—designed to accommodate the platform.
Standards come in a variety of lengths and have a
variety of built-in connection points at equal distances Braces are made in set lengths to fit the scaffold
along their length. These connectors are normally being constructed, with connections at both ends to
between 450 and 500 mm (18 and 21 inches) apart fit directly onto the connection point on the standard.
depending on the manufacturer. Typical connections
Platform boards (also called staging) come in a
are shown in Figure 6.9, although others are
variety of lengths and widths. They fit directly into
available. An end-to-end connection, normally a
the transoms and can be secured to prevent wind
spigot, is formed at one end to facilitate extension of
uplift. To facilitate climbing, some platforms have trap
the standard.
doors with built-in drop-down ladders.

FIGURE 6.9
TYPICAL SYSTEMS
SCAFFOLD
CONNECTORS

30
6.4.2 Erection Procedure second level ledgers and transoms as well as
the deck.
The foundation for systems scaffolds should be
prepared in the same way as other types of scaf- You must install ledger bracing at the ends of all
folding, ensuring a firm level base, and using system scaffolds and at intervals according to the
mudsills, base plates, and adjustable screw jacks. manufacturers’ recommendations. Each brace will
be the correct length for the span being braced and
The base plates should be laid out in what you
should be connected to the attachment point on
estimate is the correct location. We recommend
the standard.
starter collars since they allow scaffolds to be laid
out level and square. You must install face or sway bracing according to
manufacturers’ instructions. Again, attachment points
The first level of transoms and ledgers should be
are set on the standards, and the braces come in
placed on the starter collars and be levelled using the
specific lengths for the span of the scaffold being
screw jacks. When the scaffold is square and level
constructed. Normally, every third bay is braced
you should tighten the connections and nail the base
for sway.
plates to the mudsills.
Figure 6.10 outlines the typical erection procedure
At this point set up an erection platform for installing
for systems scaffold.
the standards for the next lift. You now install the

Level
Starter collar
Standards
Mud Base Platform
sill plate

Ledger
Transom

1. Levelling runners 2. Work platforms 3. Installing corner


and bearers posts (standards)

Transom
Ledger

Face
bracing

Ledger
Bracing

4. Second set of bearers 5. Ledger and 6. Installing the second


and runners (transoms face bracing lift decking
and ledgers)
FIGURE 6.10
ERECTION SEQUENCE of TYPICAL SYSTEMS SCAFFOLD

31
6.4.3 Tie-ins 6.5 DISMANTLING
Systems scaffolds must be tied in to structures using Dismantling frame scaffolds is essentially erection in
the 3-to-1 rule as with other scaffolds. Some manu- reverse. Each tier should be completely dismantled
facturers have special adjustable ties which connect and the material lowered to the ground before begin-
directly into the standards, while others use a tube- ning to dismantle the next tier.
and-clamp method to tie in to the structure. Anchors
If platform sections or planks have been left at each
attached to the structure are the same as in frame or
level during erection, as suggested above, it should
tube-and-clamp scaffolds.
be relatively easy to lower platform materials from
above and deck in the current working platform
completely. Extra platform material can be lowered to
6.4.4 Guardrails
the ground. Using this procedure, workers will be
Generally, guardrails are installed at all working operating most of the time from a fully decked-in
levels. These guardrail components come in modular platform. This makes for easier removal of braces
lengths and are made from lighter materials than the and frames.
ledgers. They attach directly to the connection points
on the standards. Dismantled materials should be lowered using a well
wheel and hoist arm or by mechanical means.
Certain manufacturers have developed advanced Dropping materials not only causes damage and
guardrail systems that can be installed for a level waste, but also endangers workers below—and is
above the erector, providing fall protection for the illegal in most jurisdictions.
worker accessing the next level.
When scaffolds have been in the same location for a
The example shown in Figure 6.11 consists of a “T” long time, pins and other components frequently rust,
shaped temporary guardrail which is attached to the braces become bent, and materials such as mortar or
permanent guardrails on the level underneath. When paint often build up on the scaffold parts. All of these
mounted, it extends the required distance past the can prevent components from separating easily.
deck above to form a guardrail. The erector can then Removing jammed or rusted scaffold components
work safely without being tied off and install the next can be very hazardous. Tugging or pulling on stuck
level of standards, ledgers, and transoms. components can cause you to lose your balance and
fall. Workers should wear a full body harness and
lanyard tied off to a scaffold frame or lifeline before
attempting to loosen stuck or jammed parts.

Dismantling tube-and-clamp and systems scaffolding


must proceed in reverse order to erection. Each
tier should be completely dismantled as far as
connections will allow before you begin dismantling
the lower tier. You must dismantle them this way
because the bracing for tube-and-clamp scaffold is
not located in each bay as it is for frame scaffolding.
The span or spans with front sway bracing should
be the last to be dismantled on each tier.

FIGURE 6.11
One style of advanced guardrail system
Courtesy Layher Inc.

32
7 SCAFFOLD STABILITY

7.1 Three-to-One Rule 7.2 Outrigger Stabilizers


The ratio of height to least lateral dimension must Scaffold manufacturers usually make outrigger
not exceed 3 to 1 unless the scaffold is stabilizers that can be attached to their equipment
(Figure 7.1).
• tied to a structure, as discussed in Section 7.6
• equipped with outrigger stabilizers (Figure 7.1) With devices of this type, ensure that the outrigger is
to maintain the ratio of 3 to 1 adjusted so that vibration or dynamic loads on the
platform will not move the stabilizer. Where stabilizers
• equipped with suitable guy wires.
with castors are used the castors must rest firmly on
a solid surface, with the brakes applied, and with the
stabilizer secured in the extended position before
workers use the platform (Figure 7.2). Many of these
stabilizers fold up to allow movement through smaller
openings and around obstructions (Figure 7.2).
FIGURE 7.1
OUTRIGGER STABILIZERS

