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Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures

EN1992-1-1

Symposium Eurocodes: Backgrounds and Applications, Brussels 18-20 February 2008

J.C. Walraven

22 February 2008

Vermelding onderdeel organisatie

1

EC-2: Concrete Structures

EC2: General rules and rules for buildings

Structures EC2: General rules and rules for buildings Bridges Fire Containers Execution Materials Precast elements

Bridges

Fire

Containers

Execution

Materials

Precast elements

Common rules

Product standards

Prestressing steel

Concrete

Reinforcing steel

Precast elements Common rules Product standards Prestressing steel Concrete Reinforcing steel 22 February 2008 3

EC-2: Concrete Structures

EC2: General rules and rules for buildings

Structures EC2: General rules and rules for buildings Bridges Fire Containment structures Execution Materials

Bridges

Fire

Containment structures

Execution

Materials

Precast elements

Common rules

Product standards

Prestressing steel

Concrete

Reinforcing steel

Precast elements Common rules Product standards Prestressing steel Concrete Reinforcing steel 22 February 2008 4

EN 1992-1-1 “Concrete structures” (1) Content:

1. General

2. Basics

3. Materials

4. Durability and cover

5. Structural analysis

6. Ultimate limit states

7. Serviceability limit states

8. Detailing of reinforcement

9. Detailing of members and particular rules

10. Additional rules for precast concrete elements and structures

11. Lightweight aggregate concrete structures

12. Plain and lightly reinforced concrete structures

11. Lightweight aggregate concrete structures 12. Plain and lightly reinf orced concrete structures 22 February 2008
11. Lightweight aggregate concrete structures 12. Plain and lightly reinf orced concrete structures 22 February 2008

EN 1992-1-1 “Concrete structures” (2) Annexes:

A. Modifications of safety factor (I)

B. Formulas for creep and shrinkage (I)

C. Properties of reinforcement (N)

D. Prestressing steel relaxation losses (I)

E. Indicative strength classes for durability (I)

F. In-plane stress conditions (I)

G. Soil structure interaction (I)

H. Global second order effects in structures (I)

I. Analysis of flat slabs and shear walls (I)

J. Detailing rules for particular situations (I)

and shear walls (I) J. Detailing rules for particular situations (I) I = Informative N =

I = Informative N = Normative

and shear walls (I) J. Detailing rules for particular situations (I) I = Informative N =

EN 1992-1-1 “Concrete structures” (3)

In EC-2 “Design of concrete structures – Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings

109 national choices are possible

structures – Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings 109 national choices are possible 22
structures – Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings 109 national choices are possible 22

Chapter: 3 Materials

J.C. Walraven

22 February 2008

Vermelding onderdeel organisatie

8

Concrete strength classes

Concrete strength class C8/10 tot C100/115. (Characteristic cylinder strength / char. cube strength)

Concrete strength class C8/10 tot C100/115. (Characteristic cylinder strength / char. cube strength) 22 February 2008
Concrete strength class C8/10 tot C100/115. (Characteristic cylinder strength / char. cube strength) 22 February 2008

Concrete strength classes and properties

   

Strength classes for concrete

 

f ck (MPa)

12

16

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

70

80

90

f

ck,cube

15

20

25

30

37

45

50

55

60

67

75

85

95

105

(MPa)

f

cm

20

24

28

33

38

43

48

53

58

63

68

78

88

98

(MPa)

f

ctm

1,6

1,9

2,2

2,6

2,9

3,2

3,5

3,8

4,1

4,2

4,4

4,6

4,8

5,0

(MPa)

f

ctk,0,05

1

1

1,3

1,5

1,8

2,0

2,2

2,5

2,7

2,9

3,0

3,1

3,2

3,4

3,5

(MPa)

 

f

ctk,0,95

2,0

2,5

2,9

3,3

3,8

4,2

4,6

4,9

5,3

5,5

5,7

6,0

6,3

6,6

(MPa)

