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The Function of Air Conditioning System

Air conditioning is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied
space, to improve the comfort of occupants. Air conditioning can be used in both domestic and
commercial environments. This process is most commonly used to achieve a more comfortable
interior environment, typically for humans and other animals. However, air conditioning is also
used to cool or dehumidify rooms filled with heat-producing electronic devices, such as
computer servers, power amplifiers, and even to display and store some delicate products, such
as artwork. The main function of air conditioning systems are :-


Naturally, keeping indoor air cool and comfortable is the top priority of any air conditioning
system. Depending on the size of the space being cooled and the architecture of the building,
we may be able to choose from central air, a window air conditioning unit, or ductless air
conditioning for a residential property. Large commercial buildings typically require special
rooftop systems to deliver powerful and reliable cooling.


Another very important function of an air conditioner is dehumidifying indoor air. Even in dry
regions like southern California, moisture can become trapped inside a home or business,
making the indoor air much more humid than the outdoor air. Fortunately, the very process that
creates cooled air within the AC unit also dehumidifies that air. This dehumidifying action is
the reason that AC units must have drains to remove the water that they condense out of the


Finally, air conditioning is important for ventilation. Whether you have central air or a window
or wall unit, your air conditioner will be helping to circulate air within your home in order to
keep spaces from feeling stuffy. You can even run your AC on fan mode instead of cool mode
if indoor temperatures are comfortable and you just want a bit of fresh air moving through your
home. By running the AC on fan mode instead of opening a window, you get the benefit of
having the AC unit’s filter catch any outdoor allergens like pollen that may be trying to sneak

The air conditioning system installed at Dewan Peperiksaan, Blok F2, Universiti Tun Hussein
Onn Malaysia are Air Cooled Chilled System and VRV System. Each system was design
separately and individually purpose. Examination hall have their own Chilled Water System.
Multi split VRV system specially design for office area.

i. Basic Air Cooled Chilled System

The Air Cooled Chilled System is accomplished by continuously circulating water from chiller
to the cooling coil of the Air Handling Unit and back to the chiller in closed piping system.
The chilled water pump does the circulation of the chilled water in the piping system. The main
plant room house the chillers, chilled water pumps, condensing units and main air-conditioning

ii. Basic Air Handling Unit (AHU)

The air handling unit (AHU) cooling coil dehumidify the air passing through it which is then
supply to the conditioned space via a series of ductwork and air diffusion accessories. The air
returns back to the unit through return air grille and ceiling slot.

The thermostat controls the conditioned air temperature. The latter shall convey signal to
actuate the 2 way controlled valve in order to modulate flow rate of chilled water through the
cooling coil the desired condition.

iii. Basic VRV System

VRV System is an air conditioning system for building with sophisticated individual zone
control. One outdoor unit can be connected to multiple indoor units in one system, each having
capability to cool independently for the requirement of the room. Indoor unit can be added up
to a capacity level of 130%.

This section will describe the location equipment installed.

i. Air Cooled Chiller System

 Carrier 30XA Air Cooled Screw Chillers
- 2 nos of Carrier Air Cooled Screw Chillers are installed in Chiller Plant
Room. This model is completely factory package including evaporator,
condenser, sub-cooled, compressor, motor, lubrication system, control
centre and air interconnecting unit piping and wiring.
 Chilled Water Pump
- There are 4 nos. Chilled Water Pump are installed in Chiller Plant Room
 Expansion Tank
- The water serves the purpose of supplying the makeup water to the closed
pipe which loss during its operation and shall be able to reserve water up to
3 hour operations.
 Chilled Water Pipe
- The installed chilled water pipe is pre-insulated Galvanised Iron Class C.
The range of pipe used is 100mm – 150mm of diameter.
 Valve and Gauge
- Hand operated butterfly valve, temperature gauge and pressure gauge are
installed at every inlet or outlet piping connection to the chiller, pump and
 Condensate Drain Pipe
- The installed the condensate drain pipe is UPVC pipe which is thermally
insulated using rubber foam.
ii. Air Handling Unit (AHU)
 Ductwork Air Distribution Equipment
- Conditioned air form the air-handling units is distributed to the conditioned
area through a series of G.I duct and discharge from the ceiling supply air
diffuser or wall mounted supply air grille.
 Filtration System
- Conditioned air from AHU is filtered before supplied to the conditioned area
in order to have a clean atmosphere within the conditioned area.
 Main Air Conditioning Switchboard
- The 800A TPN air conditioning switchboard to cubicle floor mounted
installed in the Chiller Plant Room.

iii. Multi Split System (VRV)

 2 set condensing unit located at Chiller Plant Room. Set 1 have 2 modules and
set 2 has 1 module unit. Each module supplied with 60A TPN isolator.
The Function of Fire Protection

A fire protection system is an important component of a building’s safety plan, regardless of

whether it is a commercial facility, hospital or educational facility. Without a fire protection
system, the lives of those who are inside the building are placed at a high risk in the event an
emergency. That’s why passive fire protection systems have been designed to help protect the
building and its occupants during a fire.

Fire protection systems and equipment vary depending on the age, size, use and type of building
construction. A building may contain some or all of the following features:

i. fire extinguishers
ii. fire hose reels
iii. fire hydrant systems
iv. automatic sprinkler systems
v. heat detector
vi. smoke detector

i. Fire Extinguishers

Fire extinguishers are provided for a 'first attack' fires fighting measure, generally undertaken
by the occupants of the building before the fire service arrives. It is important that occupants
are familiar with which extinguisher type to use on which fire. Most fires start as a small fire
and may be extinguished if the correct type and amount of extinguishing agent is applied whilst
the fire is small and controllable.