Rolling scaffold with Adjustable


outrigger stabilizers outrigger stabilizers

33
FIGURE 7.2
OUTRIGGER STABILIZERS

Outrigger stabilizers
with castors

Horizontal brace
for stabilizer
Outrigger stabilizers
folded up

7.3 Limitations to the Three-to-One Rule Do not use braces with kinks, bends, or
deformations. Such damage can weaken them
The 3-to-1 rule applies only to the extent that
significantly. The ends of braces are frequently
outriggers are extended symmetrically about the
damaged by dropping them on concrete or other hard
scaffold tower. If the outriggers are extended only on
surfaces during dismantling. Ends of braces are also
one side, you prevent toppling only in that direction.
frequently bent by forcing them onto the locking pin
during erection. Constant bending can cause the
ends to crack. You should inspect them before use
7.4 Damage
and discard braces with cracked ends. You should
Most bracing systems for tubular frame scaffolds maintain the locking device onto which the brace fits
are manufactured from light materials and are in good condition. It should move freely to accept
easily damaged. and release the brace. Common securing devices
are shown in Figure 7.3.

34
FIGURE 7.3
SECURING DEVICES for FRAME SCAFFOLD BRACES

7.5 Installation Problems and Symptoms because they bend when they are not kept close
to proper alignment during installation and removal.
Ensure that bracing is secured in place. Otherwise,
scaffold movement can dislodge the braces and If a brace does not easily drop onto pins something is
reduce the stability of the scaffold. These devices wrong. The brace may simply be bent and should be
must secure the braces in place but they must discarded. Often, however, it means the scaffold is
operate freely so that it is easy to erect and dismantle twisted and out of plumb. Braces should not be forced
the scaffold. Many times a worker has lost balance or hammered onto the pin. The condition causing this
and fallen when trying to release a jammed or rusted difficulty should be corrected so that the brace slides
drop hook while dismantling a scaffold. onto the pin easily. Adjusting screw jacks slightly
will often solve this problem. However, you need
You should completely deck platforms used to install
to take care to ensure the scaffold is not adjusted
bracing. Trying to work from a platform one or two
out of plumb.
planks wide often results in a fall. In addition, it leads
to greater damage to the ends of scaffold braces

35
7.6 Tie-in Requirements
Scaffolds which exceed the 3-to-1 rule of height to Wind loads can affect tie-ins and bracing. These
least lateral dimension must be tied in to a building or loads vary not only with speed but also with the
structure. Tie-ins should be applied at every third exposure of the location and the height and shape of
frame vertically and every second frame horizontally structures where the scaffold is erected. In addition,
for tubular frame scaffolds. Tie-ins for tube-and-clamp scaffolds which are going to be enclosed for winter
scaffolds should be applied at every second node construction or sandblasting will be subjected to
vertically and every third standard horizontally. significantly greater wind loads. If severe winds
are expected it is recommended that a professional
These tie-ins must be capable of sustaining lateral
engineer be consulted for tie-in requirements
loads in both tension (pull) and compression (push).
Examples are shown in Figure 7.4.

FIGURE 7.4
TYPICAL SCAFFOLD TIE-INS

36
8 PLATFORMS

Before you select the platform material, you need The advantage of aluminum/plywood platform
to assess the weight of the workers, tools, and panels is that they are light and durable. Worn-out
materials to be supported. You must also take into plywood can easily be replaced. However, they are
consideration the spans being used in the scaffold. expensive and the hooks on most models can be
damaged if dropped from the scaffold repeatedly
during dismantling. Check the platform hooks and
8.1 Typical Loads and Requirements fastening hardware regularly for looseness, cracking,
Minimum platform capacities vary from jurisdiction and distortion. When used outdoors, these platforms
to jurisdiction. In Ontario, the minimum platform should be secured to the scaffold frames using wind
capacity is a uniformly distributed load of 2.4 kn / m2 locks. Otherwise, when left unloaded, they can be
(50 lb./sq. ft.) for construction-related work. This blown off the scaffold by strong winds.
is usually sufficient for workers, their tools and
equipment, as well as a moderate amount of light
materials. It is not sufficient for heavy loads such
as those used in masonry construction.

For masonry construction where the scaffold will


support large pallets of concrete blocks, minimum
capacity should be at least a uniformly distributed
load of 7.2 kn / m2 (150 lb. / sq. ft.). This means that
scaffolds with spans of 2.1 metres (7 feet) should be
at least double-planked. Aluminum/plywood platforms
should also have a layer of scaffold planks on top.

For weights of construction materials and allowable


load-carrying capacities of planks at various spans, Locking device
consult Table 8.1 and Table 9.1.

FIGURE 8.1
8.2 Aluminum/Plywood Platform Panels
SECURING ALUMINUM/PLYWOOD
Most manufacturers make their heavy-duty platforms
capable of supporting a uniformly distributed load
PLATFORMS
of 3.6 kn / m 2 (75 lb./sq. ft.) together with a
concentrated load of 227 kg (500 lb.) spread over an
area near the centre of the span. The load-carrying
8.3 Laminated Veneer Lumber
capacity of these platforms varies to some extent. This material is really a special type of exterior
plywood with laminations oriented longitudinally
It is recommended that the rated load-carrying rather than in two directions. The wood is usually
capacity be obtained from the supplier and marked spruce or Douglas fir, although other structural
on the platform panel if the manufacturer has not species can be used. The material is manufactured
provided such information on the equipment already. in large sheets of various thicknesses that can be
The light-duty platforms available with much less sawn to the sizes required.
capacity are not suitable for construction.