E cm

27

29

30

31

32

34

35

36

37

38

39

41

42

44

(Gpa)

ε c1 ()

1,8

1,9

2,0

2,1

2,2

2,25

2,3

2,4

2,45

2,5

2,6

2,7

2,8

2,8

ε cu1 ()

 

3,5

3,2

3,0

2,8

2,8

2,8

ε c2 ()

 

2,0

2,2

2,3

2,4

2,5

2,6

ε cu2 ()

 

3,5

3,1

2,9

2,7

2,6

2,6

 

n

 

2,0

1,75

1,6

1,45

1,4

1,4

ε c3 ()

 

1,75

1,8

1,9

2,0

2,2

2,3

ε cu3 ()

 

3,5

3,1

2,9

2,7

2,6

2,6

1,9 2,0 2,2 2,3 ε cu3 ( ‰ )   3,5 3,1 2,9 2,7 2,6 2,6

Design Strength Values

(3.1.6)

Design compressive strength, f cd

f cd = α cc f ck /γ c

Design tensile strength, f ctd

f ctd = α ct f ctk,0.05 /γ c

α cc (= 1,0) and α ct (= 1,0) are coefficients to take account of long term effects on the compressive and tensile strengths and of unfavourable effects resulting from the way the load is applied (national choice)

strengths and of unfavourable effects resulting from the way the load is applied (national choice) 22

Concrete strength at a time t (3.1.2)

Expressions are given for the estimation of strengths at times other than 28 days for various types of cement

f cm (t) = β cc (t) f cm

where f cm (t) is the mean compressive strength at an age of t days

β cc (t) = exp {s[1-(28/t) 1/2 ]}

The coeeficient s depends on type of cement: s = 0,20 for rapid hardening cement (Class R), s = 0,25 for normal hardening (Class N) and s = 0,38 for Class S (slow hardening) cement. Classes according to EN 197-1

hardening (Class N) and s = 0,38 for Class S (slow hardening) cement. Classes according to

Elastic deformation (3.1.3)

Values given in EC2 are indicative and vary according to type of aggregate

E cm (t) = (f cm (t)/f cm ) 0,3 E cm

Tangent modulus E c may be taken as 1,05 E cm

Poissons ratio:

0,2 for uncracked concrete

0 for cracked concrete

Linear coefficient of expansion 1010 -6 K -1

concrete 0 for cracked concrete • Linear coefficient of expansion 10 ⋅ 10 - 6 K

Concrete stress - strain relations (3.1.5 and 3.1.7)

σc For structural analysis “Schematic” fcm 0,4 fcm tan α = Ecm α ε c
σc
For structural analysis
“Schematic”
fcm
0,4 fcm
tan α
= Ecm
α
ε c
ε c1
ε cu1

ε c1 ( 0 / 00 ) = 0,7 f cm

ε cu1 ( 0 / 00 ) =

0,31

2,8 + 27[(98-f cm )/100] 4 f cm )/100] 4

for f ck 50 MPa otherwise 3.5

22 February 2008

For section analysis

“Parabola-rectangle” σc fck fcd 0 ε c2 ε c ε cu2 ⎡ ⎛ ε ⎞
“Parabola-rectangle”
σc
fck
fcd
0 ε c2
ε c
ε cu2
ε
c
= f
1
1
n ⎤
for 0 ≤<
ε
ε
σ c
cd
c
c2
ε
⎢ ⎣
c2
⎥ ⎦
σ
= f
for
ε
≤ ε
≤ ε
c
cd
c2
c
cu2

n = 1,4 + 23,4 [(90- f ck )/100] 4 for f ck 50 MPa otherwise 2,0

σc

   
 
  “ Bi-linear ”  

Bi-linear

 

fck

   

fcd

     
 
 
 

