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A zadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac,[2] is a tree in
A zadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac,[2] is a tree in

A zadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac,[2] is a tree in the mahogany family

Meliaceae. It is one of two species in the genus Azadirachta, and is native to the Indian subcontinent, i.e. India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Maldives. It is typically grown in tropical and semi-tropical regions. Neem trees also grow in islands located in the southern part of Iran. Its fruits and seeds are the source of neem oil.

of Iran. Its fruits and seeds are the source of neem oil. Neem is a fast-growing

Neem is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of 1520 metres (4966 ft), and rarely 3540 metres (115131 ft). It is evergreen, but in severe drought it may shed most of its leaves or nearly all leaves. The branches are wide and spreading. The fairly dense crown is roundish and may reach a diameter of 2025 metres (6682 ft

The opposite, pinnate leaves are 2040 centimetres (7.915.7 in) long, with 20 to 31 medium to dark green leaflets about 38

centimetres (1.23.1 in) long. The terminal leaflet often is missing. The petioles are short.

The (white and fragrant) flowers are arranged in more-or-less drooping axillary panicles which are up to 25 centimetres (9.8 in) long. The inflorescences, which branch up to the third degree, bear from 250 to 300 flowers. An individual flower is 56 millimetres (0.200.24 in) long and 811 millimetres (0.310.43 in) wide. Protandrous, bisexual flowers and male flowers exist on the same individual tree.

The fruit is a smooth (glabrous), olive-like drupe which varies in shape from elongate oval to nearly roundish, and when ripe is 1.42.8 centimetres (0.551.10 in) by 1.01.5 centimetres (0.390.59 in). The fruit skin (exocarp) is thin and the bitter-sweet pulp (mesocarp) is yellowish-white and very fibrous. The mesocarp is 0.30.5 centimetres (0.120.20 in) thick. The white, hard inner shell (endocarp) of the fruit encloses one, rarely two, or three, elongated seeds (kernels) having a brown seed coat.

The neem tree is often confused with a similar looking tree called bakain. Bakain also has toothed leaflets and similar looking fruit. One difference is that neem leaves are pinnate but bakain leaves are twice- and thrice-pinnate.

The neem tree, also known as the Indian lilac or margosa tree, and belongs to the botanical family Meliaceae. Mahogany trees belong to a different genus (Swietenia) of the same family. The wood of these two closely related trees have similar characteristics, including

similar heartwood that ranges in color from reddish to reddish brown. This attractive color gives neem wood furniture an aesthetically pleasing appearance.

A Durable Wood

Like mahogany, neem heartwood is strong and durable. Its grains are interlocked, and consequently the wood does not split apart very easily. Because of its strength, it serves as a material for constructing oars, cart axles and felloes for cart wheels. It also is a fairly heavy wood. Its specific gravity ranges from 0.72 to 0.83 when air-dried, according to the United States Agency for International Development.

Rough Grain

Neem heartwood has a coarse, rough grain with interlocking fibers. While this property gives neem wood a sturdy texture, it is difficult to polish coarse, interlocking grains. As a result, furniture makers who want to make a highly polished product avoid using neem wood.

A Pest-Resistant Wood

The heartwood of the neem tree resists such pests as wood borers and termites. The wood contains a natural pesticide as part of its composition.

Easy to Work

In spite of its coarse grain, neem heartwood is fairly easy to work. The application of either

heartwood is fairly easy to work. The application of either machine or hand tools yields satisfactory

machine or hand tools yields satisfactory results. It can even be crafted into toys.

High Volumetric Shrinkage

According to tests conducted by the Federal University of Technology in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria, the wood of neem trees in the savannas of western Africa have an average volumetric shrinkage of 19.12% while drying out. The study concludes that this shrinkage percentage is relatively high, but offers the observation that wood from some of the other timber trees in the area show greater shrinkage.

An Aromatic Wood

Neem wood is mildly aromatic. Neem wood products have a slight fragrance, especially when used for paneling or ornamental ceilings, according to the Royal Botanic Gardens.

By

Adwaith sagar & kiran antony