37
The use of laminated veneer lumber as a scaffold It is recommended that planks should meet or exceed
platform material is increasing. The strength varies the requirements for select structural grades of the
from manufacturer to manufacturer depending on species group used, which should be either spruce-
method of fabrication and species of wood used. pine-fir (SPF) or Douglas fir. Although the SPF group
Users of the material should ask suppliers to furnish has less strength, it is usually lighter and therefore
rated working loads for the scaffold spans on which easier to handle than Douglas fir. Table 8.1 provides
the lumber will be used. In general, the material will maximum loads based on unit stresses from
be stronger than sawn lumber scaffold planks of Canadian Standards Association Standard
similar size and species. The strength is also more 086.1-1994 “Engineering Design in Wood” for
uniform than sawn lumber. Number 1 and select structural SPF plank platforms.
Sawn lumber planks must be stamped by the
Like all lumber and plywood, laminated veneer manufacturer identifying them as scaffold planks.
lumber is subject to deterioration from weathering
and rot. It must therefore be inspected periodically. Since wood planks deteriorate they must be regraded
Sections showing delamination, cracks, serious and culled periodically. For most situations, visual
damage to several layers of lamination, fungi, or grading is recommended. Scaffold planks must be
blisters should be discarded. inspected regularly because they deteriorate with
use and age, and are subject to damage. Figure 8.2
illustrates defects to look for when inspecting planks.
8.4 Sawn Lumber Planks Cull out planks with large knots in the edge, spike
knots, checks, wanes, worm holes, and steeply
Rough sawn planks 48 mm x 248 mm (2 inches by
sloping grain patterns. Planks with these defects
10 inches) or larger have been the standard scaffold
should not be used as scaffold material and should
platform material for many years. They are also the
be destroyed. Scaffold planks can also be weakened
least expensive of the common platform materials.
by dry rot. It is not easy to notice this condition in its
Dressed lumber should never be used for
early stages, especially if the exterior of the planks
scaffold platforms.
is weathered. Planks substantially infected with dry
The proper use of planks on a scaffold or other rot are usually lighter than sound planks of similar
work platform is governed by the Construction size and species. For this reason do not use planks
Regulation under Ontario’s Occupational Health which feel lighter than normal.
and Safety Act. The regulation specifies that wooden
planks used on a scaffold must
• be number 1 grade spruce
• bear a legible stamp or be permanently identified
as being number 1 grade spruce Worm Hole
• be at least 48 mm by 248 mm (1-7/8" x 9-3/4") Split

• be arranged so their span does not exceed


Sap Line
2.1 metres (7 feet)
• overhang their supports by no less than 150 mm Spike Knot
(6") and no more than 300 mm (12")
• be laid tightly side by side across the full width
of the scaffold at the working level Wane
• be cleated or otherwise secured against slipping Check
• be capable of carrying any load likely to be applied
FIGURE 8.2
and as a minimum be capable of carrying 2.4 kilo-
newtons per square metre (50lb./sq. ft). DEFECTS in LUMBER PLANKS

38
TABLE 8.1

39
8.5 Reinforcing Wood Planks 8.6 Securing Platforms to the Frame
Wood planks may be reinforced with metal nailer Be sure to secure platforms against sliding or
strips or plates. Research conducted by the movement. Workers frequently fall from platforms
Construction Safety Association of Ontario has indi- because they did not first secure the platform
cated that the strength of weaker planks may be materials. Aluminum/plywood combination platforms
increased considerably by this technique but it should have hooks that prevent longitudinal movement but
only be used to increase the strength of planks that will slide sideways on the scaffold unless the platform
are of the proper grade. Do not use this as a method is fully decked in.
of upgrading inferior grades for scaffold use.
Sawn lumber planks should be cleated on at least
The advantages of strengthening planks by this one end to prevent longitudinal movement (Figure 8.4).
method are two-fold: You can also prevent movement by wiring a plank
• planks are not as likely to be cut up or used (Figure 8.6). Unless you carefully apply it, the wire
for purposes other than scaffold planks can present a tripping hazard on the platform. Again,
the platform should be fully decked in to prevent
• you have additional assurance that poorer quality
sideways movement.
planks undetected in the grading process will not
break prematurely causing an accident.

WARNING: Nailer plates should not be placed


over the portion of the plank resting on the
scaffold support—unless cleats are used to
prevent the plank from sliding—since there is
no friction between the bearing surfaces.

Take care when handling planks reinforced in


this way since sharp edges can cut your hands.

FIGURE 8.4
PLANK CLEATED to
PREVENT SLIDING

If you have overlapping planks, the cleated end


should be resting on the scaffold support. Be aware
that the overlapped section presents a tripping
hazard (Figure 8.5).

FIGURE 8.3
PLANK REINFORCED
with NAILER PLATES

40
8.7 Wind Uplift aluminum/plywood panels to the scaffold. With some
types of platform panels you can do this with wire or
Wind can lift light platform materials from the scaffold
nails. Others have a sliding locking device (Figure 8.1).
if they are not secured. When you anticipate severe
These locking devices, however, can be easily
wind conditions or when you are using high scaffolds,
damaged and are often difficult to apply and release.
you should secure platform materials such as

Note:
Cleat only
one end of
each plank.

FIGURE 8.5
OVERLAPPING PLANKS
for MULTI-SPAN TOWERS

FIGURE 8.6
PLANKS WIRED to
PREVENT UPLIFT

41
9 PROPER USE of SCAFFOLDS

Much of this data sheet deals with the erection and We discussed ladder access in Section 5.3. The
dismantling of various types of scaffolds. Frequently, ladder must be properly erected with rails projecting
the end user of the scaffold is not the person who 1 metre (3 feet) above the platform of the scaffold.
erects it. In order for scaffolds to provide efficient You should clear debris, extension cords, and tools
access to work areas they must be used properly away from areas around the top and bottom of
by all workers. ladders. Store materials away from these locations.

Falls often happen when workers are getting on or off


9.1 Ladders and Climbing the ladder at the platform level. Both hands must be
free to hold guardrails or ladder rails. Do not carry
tools or materials by hand when climbing ladders.
Wear a tool belt and pouch and move material up or
down by rope.

You should always place portable straight ladders


with an adequate slope and secure them to the
scaffold structure (Figure 5.5).