0

ε

c3

ε cu3

ε c

ε c3 ( 0 / 00 ) = 1,75 + 0,55 [(f ck -50)/40]

for f ck 50 MPa otherwise 1,75

ε cu3 ( 0 / 00 ) =2,6+35[(90-f ck )/100] 4 for f ck 50 MPa otherwise 3,5

ε c2 ( 0 / 00 ) = 2,0 + 0,085(f ck -50) 0,53

for f ck 50 MPa otherwise 2,0

ε cu2 ( 0 / 00 ) = 2,6 + 35 [(90-f ck )/100] 4 for f ck 50 MPa otherwise 3,5

14

ε c u 2 ( 0 / 0 0 ) = 2,6 + 35 [(90- f

Concrete stress-strain relations

- Higher concrete strength show more brittle behaviour, reflected by shorter horizontal branche

- Higher concrete strength show more brittle behaviour, reflected by shorter horizontal branche 22 February 2008
- Higher concrete strength show more brittle behaviour, reflected by shorter horizontal branche 22 February 2008
- Higher concrete strength show more brittle behaviour, reflected by shorter horizontal branche 22 February 2008

Chapter 3.1: Concrete

Simplified σ - ε relation for cross sections with non rectangular cross-section

for cross sections with non rectangular cross-section λ = 0,8 for f c k ≤ 50

λ= 0,8 for f ck 50 MPa λ = 0,8 – (f ck -50)/400 for 50 fck 90 MPa

η = 1,0 for f ck 50 MPa η = 1,0 – (f ck -50)/200 for 50 fck 90 MPa

= 1,0 for f c k ≤ 50 MPa η = 1,0 – (f c k

Shrinkage (3.1.4)

The shrinkage strain ε cs is composed of two components:

ε cs = ε cd + ε ca

where

- drying shrinkage strain ε cd (t) = β ds (t, t s )k h ⋅ε cd,0 where ε cd,0 is the basic drying shrinkage strain

- autogenous shrinkage strain ε ca (t) = β as (t)⋅ε ca ()

strain - autogenous shrinkage strain ε c a (t) = β a s (t) ⋅ε c

Autogenous shrinkage

l
l

Concrete strength f c =90 MPa

Stichtse Bridge, 1997:

Autogenous shrinkage 20.10 -3 after 2 days

strength f c =90 MPa Stichtse Bridge, 1997: Autogenous shrinkage 20.10 - 3 after 2 days
strength f c =90 MPa Stichtse Bridge, 1997: Autogenous shrinkage 20.10 - 3 after 2 days

Shrinkage (3.1.4)

β

ds

( ,

t t

s

)

=

 

(

t

t

s

)

(

t

 

t

 

)

+

0,04

 

h

3

s

− s 0

0

where t = age of concrete at time considered, t s = age at beginning of drying shrinkage (mostly end of curing)

ε

ca

( ) =

t

where

β

as

( )

t ε

ca

()

ε

ca

(

)

=

2,5(

f

ck

10) 10

6

and

β

as

( )

t

=

1

exp( 0,2

t

0,5

)

( ∞ ) ε ca ( ∞ ) = 2,5( f ck − 10) 10 −

Creep of concrete

(3.1.4)

Inside conditions – RH = 50% Example: 600 mm thick slab, loading at 30 days,
Inside conditions – RH = 50%
Example: 600 mm thick slab, loading at 30 days, C30/37
-
ϕ = 1,8
t 0
1
N
R
2
S
3
5
C20/25
C25/30
C30/37
10
C35/45
C40/50
C45/55
C50/60
20
C60/75
30
C80/95
50
100
0
100 300
500
700
900
1100 1300
1500
7,0
6,0
5,0
4,0
3,0
2,0
1,0
ϕ (∞, t 0)
h 0 (mm)
h 0 = 2A c /u where A c is the cross-section area and
u is perimeter of the member in contact with the atmosphere

C55/67

C70/85

C90/105

area and u is perimeter of the member in contact with the atmosphere C55/67 C70/85 C90/105

Confined Concrete (3.1.9)

