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May 18, 2019

Some metric spaces

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4 visualizzazioni7 pagineSome metric spaces

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Definition 1. Metric space

A metric space (X, d) is a space X of objects (called points), together with a

distance function d : X 2 → [0, ∞), which associates to each pair x, y ∈ X a

non-negative real number. It must satisfy:

1. (Positivity)

∀ x, y ∈ X : d(x, y) = 0 ⇐⇒ x = y

d(x, y) = d(y, x)

Let (X, d|X ), (Y, d|Y ) be metric spaces. Then function f : X → Y is continuous

at x0 if

Proof. Suppose X, Y are metric space and f : X → Y is constant function equal

to c. Let x be any point in X, let ε > 0. Let δ = 3. Suppose x1 ∈ X. Clearly

d(f (x1 ), f (x)) = 0 < ε.

Theorem 1. Identity function is continuous

Suppose (X, d) is metric space then id : X → X function is continuous.

Proof. Let x0 be any point in X. Let ε > 0. Set δ = ε. We have

Suppose (X, d|X ), (Y, d|Y ), (Z, d|Z ) are metric spaces and f : X → Y, g : Y → Z

are continuous. Then

g◦f

is continuous.

1

Proof. Suppose x0 ∈ X. Let ε > 0. Since g is continuous, there exists γ such

that

∀ y ∈ Y : d|Y (f (x0 ), y) < γ =⇒ d|Y ((g ◦ f )(x0 ), g(y)) < ε

But f is also continuous. Thus there is δ which satisfies

Definition 3. Balls

(This definition is copy from Tao)

Let (X, d) be a metric space. Let x0 ∈ X and r > 0. We define ball B(X,d) (x0 , r)

in X, centered at x0 with radius r in the metric d to be a set:

Let f : X → Y and x0 ∈ X. Then f is continuous at x0 iff

f (x) ∈ B(f (x0 ), ε) ⇐⇒ d(f (x0 ), f (x0 ))

Remark 1. Restating previous theorem

Its equivalent to say:

B(x0 , δ) ⊆ f −1 [B(f (x0 ), ε)]

Definition 4. Neighborhood

Let (X, d) be a metric space. Suppose x ∈ X. Set N ⊆ X is called neighborhood

of x iff

∃ r : B(x, r) ⊆ N

Definition 5. Complete system of neighborhood

Collections of all neighborhoods of a point is called complete system of neigh-

borhood.

Theorem 4. Suppose (X, d) is a metric space. Let

x0 ∈ X

γ ∈ R+

V = B(x0 , γ)

x∈V

Then V is neighborhood of x.

2

Proof. Let 0 < ε < γ − d(x0 , x). Clearly B(x, ε) ⊆ V .

Theorem 5. Let f : (X, d|X ) → (Y, d|Y ). Then f is continuous at x iff for each

neighborhood M ⊆ Y of f (x) there is corresponding neighborhood N ⊆ X for

x.

means we can find ε such that B(f (x), ε) ⊆ M , but since f is continues

Suppose second condition holds. Let ε > 0, then M = B(f (x), ε) is a neighbor-

hood of M therefore there must exists such δ that B(x, δ) ⊆ f −1 [B(f (x), ε)].

Thus f must be continuous.

Theorem 6. Five properties of neighborhoods

Let (X, d) be a metric space. Let x0 ∈ X

2. For each neighborhood N of x0

x0 ∈ N

M is a neighborhood of x0 .

4. If N, M are neighborhoods of x0 , N ∩ M also is.

5. For each neighborhood N of x0 there exists O ⊆ N such that for all x in

N , O is a neighborhood of x.

Proof. Easy!

1. Consider set X.

2. Since ∃ r : B(x0 , r) ⊆ N then x0 ∈ N .

3. We have ∃ r : B(x0 , r) ⊆ N ⊆ M .

4. We have ∃ ε, γ : B(x0 , ε) ⊆ N ∧ B(x0 , γ) ⊆ M . Simply consider B(x0 , min(ε, γ)).

5. We have ∃ r : B(x0 , r) ⊆ N . Consider O = B(x0 , r).

of α is called a basis for the neighborhood system at α if for every neighborhood

N of α

∃S ∈ B: S ⊆ N

3

Theorem 7. Let f : (X, d|X ) → (Y, d|Y ) and let Bf (a) be a basis of neighbor-

hoods of f (a). Then f is continuous at a iff ∀ S ∈ B : f −1 [S] is a neighborhood

of a.

Proof. I thought it might be difficult, but it follows from Theorem 5 immedi-

ately!

Definition 7. Convergence of sequences in metric spaces

(From Tao)

∞

Let (X, d) be a metric space and (x(n) )m be a sequence with elements in X.

Then we say that sequence converges to x iff

∀ ε > 0 : ∃ N : ∀ n ≥ N : d(x(n) , x) ≤ ε

We can write

lim d(x(n) , x) = 0

n→∞

Suppose (X, d) is a metric space and xn a sequence with elements in X. Then

xn converges to x iff for each neighborhood M of x there exists N such that for

all i ≥ N we have

xi ∈ N

Proof. Suppose it converges. Let M be neighborhood. Then ∃ r > 0 : B(x, r) ⊆

N . But also

∃ N : ∀ i ≥ N : d(xi , x) < r

Thesis follows. Other side is equally obvious (consider the fact that every open

ball is a neighborhood).

Theorem 9. Convergence & continuous

Let f : (X, d|X ) → (Y, d|Y ). f is continuous iff for every sequence xn such that

limn→∞ xn = x we have limn→∞ f (xn ) = f (x).