Always use three-point contact (Figure 9.1) when


climbing ladders. This means using two hands and
one foot, or two feet and one hand, to maintain
contact with the ladder at all times. Always face the
ladder when climbing and always keep your centre
of gravity between the two ladder rails.

For more information, refer to Ladders (DS008)


available from the Construction Safety Association
of Ontario.

FIGURE 9.1
THREE-POINT CONTACT

NOTE: Vertical ladders above 3 metres in height


must have a safety cage beginning 2.2 metres
above the ground or platform. The cage is
omitted here for clarity.

42
9.2 Guardrails Missing or Removed a full body harness and lanyard (Figure 9.2). Many
There may be situations where scaffolds must be falls and serious injuries occur when workers use
used without guardrails. If the scaffold is more than platforms without guardrails. Any worker who
one frame or tier in height and there are no removes a guardrail for any reason must replace it
guardrails, personnel on the platform must tie off with when the task is completed.

FIGURE 9.2
FALL PROTECTION without GUARDRAILS

43
9.3 Standing on Objects Above settles 25 millimetres (1 inch) on one side can move
the Platform 150 millimetres (6 inches) at the top. Settlement puts
stress on braces, tie-ins, and frame joints. Place
People working from the platform should have both
heavy loads symmetrically on the platform to ensure
feet on the platform. Standing on a barrel, box,
that soil settlement is uniform.
stepladder, guardrail, or other object to gain extra
height is extremely dangerous and is illegal in most Finally, the scaffold structure must be capable of
jurisdictions, including Ontario. You should know the carrying the load that you will apply. Both light-duty
required height of the scaffold before erecting it, so and heavy-duty frames are available on the market.
you can obtain all the required material, including Do not use light-duty frames where you have heavy
half frames when necessary. loads. If you do not know the load-carrying capacity
of the frames, consult the manufacturer or supplier.
The load-carrying capacity of frames usually varies
9.4 Overloading with the height of the towers.
Overloading scaffold platforms in the masonry trades
is one of the most frequent violations of good scaffold
9.5 Debris on Scaffold Decks
practice. Placing full pallets of bricks or concrete
blocks on a single layer of 48 mm x 254 mm (2" x 10") Scaffold decks are small, narrow, and confined. Store
scaffold planks is, in most cases, overloading the tools and materials in an orderly fashion. Do not allow
platform. You may have to double plank decks to debris and waste materials to collect on the platform.
support pallets of masonry materials. Place the Put them in a container or remove them from the
pallets over the supports wherever possible. In platform immediately. Set up a plan for dealing with
addition, inspect planks used to support masonry waste materials. Simply throwing garbage off the
materials for damage or for deterioration regularly scaffold is extremely dangerous—don’t do it. If work
and often. Table 8.1 indicates the load-carrying on the scaffold is likely to result in debris falling, such
capacities of various grades of plank. Table 9.1 as in masonry work, then cordon off the scaffold to
lists the approximate weights of common building prevent workers from entering the area.
materials. Bear in mind overloading may affect
Waste pieces of lumber, pipe, wire, miscellaneous
stability as well as load-carrying capacity.
metal, and small tools are tripping hazards which
Differential settlement is often a problem when you have caused many serious falls from scaffolds.
apply heavy loads to scaffolds resting on uncompacted You need an orderly work area to work safely
soils. A scaffold tower 9 metres (30 feet) high that on scaffolds.

44
9.6 Exposure to Hazardous Material
Frequently scaffolds are erected for work involving wear properly fitting N100 filtering facepiece
hazardous substances: e.g., refurbishing structures respirators while dismantling. The scaffold should
painted with lead-based paint. If you are sandblasting then be washed before it is removed from the site.
painted surfaces, lead can accumulate on planks 4. Proper attention to personal hygiene is critical
and other components. Workers carrying out these when dealing with lead. Workers must be
activities must use appropriate personal protective instructed not to eat, drink, or smoke without
equipment. The scaffold worker who has to dismantle washing their hands. A sign or notice indicating
the scaffold can also be at risk from the lead residue. this should be conspicuous.
Under these conditions you should do the following
5. Workers should be provided with separate "clean"
1. Clean components that are likely to be contami- and "dirty" areas. Use the dirty area for changing
nated by lead dust, preferably by washing with a out of contaminated clothing and the clean area for
hose before dismantling begins. changing into uncontaminated clothing and eating.
2. Cap scaffolding frames and standards as the Washing facilities with clean water, soap, and
scaffold is being erected to prevent lead dust from individual towels should separate the two areas.
accumulating inside and being subsequently 6. Scaffold workers should inform their physician
released during the dismantling process. if they are exposed to lead. The physician may
3. If it is not possible to wash down the scaffolding want to monitor the level of lead in the person’s
before dismantling, then scaffold workers should blood to see if it is within normal parameters.

Workers wet asbestos as


covering is removed

Decontamination Trailer

ASBESTOS REMOVAL

45
TABLE 9.1

APPROXIMATE WEIGHTS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

Material Metric Unit Weight Imperial Unit Weight


Aluminum 2643 kg/cu m 165 lb/cu ft
Iron (Wrought) 7769 kg/cu m 485 lb/cu ft
Steel 7849 kg/cu m 490 lb/cu ft
Nickel 8730 kg/cu m 545 lb/cu ft

Glass (plate) 2563 kg/cu m 160 lb/cu ft

Lumber (dry)
Cedar (white) 352 kg/cu m 22 lb/cu ft
Douglas Fir 513 kg/cu m 32 lb/cu ft
Maple 689 kg/cu m 43 lb/cu ft
Red Oak 657 kg/cu m 41 lb/cu ft
Spruce 433 kg/cu m 27 lb/cu ft