σ2

σ1 = fck,c σ3 ( = σ2)
σ1 = fck,c
σ3 ( = σ2)

f ck,c = f ck (1.000 + 5.0 σ 2 /f ck ) = f ck (1.125 + 2.50 σ 2 /f ck )

ε c2,c = ε c2 (f ck,c /f ck )2

ε cu2,c = ε cu2 + 0,2 σ 2 /f ck

σc fck,c fck fcd,c A εc εcu εc2,c εcu2,c 0
σc
fck,c
fck
fcd,c
A
εc
εcu
εc2,c
εcu2,c
0

for σ 2 0.05f ck for σ 2 > 0.05f ck

A εc εcu εc2,c εcu2,c 0 for σ 2 ≤ 0.05 f c k for σ

Stress-strain relations for reinforcing steel

Stress-strain relations for reinforcing steel 22 February 2008 22
Stress-strain relations for reinforcing steel 22 February 2008 22

Reinforcement (2) – From Annex C

Product form Bars and de-coiled rods Wire Fabrics Class A B C A B C
Product form
Bars and de-coiled rods
Wire Fabrics
Class
A
B
C
A
B
C
Characteristic yield
strength f yk or f 0,2k (MPa)
400 to 600
cold worked
hot rolled
seismic
k = (f t /f y ) k
≥1,05
≥1,08
≥1,15
≥1,05
≥1,08
≥1,15
<1,35
<1,35
Characteristic strain at
maximum force, ε uk (%)
≥2,5
≥5,0
≥7,5
≥2,5
≥5,0
≥7,5
Fatigue stress range
(N = 2 x 10 6 ) (MPa) with
an upper limit of 0.6f yk
150
100
≥7,5 Fatigue stress range (N = 2 x 10 6 ) (MPa) with an upper limit

Idealized and design stress strain relations for reinforcing steel

Alternative design stress/strain relationships are permitted:

- inclined top branch with a limit to the ultimate strain horizontal - horizontal top branch with no strain limit

σ Idealised kfyk kfyk/γs fyk fyd = fyk/γs Design ε fyd/ Es ε ud ε
σ
Idealised
kfyk
kfyk/γs
fyk
fyd = fyk/γs
Design
ε
fyd/ Es
ε ud
ε uk

k = (f t /f y ) k ε ud = 0.9 ε uk

Design ε fyd/ Es ε ud ε uk k = ( f t / f y

Durability and cover

Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven

22 February 2008

Group Concrete Structures

25

Penetration of corrosion stimulating components in concrete

Penetration of corrosion stimulating components in concrete 22 February 2008 26
Penetration of corrosion stimulating components in concrete 22 February 2008 26

Deterioration of concrete

Corrosion of reinforcement by chloride penetration

Deterioration of concrete Corrosion of reinforcement by chloride penetration 22 February 2008 27
Deterioration of concrete Corrosion of reinforcement by chloride penetration 22 February 2008 27

Deterioration of concrete structures

Corrosion of reinforcement by chloride attack in a marine environment

of concrete structures Corrosion of reinforcement by chloride attack in a marine environment 22 February 2008
of concrete structures Corrosion of reinforcement by chloride attack in a marine environment 22 February 2008

Avoiding corrosion of steel in concrete

Avoiding corrosion of steel in concrete Design criteria - Aggressivity of environment - Specified service life

Design criteria

- Aggressivity of environment

- Specified service life

Design measures

- Sufficient cover thickness

- Sufficiently low permeability of concrete (in combination with cover thickness)

- Avoiding harmfull cracks parallel to reinforcing bars

- Other measures like: stainless steel, cathodic protection, coatings, etc.

to reinforcing bars - Other measures like: stainless steel, cathodic protection, coatings , etc. 22 February

Aggressivity of the environment

Main exposure classes:

The exposure classes are defined in EN206-1. The main classes are:

XO – no risk of corrosion or attack

XC – risk of carbonation induced corrosion

XD – risk of chloride-induced corrosion (other than sea water)

XS – risk of chloride induced corrosion (sea water)

