Sei sulla pagina 1di 3

In modern computers, data will be stored in an SSD (solid state drive) which stores

information by using electrons.

FIRST GENERATION COMPUTERS (1946-1959)

The first generation computers are produced during the period 1946-1959. These

computers were manufactured with vacuum tubes.

Advantages:

 They were capable of making arithmetic and logical operations, and were very

fast.
 They were the only electronics during those old days.
 Vacuum tube technology made possible the advent of electronic digital

computers.

Disadvantages:

 They were too big in size which means they were not portable.
 Low level of accuracy and reliability.
 They are usually very hot and such need to be air conditioned.

SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS

These computers were produced during the period 1959-1965. These computers were

produced using transistors in place of vacuum tubes as their basic elements to perform

all computational and logic works.

Advantages:

 Smaller in size when compared to first generation computers.


 Accuracy and reliability is improved in the second generation computers.
 More portable as compared to first generation computers.
 Wilder commercial use.
 They have better speed and could calculate data in microseconds.
 Used assembly language.
 Uses lesser energy and amount of heat dissipated is less compared to first

generation.

Disadvantages:

 Requires a cooling system.


 Costly and not versatile and commercial production was also difficult.
 Needed constant upkeep and maintenance.
 Punch cards were used for input.

THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS (1965-1970)

These are computers developed during the period 1965-1970. These computers were

built with monolithic integrated circuits(ICs) which consisted of thousands of transistors

and other electronic components.

Advantages:

 Requires less energy.


 They are portable.
 Maintenance cost is low because hardware failures are rare.
 They used operating system for better resource management.

Disadvantages:

 They had issues with manufacturing at their initial stage.


 They lacked thinking power and decision making capability.
 They could not provide insight into their internal working.

FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTERS (1970-1985)


These are computers that came to the scene with improved technology during the

period 1970-1985. They used large scale Integrated Circuits in the form of

microprocessors in their memory.

Advantages:

 Air conditioning is not required in most cases.


 Faster in computation than the third generation computers.
 They are general purpose computers.
 Heat generated is negligible.
 Smallest in size.

Disadvantages:

 Highly sophisticated technology required for the manufacture of the chips.


 They had less storage capacity and needed further improvement.

FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS

These are computers that emerged after 1985 with further improved technology. These

machines are designed to incorporate "Artificial Intelligence" and make expert

judgements and decisions like human beings.

Advantages:

 More reliable and works faster.


 Available in different sizes with unique features.
 They are faster, very cheap, and have the highest possible storage capacity.
 They have thinking power and decison making capability.

Disadvantages:

 They need very low level languages, they may replace the human force and

cause grievous unemployment problems.


 They may make the human brain dull and doomed.