Proof. Suppose f is continuous. Let limn→∞ xn = x. Let ε > 0. Since f is

continuous we can choose such δ that

∀ x0 ∈ X : d(x, x0 ) < δ =⇒ d(f (x), f (x0 )) < ε

Since xn converges to x

∃ N : ∀ i ≥ N : d(xi , x) < δ

Combining the two: we get thesis.

Second part. By contradiction: Suppose that there exists a sequence xn

lim xn = x ∧ lim f (xn ) 6= f (x)

n→∞ n→∞

and f is continuous at x

This means (Eq 1)

∃ ε : ∀ N : ∃ i ≥ N : d(f (xi ), f (x)) > ε

4

Lets fix this epsilon.

From the fact that f is continuous we get

∃i ≥ N 0 : d(x, xi ) < δ

j > max(N 0 , N )

We get d(f (xj ), f (x)) > ε and d(f (xj ), f (x)) < ε. Contradiction.

Remark 2. Alternative proof

We could consider B(x, n1 ) (Mendelson) as a basis of neighborhood system. It

would break in similar manner.

n→∞ n→∞

Let (X, d) be a metric space. Let A ⊆ X and a ∈ X. The distance between A

and a, denoted d(a, A) is defined as

d(a, A) := inf{d(a, ai ) : ai ∈ A}

Theorem 10. Using symbols from previous definition. There must exists se-

quence an such that

lim d(an , a) = d(A, a)

n→∞

Proof. It follows immediately from the fact that for each infimum there exists

a sequence in that set that converges to it (property of reals).

Theorem 11. Equivalence of l1 , l2 , l∞

(From tao) Let Rn be a Euclidean space, and let x(k) be a sequence of points.

Following statements are equivalent

2. x(k) converges with respect to dl2

3. x(k) converges with respect to dl∞

(k)

4. xj converges to yj for each j ∈ {1 . . . n}

5

Proof. First lets look at what it means in each of this metric to converge. Taxi:

n

(k)

X

(k)

lim dl1 (x , x) = lim |xi − yi | = 0

k→∞ k→∞

i=1

Euclidean: v

u n

uX (k) 2

(k)

lim dl2 (x , x) = lim t (xi − yi ) = 0

k→∞ k→∞

i=1

Sub norm:

n

(k)

X

lim dl∞ (x(k) , x) = lim sup{|xi − yi | : i ∈ {1 . . . n}} = 0

k→∞ k→∞

i=1

If we assume the last point, its immediately obvious that points 1, 2, 3 are true.

I will prove the implications 1 =⇒ 4, 2 =⇒ 4, 3 =⇒ 4 by contradiction. Lets

assume that ∃ m ∈ {1 . . . n} : x(m) that diverges and 1, 2, 3 are true. Then we

can re-write the limits above as (because we assume they exists and square root

is continues):

n n

(k) (k)

X X

lim |xi − yi | = lim |xi − yi | = 0

k→∞ k→∞

i=1 i=1

v v

u n u n

uX (k) 2 uX (k) 2

lim t (xi − yi ) = t lim (xi − yi )

k→∞ k→∞

i=1 i=1

n n

(k) (k)

X X

lim sup{|xi − yi | : i ∈ {1 . . . n}} = lim sup{|xi − yi | : i ∈ {1 . . . n}}

k→∞ k→∞

i=1 i=1

But now we can re-write them (using only first as an example as)

lim |x(k)

m − ym | + C

k→∞

(k)

for some C ∈ R. But that would imply xm converges. Contradiction.

Theorem 12. Uniqueness of limits

(From Tao)

Let (X, d) be a metric space. Suppose x(n) is a sequence in X and there exists

y, y 0 such that x(n) converges to both. Then y = y 0 .

Proof. Should be easy.

lim d(x(n) , y) + lim d(x(n) , y 0 ) = 0

n→∞ n→∞

n→∞

d(y, y 0 ) = 0

Which implies y = y 0 .

6

Theorem 13. Convergence of sequence implies convergent of all sub-sequences

(From Tao)

Suppose xn converges to some x0 . Then all sub-sequences of xn also do.

Proof. Let yn be sub-sequence of xn .

Let ε > 0.

We know that

∃ N : ∀ i > N : d(xi , x0 ) < ε

But f (i) ≥ i therefore taking N gives as

A subset O of metric space is said to be open if its a neighbourhood of all its

points.

Theorem 14. Subset is open iff its a union of open balls

Let (X, d) be an metric space S and O ⊆ X. Then O is open iff there exists

collection of sets Bα such that α Bα = O and

∀ i ∈ α : ∃ x0 ∈ X, r > 0 : Bi = B(x0 , r)

Proof. Suppose O is open. Then for each point x0 there must exists r, ε such

that x0 ∈ B(r, ε). But then: union of this balls gives as O.

Suppose O is union of the collection of open balls. Suppose x0 ∈ O. Then

∃ B(x, r) such that x0 ∈ B(x, r) (since x0 is part of some open ball: look

previous theorems).

Theorem 15. Continuity and open sets

Suppose we have f : (X, d|X ) → (Y, d|Y ). Then f is continuous iff for each open

subset O ⊆ Y , f −1 [O] is also open.

There must exists ε such that B(f (x0 ), ε) ⊆ O From theorem 3 we get.

Suppose that for each open subset O, f −1 [O] is also open. Suppose x0 ∈ X and

M is a neighborhood of it. Then there exists such ε that B(x0 , ε) ⊆ O. But

then f −1 [M ] is neighborhood of x0 (Theorem 5).

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