XF – risk of freeze thaw attack

XA – Chemical attack

induced corrosion (sea water) • XF – risk of freeze thaw attack • XA – Chemical
induced corrosion (sea water) • XF – risk of freeze thaw attack • XA – Chemical

Agressivity of the environment

Further specification of main exposure classes in subclasses (I)

Agressivity of the environment Further specification of main exposure classes in subclasses (I) 22 February 2008
Agressivity of the environment Further specification of main exposure classes in subclasses (I) 22 February 2008

Cover to reinforcement, required to fulfill service life demands

Definition of concrete cover

On drawings the nominal cover should be specified. It is defined as a minimum cover c min plus an allowance in design for deviation Δc dev, so

c nom = c min +Δc dev

in design for deviation Δ c d e v , s o c nom = c
in design for deviation Δ c d e v , s o c nom = c

Allowance in design for deviation, Δc dev

The determination of Δc dev is up to the countries to decide, but:

Recommended value 10mm

Reduction allowed if:

decide, but: Recommended value 10mm Reduction allowed if: - A quality assurance system is applied including

-A quality assurance system is applied including measuring the cover thickness (max. reduction 5mm)

- An advanced measuring system is used and non conforming members are rejected (max. reduction 10mm)

An advanced measuring system is used and non conforming members are rejected (max. reduction 10mm) 22

Procedure to determine c min,dur

EC-2 leaves the choice of c min,dur to the countries, but gives the following recommendation:

The value c min,dur depends on the “structural class”, which has to be determined first. If the specified service life is 50 years, the structural class is defined as 4. The “structural class” can be modified in case of the following conditions:

-The service life is 100 years in stead of 50 years -The concrete strength is higher than necessary - Slabs (position of reinforcement not affected by construction process - Special quality control measures apply

The finally applying service class can be calculated with Table 4.3N

quality control measures apply The finally applying service class can be calculated with Table 4.3N 22

Table for determining final Structural Class

Table for determining final Structural Class 22 February 2008 35
Table for determining final Structural Class 22 February 2008 35

Final determination of c min,dur (1)

The value c min,dur is finally determined as a function of the structural class and the exposure class:

, d u r is finally determined as a function of the structural class and the
, d u r is finally determined as a function of the structural class and the

Special considerations

In case of stainless steel the minimum cover may be reduced. The value of the reduction is left to the decision of the countries (0 if no further specification).

value of the reduction is left to the decision of the countries (0 if no further
value of the reduction is left to the decision of the countries (0 if no further

Structural Analysis

Structural Analysis 22 February 2008 38

Methods to analyse structures

Linear elastic analysis

1. Suitable for ULS and SLS

2. Assumptions:

- uncracked cross-sections

- linear σ - ε relations

- mean E-modulus

3. Effect of imposed deformations in ULS to be calculated with reduced stiffnesses and creep

3. Effect of imposed deformations in ULS to be calculated with reduced stiffnesses and creep 22
3. Effect of imposed deformations in ULS to be calculated with reduced stiffnesses and creep 22

Geometric Imperfections (5.2)

Deviations in cross-section dimensions are normally taken into account in the material factors and should not be included in structural analysis

Imperfections need not be considered for SLS

θ i Na Hi Nb l
θ
i
Na
Hi
Nb
l

Out-of-plumb is represented by an inclination, θ l

θ l = θ 0 α h α m where

θ 0 = l/200 α h = 2/l; 2/3 ≤ α h 1 α m = (0,5(1+1/m)

l is the height of member (m) m is the number of vert. members

1 α m = √ (0,5(1+1/ m ) l is the height of member (m) m

Forces due to geometric imperfections on

structures(5.2)

θ i Na Hi Nb l
θ
i
Na
Hi
Nb
l

Bracing System H i = θ i (N b -N a )