Concrete 2403 kg/cu m 150 lb/cu ft

Granite 2803 kg/cu m 175 lb/cu ft


Brick 1922 – 2243 kg/cu m 120 – 140 lb/cu ft
Limestone, Marble 2643 kg/cu m 165 lb/cu ft
Sandstone 2082 kg/cu m 130 lb/cu ft

Steel Pipe (standard)


1" I.D. 2.49 kg/m 1.68 lb/ft
2" I.D. 5.43 kg/m 3.65 lb/ft
3" I.D. 11.27 kg/m 7.58 lb/ft
4" I.D. 16.05 kg/m 10.79 lb/ft

Copper Pipe
1" I.D. 2.71 kg/m 1.82 lb/ft
2" I.D. 6.28 kg/m 4.22 lb/ft
3" I.D. 13.02 kg/m 8.75 lb/ft
4" I.D. 19.20 kg/m 12.90 lb/ft

Aluminum Pipe (standard)


1" I.D. 0.86 kg/m 0.58 lb/ft
1-1/2" I.D. 2.40 kg/m 1.61 lb/ft
2" I.D. 3.08 kg/m 2.07 lb/ft
3" I.D. 4.57 kg/m 3.07 lb/ft

Drywall (1/2" thick) 10.25 kg/m2 2.10 lb/ft2

46
Appendix A

Fall Protection Guidelines

Masonry Scaffold
Erection Procedures

Masonry and Allied Trades


Labour-Management
Health & Safety Committee
Ministry Ministère
of du
Labour Travail

March 28, 2001

Mr. Rick Van Ihinger


Chairperson, Management
Masonry and Allied Trades
Labour-Management
Health & Safety Committee
86 Mack Avenue
Scarborough, Ontario
M9L 1M9

Dear Rick:

We acknowledge receipt of your revised submission on the Masonry Scaffold and Erection
Procedures as amended March 9th, 2001.

It is our understanding that the proposal presented in ‘good faith’ serves as a guideline only to
aid employers in fulfilling their responsibility to develop procedures for continuous fall
protection during scaffold erection. This will form the basis for an industry-wide guideline that
addresses industry-recommended safe work procedures and a method of complying with the
regulation during the erection and dismantling of scaffolds as of January 1, 2001 (see Section 26
of O. Reg. 213/91 [as amended by O. Reg. 145/00]).

The procedure in the revised submission appears to provide fall protection in accordance with
section 26 of Ontario Regulation 213/91 for Construction Projects.

Should you require any further assistance or clarification of the contents of this letter, please
don’t hesitate to call me at 416-326-7776.

Yours truly,

Mike Chappell
Provincial Coordinator (A)
Construction Health and Safety
Occupational Health and Safety Branch
400 University Avenue, 7th floor
Toronto, Ontario
M7A 1T7
Introduction

The fo l l owing procedures were developed in only be permitted when the wo rkers are protected
response to changes to Section 26 of the construc- at all times in accordance with Section 26 of
tion regulation (Ontario Regulation 213/91). The the construction regulation (O.Reg. 213/91).
information is presented in good faith as a guideline ➣ All horizontal lifelines must be designed by a
only to help employers fulfill their responsibility to professional engineer. A stamped drawing of the
develop procedures for continuous fall protection horizontal lifeline system must be available on
during scaffold erection. Research into the subject site at all times. This drawing may be a standard
is ongoing. As new developments arise they will be or custom design and must
incorporated in this document.
• s h ow the arrangement of the system
These procedures were developed for masonry walk- including the anchorage or fixed support
through scaffold, using 6-foot 6-inch frames at 7-foot system
centres and 2 x 10 wooden planks. The procedures • indicate the components used
are based on the following assumptions:
• state the number of workers that can be
• All scaffolds are assembled using good scaffold safely attached to the system
practices.
• set out detailed instructions for installation
• All scaffold materials are hoisted mechanically to or erection
the erector by a forklift or other lifting device,
• indicate all design loads for the system.
independent of the scaffold.

The employer must ensure the following conditions.


Before using any procedures in this document,
➣ All work must be carried out in accordance with c o n t ractors must satisfy themselves that the
the Occupational Health and Safety Act and procedure will suit their circumstances. A ny
Regulations for Construction Projects. deviation from the procedures outlined here is
entirely the contractor’s responsibility. Because of
➣ All scaffold components must be maintained
the inherent dangers in scaffold erection and
in good condition.
dismantling it is the employer’s responsibility
➣ All fall-arrest equipment—harnesses, lanyards, to take eve ry precaution reasonable in the
rope grabs, shock absorbers, vertical and self- circumstances for the protection of workers at
r e t racting life l i n e s — must meet Canadian all times.
Standards Association (CSA) standards.
➣ All fall-arrest equipment must be used in
January 2001
accordance with manufacturers’ instructions.
➣ The user must inspect all fall protection This document was developed and produced by the Masonry and
equipment daily. Any damaged equipment should Allied Trades Labour-Management Health and Safety Committee
and may be reproduced for wider distribution.
be taken out of service immediately.
➣ Access to the scaffold and movement of people To comment on the document, or to obtain information or training,
contact
between scaffold levels must be in accordance
with Section 70 of the construction regulation Construction Safety Association of Ontario
21 Voyager Court South
(O.Reg. 213/91). Where it is not feasible for Etobicoke, Ontario M9W 5M7
erectors to use a ladder while installing and (416) 674-2726 1-800-781-2726 fax (416) 674-8866
info@csao.org www.csao.org
dismantling scaffolds, climbing the frames will

2
Erection Tying to Adjacent Frame

This system is best suited to a relatively short run of Step 2


scaffold where the installation of a static line would Before accessing the second level, connect the 5-foot
take too long compared to the time actually required lanyard to the second frame from the end on the
to erect the lift. The system may also be used for a second level at the centre of the top chord. This may
single tower (two frames) where one frame is butted be done by either looping the lanyard over the planks
up against an existing wall and there is no danger of from underneath and then climbing the frame or by
the erector falling between the frame and the wall. climbing a ladder and attaching to the frame before
accessing the scaffold.
To ensure 100% fall protection, the system requires
t wo lanyards (5-foot and 6-foot) with shock - Step 3
absorbers.
Place the frame on the third level directly over the
tie-off point and install connector pins. Tie off to
the top of this frame with the 6-foot lanyard at the
Tie-off Point
midpoint of the frame.