Fire extinguisher locations must be clearly identified. Extinguishers are colour coded according
to the extinguishing agent. It is the policy of the Community Safety and Resilience Department
that fire extinguishers be logically grouped at exits from the building, so that occupants first
go to the exit and then return to fight the fire, knowing that a safe exit lies behind them, away
from the fire.
ii. Fire Hose Reels

Fire hose reels are provided for use by occupants as a 'first attack' fires fighting measure but
may, in some instances, also be used by firefighters.

When stowing a fire hose reel, it is important to first attach the nozzle end to the hose reel
valve, then close the hose reel valve, then open the nozzle to relieve any pressure in the wound
hose, then close the nozzle. This achieves two principle objectives:

 A depressurised hose and hose reel seal will last longer than if permanently pressurised.
 When the hose reel is next used, the operator will be forced to turn on the isolating
valve, thus charging the hose reel with pressurised water supply, before being able to
drag the hose to the fire. A potential danger exists if the operator reaches the fire and
finds no water is available because the hose reel valve is still closed.

Because hose reels are generally located next to an exit, in an emergency it is possible to reach
a safe place simply by following the hose.

iii. Fire Hydrant System

Fire hydrant systems are installed in buildings to help firefighters quickly attack the fire.
Essentially, a hydrant system is a water reticulation system used to transport water in order to
limit the amount of hose that firefighters have to lay, thus speeding up the fire fighting process.

Fire hydrants are for the sole use of trained firefighters (which includes factory fire fighting
teams). Because of the high pressures available serious injury can occur if untrained persons
attempt to operate the equipment connected to such installations.

Fire hydrant systems sometimes include ancillary parts essential to their effective operation
such as pumps, tanks and fire service booster connections. These systems must be maintained
and regularly tested if they are to be effective when needed.
iv. Automatic Sprinkler Systems

Time is essential in the control of fire. Automatic sprinkler systems are one of the most reliable
methods available for controlling fires. Today's automatic fire sprinkler systems offer state of
the art protection of life and property from the effects of fire. Sprinkler heads are now available
which are twenty times more sensitive to fire than they were ten years ago.

A sprinkler head is really an automatic (open once only) tap. The sprinkler head is connected
to a pressurised water system. When the fire heats up the sprinkler head, it opens at a pre-set
temperature, thus allowing pressurised water to be sprayed both down onto the fire and also up
to cool the hot smoky layer and the building structure above the fire. This spray also wets
combustible material in the vicinity of the fire, making it difficult to ignite, thereby slowing
down or preventing fire spread and growth.

When a sprinkler head operates, the water pressure in the system drops, activating an alarm
which often automatically calls the fire service via a telephone connection. Some people say
sprinklers cause a lot of water damage. As has been explained, only those sprinkler heads
heated by the fire operate; all sprinklers in a building do not operate at once. Usually non-fire
water damage only occurs if the occupants carelessly damage the system. Firefighters use much
more water than a sprinkler system. The combined damage from a fire and the water used by
firefighters dramatically exceeds that likely from a properly installed sprinkler system.

Sprinkler systems are usually installed in high or large buildings and high fire hazard
occupancies. Statistics show that in a majority of cases where sprinklers are installed the fire
has been controlled by one sprinkler head alone.

v. Heat Detector

A heat detector is a fire alarm device designed to respond when the convected thermal energy
of a fire increases the temperature of a heat sensitive element. The thermal mass and
conductivity of the element regulate the rate flow of heat into the element. All heat detectors
have this thermal lag. Heat detectors have two main classifications of operation, "rate-of-rise"
and "fixed temperature”. The heat detector is used to help in the reduction of damaged property.
It is triggered when temperature increases.
vi. Smoke Detector

A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial
security devices issue a signal to a fire alarm control panel as part of a fire alarm system and
also known as smoke alarms, generally issue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector
itself. A smoke detector's initial function is detecting that fire is present. The way it senses
the fire depends on the type of detector it is.

A photoelectric model has a light source that goes into the sensing chamber. The light sits at
an angle away from the sensor. When smoke enters, it causes the light to reflect onto the
sensor, triggering the alarm. These units are best at detecting smoldering fires that start with
smoke before eventually breaking into flames.

An ionization model uses radioactive material positioned between two electrically charged
plates to ionize the air inside of it. This creates a current flow between the two plates. Smoke
sets off the alarm when it disrupts the ion flow. These detectors are most responsive to fires
with blazing flames.

Photoelectric and ionization smoke detectors both have certain advantages that make them
more effective in specific areas. For example, a photoelectric model quickly detects smoke
from smoldering bedding or furniture a room, while ionization units give fast warning of a
blaze triggered by flammables in a utility room or a stove fire in a kitchen. Because each type
is ideal for a certain type of fire, it's a good idea to have at least one of each in building. You
can also get a combination model that uses both photoelectric and ionization methods for
detecting smoke.

Once a smoke detector senses smoke, its next job is to let people know about it. That warning
can make the difference in whether or not people in the building have time to escape. Effective
detectors should have alarms of at least 85 decibels at 10 feet, so they can be heard throughout
the room. Smoke detectors are often located inside the room of building. That means the alert
sound needs to be loud enough to go through doors and wake up people in case of a fire at
night. Detectors should also have a low-battery notification function that makes a repetitive
beep when the battery power is nearly drained.