θi /2 Na Hi Nb θi /2 Floor Diaphragm
θi /2
Na
Hi
Nb
θi /2
Floor Diaphragm

H i = θ i (N b +N a )/2

θ

i

Roof

H i = θ i N a

/2 Floor Diaphragm H i = θ i ( N b +N a )/2 θ i

Methods to analyse structures

5.5 Linear elastic analysis with limited redistribution

M 2 1. Valid for 0,5 ≤ l 1 / l 2 ≤ 2,0 M
M
2
1. Valid for 0,5 ≤
l 1 / l 2 ≤ 2,0
M
1
2. Ratio of redistribution δ, with
δ ≥ k 1 + k 2 x u /d for f ck ≤ 50 MPa
δ ≥ k 3 + k 4 x u /d for f ck > 50 MPa
l 1
l 2
δ ≥ k 5 for reinforcement class B or C

δ k 6 for reinforcement class A

MPa l 1 l 2 δ ≥ k 5 for reinforcement class B or C δ

Redistribution limits for Class B & C steel

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
x /d
fck =70
fck =60
fck =50
22 February 2008
43
% redist
10 5 0 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 x /d fck =70 fck

Methods to analyse structures

5.6 Plastic methods of analysis

(a) Yield line analysis

(b) Strut and tie analysis (lower bound)

- Suitable for ULS

- Suitable for SLS if compatibility is ensured (direction of struts oriented to compression in elas- tic analysis

if compatibility is ensured (direction of struts oriented to compression in elas- tic analysis 22 February
if compatibility is ensured (direction of struts oriented to compression in elas- tic analysis 22 February

Methods to analyse structures

Ch. 5.7 Nonlinear analysis

“Nonlinear analysis may be used for both ULS and SLS, provided that equilibrium and compatibility are satisfied and an adequate non- linear behaviour for materials is assumed. The analysis may be first or second order”.

non- linear behaviour for materials is assumed. The analysis may be first or second order”. 22
non- linear behaviour for materials is assumed. The analysis may be first or second order”. 22
non- linear behaviour for materials is assumed. The analysis may be first or second order”. 22

Chapter 5 “Structural analysis”

5.8 Second order effects with axial loads

- Slenderness criteria for isolated members

and buildings (when is 2 nd order analysis required?)

- Methods of second order analysis

General method based on nonlinear behaviour, including geometric nonlinearity

Analysis based on nominal stiffness

Analysis based on moment magnification factor

Analysis based on nominal curvature

Extended calculation tools are given

magnification factor • Analysis based on nominal curvature Extended calculation tools are given 22 February 2008
magnification factor • Analysis based on nominal curvature Extended calculation tools are given 22 February 2008

Methods of analysis

Biaxial bending

M

M

Rdz/y

Rdz/y

design moment around respective axis

moment resistance in respective direction

For circular and elliptical cross-section

a = 2.

For rectangular cross section, see table

N

E /N Rd

0,1

0,7

1,0

 

a

1,0

1,5

2,0

cross section, see table N E /N Rd 0,1 0,7 1,0   a 1,0 1,5 2,0
cross section, see table N E /N Rd 0,1 0,7 1,0   a 1,0 1,5 2,0
cross section, see table N E /N Rd 0,1 0,7 1,0   a 1,0 1,5 2,0

Methods of analysis

Lateral buckling of beams

No lateral buckling if:

Methods of analysis Lateral buckling of beams No lateral buckling if : 22 February 2008 48
Methods of analysis Lateral buckling of beams No lateral buckling if : 22 February 2008 48
Methods of analysis Lateral buckling of beams No lateral buckling if : 22 February 2008 48