Erector is tied
here with 5-foot
lanyard

Erection Procedure
Step 1
– Place first and second level of scaffold in position
and brace fully.
– Place planks on second level, but leave a gap
in the planks sufficient to allow a lanyard to be
attached to the frame at a point close to the
centre of the platform.
– To prevent bottoming out, the tie-off point must
be at least 300mm from the outside edge of the
scaffold. Most frames have a spacer in the top
truss and this will prevent the lanyard hook from
sliding outwards.

3
Step 4 Notes
Place all frames within reach and pin and brace fully. ■ The 6-foot lanyard cannot be used at foot level at
the top of the second level because a fall would
result in bottoming out.

6-foot lanyard ■ If a guardrail is installed as the scaffold is


erected it will enable the erector to walk freely on
the level after it has been completed.
■ For further levels of scaffold, Steps 2-5 may
be repeated or another method of fall protection
such as an engineered horizontal lifeline may
be used.
■ To dismantle the scaffold, follow the procedure
in reve r s e. All other components of scaffold
erection such as horizontal bracing, guardrails,
connections, and tie-ins must be included in
the process as the scaffold goes up.

Step 5
Transfer tie-off point to the next frame, maintain
tie-off at all times, and continue process until lift
is complete.

4
Arch Frame Scaffold Erection:
Horizontal Lifeline (above three frames)

This system is to be used only above the third tier of scaffold. The lifeline must be arranged so that sag
scaffold. To erect the first three levels a procedure is kept to a minimum and there is no potential for a
such as tying to the adjacent frame (see pages 3-4) person attached to the lifeline to bottom out in the
can be used. event of a fall.

Erection using a horizontal lifeline can be used for The level should be fully planked along its entire
any length of scaffold run. For long runs, intermediate length. To secure the lifeline a narrow gap is left
anchors may be necessary for the horizontal lifeline, between the planks at each end. The lifeline should
as determined by the design engineer. cross the centre plank diagonally from end to end,
so the lifeline runs along the top of the deck.
The system uses an engineered horizontal lifeline
anchored at both ends of the scaffold run. The lifeline The erector’s lanyard is attached in such a way that
is secured at the centre of the top chord of the end it will not snag any of the planks as the erector
frames and lies at foot level along the length of the walks along.

Engineered Horizontal
Lifeline

5
Erection Procedure Step 4

Step 1 Place frames and braces on this level. Place planks


on level overhead.
Erect first, second, and third levels by tying to the
adjacent frame as explained on pages 3-4 of this Step 5
document. Place planks on top of third level.
Repeat Steps 2-4 until scaffold reaches desired
Step 2 height.

While standing on the second level, the erector Notes


places the horizontal lifeline system in position.
■ All other components of scaffold erection such as
Step 3 horizontal bracing, guardrails, connections, and
While climbing to the next level, the erector attaches tie-ins must be included in the process as the
lanyard to lifeline before stepping onto the platform. A scaffold goes up.
5-foot lanyard with shock absorber is recommended. ■ If a guardrail is installed as the scaffold is erected
Follow manufacturer’s instructions regarding attach- it will enable the erector to walk freely on the level
ment hardware. after it has been completed.

6
Arch Frame Scaffold Erection:
Vertical Lifeline

This system is best suited to relatively short runs Notes


of scaffold. It can be used on longer runs, provided
sufficient lifelines are installed. Either retractable or ■ It is recommended that braces and planks be
placed from the outside in, so as not to interfere
vertical lifelines may be used. Retractable lifelines
with the lifeline
are preferable because, used correctly, they eliminate
the possibility of freefall. ■ All other scaffold components such as horizontal
bracing, tie-ins, and guardrails must be installed
With a vertical lifeline, a rope grab must be used with as the scaffold is erected.
a short shock-absorbing lanyard. When the erector
■ To dismantle the scaffold, follow the procedures
is higher than 3 metres up, the lanyard must be
in reverse.
connected to the rope grab above shoulder height
at all times.

Erection Procedure
Step 1
Access the structure using a ladder or other method
and attach a vertical lifeline to a suitable anchor
extending to the ground. Depending on the length of
scaffold run, more than one lifeline may be required
Vertical
to reduce the possibility of a swing-fall hazard. Lifeline

Step 2
Place first level of frames on mudsills and brace fully.

Step 3
Using ladder, climb to top of first level and place
second level frames. Pin and brace fully. Place planks
at top of second level.

Step 4
Access the next level by climbing a ladder or the
frames. An erector climbing the frames must be
attached to a lifeline while climbing. An erector
climbing a ladder must connect to the lifeline before
stepping onto the scaffold platform. Repeat Step 4
until scaffold has reached desired height.

7
Appendix B

Fall Protection Guidelines

Erecting and
Dismantling
Frame Shoring
Towers

Construction Safety Association of Ontario


21 Voyager Court South, Etobicoke, Ontario M9W 5M7
416-674-2726 1-800-781-2726 Fax: 416-674-8866
www.csao.org info@csao.org
Ministry Ministère
of du
Labour Travail

January 31, 2001

Mr. Dennis Cancian


Chairman, Hi-Rise Forming Sector
Labour-Management Health and Safety Committee
C/0 Construction Safety Association of Ontario
21 Voyager Court South
Etobicoke, Ontario
M9W 5M7

Re: Fall Protection during the Erection of Alumac Shoring Tower Frames

Thank you for your letter and revised submission dated January 29, 2001 on the Erection of
Frame Shoring Towers.

The work procedure found in your submission has been reviewed by staff of the Construction
Health and Safety Program and the Construction Engineers of the Professional and Specialized
Services and has received consensus by the Construction Provincial Program Advisory
Committee of the Ministry of Labour.

The information in your submission is consistent with the requirements of the Occupational
Health and Safety Act and appears to meet the intent of the Regulation for Construction
Projects. The Ministry is of the understanding that workers using the procedures outlined in
the document are protected from the hazard of falling when working off these towers during
the process of either erecting or dismantling shoring tower frames. It is also the understanding
of the Ministry of Labour that the specific implementation of this procedure and the required
training of the worker remain the responsibility of the Employer.

On behalf of the Ministry of Labour we would like to commend the Hi-Rise Forming Sector
Labour-Management Health and Safety Committee and the Ad Hoc Working Group for their
efforts in the production of the Guideline for Fall Protection during the Erection and
Dismantling of Shoring Tower Frames. We are confident that the implementation of the
principles outlined in the guideline will minimize fall hazards and advance safety procedures
during the erection and dismantling of shoring tower frames.

Yours sincerely,

Fil. Savoia,
Provincial Coordinator,
Construction Health and Safety Program
Ministry of Labour, 400 University Ave., 7th Floor
Toronto, ON. M7A 1T7
Tel: (416) 326-7776 Fax: (416) 326-7761
Filomena.Savoia@mol.gov.on.ca

Cc: Dennis Kowalchuk, LIUNA Local 183


John Rosenthal, P. Eng., Dunn-Wright Engineering Inc.
Acknowledgement

The following organizations are thanked for contributing their expertise, cooperation, and
time in developing and producing this manual.

Aluma Systems
Carpentry Trade Labour-Management Health and Safety Committee
Construction Safety Association of Ontario - Labour-Management Department
High-Rise Labour-Management Health and Safety Committee
Labourers’ International Union of North America
Ontario Formwork Association
Ontario Ministry of Labour
Scaffold Industry Association of Canada

Special thanks to:

Dennis Cancian, Trio Forming Ltd.


Dennis Kowalchuk, Labourers’ (LIUNA) Local 183
John Rosenthal, P. Eng., Dunn-Wright Engineering Inc.

Alumacs frames manufactured by Aluma Systems were used in preparing information for
this document. Performance, configuration, assembly, test results, and other factors relate
to Alumacs frames only.
Contents

Introduction 1

Erection Procedure 2

Installing the Deck 6

Dismantling 6

Fall Protection Test 7


Introduction

Typical shoring tower frames are approximately 6 feet high. A shoring tower consists of two
end frames and two crossbraces. The crossbrace length for these towers is usually 10 feet. Once
constructed, a single tier of the shoring tower would be 4 feet wide by 10 feet long by 6 feet
high. Frames 4 feet high and 8 feet high are also used for shoring applications.
Screwjacks at the base can be used for leveling the frames and may be extended up to 2 feet.
The screwjack is 32 inches long and telescopes inside the frame leg.
Shoring tower frames are placed one on top of another, usually in a single tower configuration.
Depending on the height of the floor to be formed, the shoring tower may be as high as 5 lifts.
Bridgework requires larger, heavier-duty frames and may require towers exceeding 50 feet in
height.
At each corner of the top of the tower are U-heads with screwjacks, aluminum stringers, and
aluminum joists. Plywood is nailed onto the aluminum joists.
To comply with fall protection requirements in the construction regulation (O. Reg. 213/91), the
following guidelines have been developed by the industry and approved by the Ministry of
Labour. The guidelines should be viewed as only one solution to fall protection for scaffold
erectors.
By following the guidelines, a worker is protected if a fall should occur. The shoring tower is
not subjected to additional external loads. The three components of the fall arrest system -- two
adjustable horizontal lifelines, two 3½-4 foot non-shock-absorbing lanyards, and the worker’s
approved safety harness (capable of attaching two lanyards) -- are readily adapted to use on the
tower. The industry believes this to be the safest method of erecting this type of scaffolding.
Shoring towers are designed for supporting concrete and are not intended for use as access. The
only time a worker is required to work off these towers is during erection and dismantling.

1
Erection Procedure

Two workers erect the base lift, one at each frame. Each
worker is equipped with two lanyards attached to an approved
safety harness. The screwjacks, frames, and crossbraces are
installed from the support surface (ground).

The planks required for


installation of the second lift
are placed on level 2. Planks
must be cleated or otherwise
secured against slipping.

Wherever feasible, ladders shall be employed for access and


egress as the construction of the shoring tower progresses. If it
is not feasible to use a ladder, Worker A climbs one of the
frames onto the planks placed at level 2.
Worker B, at the support surface, passes the frames and
crossbraces for the second lift to Worker A, at level 2.
Worker A sets the frames in place at each end of the tower.
Note that one end frame has one end of the horizontal lifeline
already attached to the
top rung, as close to the
middle of the rung as
possible.
Before setting the second
frame in position, the
horizontal lifeline is
attached to its top rung.
Once the second frame is
in place, Worker A
installs the crossbraces.
The horizontal lifeline
system must meet the
minimum requirements
of the construction
regulation (O. Reg.
213/91) and must be
designed in accordance
with good engineering
practice.

2
Erection Procedure

Once all the connections are made to the


second lift, Worker A tightens the
adjustment on the horizontal lifeline and
attaches the lanyard.
From this point, the worker is tied off at all
times.
Worker B passes additional plank(s) to
Worker A, who places plank(s) at level 5.
Worker A, standing on a single plank,
moves the remaining plank from level 2 to
level 5. The one plank is left at level 2,
and moved to lie directly beneath the two
planks at level 5.

Regardless of the height of the individual frames used


in the tower, the planks are always moved to one
level below the top of the highest frame until the
required height of frames has been reached.

Worker A
climbs from
level 2 to
level 5.

3
Erection Procedure

At level 5, Worker B again passes frames and


crossbraces from the support surface to Worker A.
Worker A moves along the planks at level 5 while tied to
the horizontal lifeline at level 6.

Note that one end of a second horizontal lifeline is


already attached to the top rung of the next frame to be
placed.

Worker A attaches
the other end of the
second horizontal
lifeline to the top rung
of the second end
frame prior to setting
it on the coupling
pins.

4
Erection Procedure

While Worker A is still connected to the lower


horizontal lifeline, the crossbraces are installed on
the third tier.

Once both crossbraces are installed, the third tier is


completed. The worker tightens the adjustment on
the upper horizontal lifeline and connects the second
lanyard to the upper line.

When one lanyard is connected to the upper


horizontal lifeline, the other lanyard is disconnected
from the lower horizontal lifeline. The lower line is
removed to be used again later, on the next lift.

Worker A now sets planks at level 7 because


this is the required height of the tower. If the
tower were to be higher, the planks would be set
at level 8. The worker climbs onto the planks to
prepare for installing the deck.

For higher towers, the same procedure is


followed until the required frame height has
been reached.

5
Installing the Deck

As soon as the top tier is braced, and the horizontal lifeline is tightened between the topmost
rungs, Worker A connects one lanyard to the upper line. The other lanyard is disconnected
from the lower horizontal lifeline. The lower horizontal lifeline may be left in place for
descent.
Worker B passes a plank to Worker A, who places it
on the third rung from the top. Worker A, standing on
a single plank, moves the remaining plank from his
level to the working level.
Worker A climbs the frames while attached to the
horizontal lifeline. Now it is possible to move along
the top of the tower to install the deck components.
The process is repeated until all the towers for the
formwork have been erected.

With one lanyard attached to the


upper horizontal lifeline, Worker 1
climbs down the frames to the next
lower plank. Standing on that plank,
the worker connects the second
horizontal lifeline to the rung of the
frame one level higher than the plank
level. The worker climbs up once
more, disconnects the second lanyard,
and loosens and removes the top
horizontal lifeline for further use
while descending the tower. This
procedure continues until the worker
reaches the support level.

Dismantling
The dismantling of shoring towers is no different from most other types of scaffolds.
Generally, the dismantling procedure is the exact reverse of the erection procedure; the last
component installed is the first to be removed.

6
Fall Protection Test

Test Outline
Tests were carried out to simulate a worker falling
(1) inside the frame shoring tower, and
(2) with the centre of mass approximately 2 feet outside the tower.
The 4' x 6' frames were erected two tiers high, with the bottom screwjacks extended 18". An
adjustable horizontal lifeline was connected between the top horizontal members of the second
tier frames (approximately 13 feet above the floor) to function as a horizontal anchor line. The
line was positioned between the two diagonal support members of the top rungs. The midpoint
of the line was measured to be 12' 10" above the floor, representing a 2" sag in the line.
A 220-pound weight was connected to the horizontal lifeline by a 4-foot non-shock-absorbing
lanyard. In both cases, the weight was raised to slightly higher than 4½ feet above the planks
to represent the location of the centre of mass of the worker, and released to fall as required.
For the fall within the tower, the planks were pushed to one side of the tower, and the weight
was located approximately in the middle of the space between the edge of the plank and the
inside faces of the crossbraces.
During the falls, the forces on the horizontal lifeline caused the top frames to be drawn
inwards. Consequently, the crossbraces bowed (but did not break) to accommodate the inward
motion. The tower shook considerably and shifted slightly out of its initial position on the
floor, but remained upright during and after the falls.
In each case, there appeared to be no distress to the top frame horizontals, to the nylon line, or
to the lanyard. Both nylon members were the same length before and after the tests.

Test Results
Within Tower fall: After settling, the end of the lanyard was approximately 7 feet above
ground level. The tests were videotaped. Close review of the tape indicates that the hook of
the lanyard reached 13½ inches below the top rung of the lower frame. This indicates that the
fall-arrest system experienced a total "stretch" of 11¼ inches. It also indicates that a worker's
feet, located 5 feet below the end of the lanyard (allowing for slippage of the D-ring and slack
in the harness), would be slightly less than 1 foot above the floor at the maximum fall distance.
Comment: The planks were purposely moved out of the way of the falling weight. If a
normal fall occurred within a tower, it is likely that the worker would contact planks and/or
braces on the way down, thus reducing the amount of free fall and the amount of force applied
to the body. The reduction in free fall distance would also reduce the amount of "stretch" in
the fall-arrest system, ensuring that the worker's feet would not contact the floor.
Although a non-shock-absorbing lanyard was used, and the fall distance was approximately 9
feet, the force exerted on the worker's body would have been reduced considerably because the
scaffold system absorbed much of the shock load by partially collapsing. The force exerted on
the body was identified with a dynamometer.

7
Outside Tower fall: After settling, the end of the lanyard was approximately 7 feet above
ground level. The tests were videotaped. Close review of the tape indicates that the hook of
the lanyard reached approximately the same location as within the tower, that is, 13½ inches
below the top rung of the lower frame. This indicates that the fall-arrest system experienced a
total "stretch" of 11¼ inches. It also indicates that a worker's feet, located 5 feet below the end
of the lanyard (allowing for slippage of the D-ring and slack in the harness), would be only
slightly less than 1 foot above the floor at the maximum fall distance.

WITHIN TOWER FALL OUTSIDE TOWER FALL

Additional Testing
A further test was carried out to determine the amount of force on a body during the fall. A
dynamometer was connected to the 220-pound dead weight and set to record the maximum
force applied. After the drop of approximately 9 feet, which would result in a force on a body
of 3600 pounds, the reading was 1345 pounds or 5.98 kN, about ¾ the maximum allowable
force. [Maximum allowable force is 8 kN or 1800 pounds.] Therefore, the shoring tower,
horizontal lifeline, lanyard, and harness absorbed over 2000 pounds of force through
deformation.