Bending with or without axial force

Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven

22 February 2008

Group Concrete Structures

49

Concrete design stress - strain relations (3.1.5 and 3.1.7) for section analysis

“Parabola-rectangle” σc fck fcd 0 ε c2 ε c ε cu2 ⎡ ⎛ ε ⎞
“Parabola-rectangle”
σc
fck
fcd
0 ε c2
ε c
ε cu2
ε
c
= f
1
1
n ⎤
for 0 ≤<
ε
ε
σ c
cd
c
c2
ε
⎢ ⎣
c2
⎥ ⎦
σ
= f
for
ε
≤≤ε
ε
c
cd
c2
c
cu2

n = 1,4 + 23,4 [(90- f ck )/100] 4 for f ck 50 MPa otherwise 2,0

ε c2 ( 0 / 00 ) = 2,0 + 0,085(f ck -50) 0,53 for f ck 50 MPa otherwise 2,0

ε cu2 ( 0 / 00 ) = 2,6 + 35 [(90-f ck )/100] 4 for f ck 50 MPa otherwise 3,5

σc

   
 
  “ Bi-linear ”  

Bi-linear

 

fck

   

fcd

     
 
 
 

0

ε

c3

ε cu3

ε c

ε c3 ( 0 / 00 ) = 1,75 + 0,55 [(f ck -50)/40] for f ck 50 MPa otherwise 1,75

ε cu3 ( 0 / 00 ) =2,6+35[(90-f ck )/100] 4 for f ck 50 MPa otherwise 3,5

( 0 / 0 0 ) =2,6+35[(90-f c k )/100] 4 for f c k ≥

Concrete design stress strain relations for different strength classes

- Higher concrete strength shows more brittle behaviour, reflected by shorter horizontal branche

- Higher concrete strength shows more brittle behaviour, reflected by shorter horizontal branche 22 February 2008
- Higher concrete strength shows more brittle behaviour, reflected by shorter horizontal branche 22 February 2008
- Higher concrete strength shows more brittle behaviour, reflected by shorter horizontal branche 22 February 2008

Simplified concrete design stress block

εcu3 η fcd Fc Ac x λx d As Fs εs
εcu3
η fcd
Fc
Ac
x
λx
d
As
Fs
εs

λ = 0,8

= 0,8

η = 1,0

for f ck 50 MPa

(f

ck

50)

400

for 50 < f ck 90 MPa

for f ck 50 MPa

= 1,0 – (f ck – 50)/200 for 50 < f ck 90 MPa

for f c k ≤ 50 MPa = 1,0 – ( f c k – 50)/200

Simplified factors for flexure (1)

Factors for NA depth (n) and lever arm (=z) for concrete grade 50 MPa

1.20 1.00 lever arm 0.80 0.60 0.40 NA depth 0.20 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
1.20
1.00
lever arm
0.80
0.60
0.40
NA depth
0.20
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
n
0.02
0.04
0.07
0.09
0.12
0.14
0.17
0.19
0.22
0.24
0.27
0.30
0.33
0.36
0.39
0.43
0.46
z
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.92
0.91
0.90
0.89
0.88
0.87
0.86
0.84
0.83
0.82
Factor

M/bd 2 f ck

0.94 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.90 0.89 0.88 0.87 0.86 0.84 0.83 0.82 Factor M/ bd 2

Simplified factors for flexure (2)

Factors for NA depth (=n) and lever arm (=z) for concrete grade 70 MPa

1.20 1.00 lever arm 0.80 0.60 0.40 NA depth 0.20 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04
1.20
1.00
lever arm
0.80
0.60
0.40
NA depth
0.20
0.00
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
n
0.03
0.05
0.08
0.11
0.14
0.17
0.20
0.23
0.26
0.29
0.33
z
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.91
0.90
0.89
0.88
Factor

M/bd 2 f ck

z 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.91 0.90 0.89 0.88 Factor M / bd

Column design chart for f ck 50 MPa

2 b 1.8 d 1 1.6 A s f yk /bhf ck h 1.0 1.4
2
b
1.8
d 1
1.6
A
s f yk /bhf ck
h
1.0
1.4
d 1
0.8 0.9
1.2
0.6 0.7
1 /h = 0.05
f ck <= 50
d
1
0.4 0.5
0.2
0.3
0.8
0.1
0
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
0.55
0.6
N
d /bhf cd

M d /bh 2 f cd

0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 N d /bhf cd M

Column design chart for f ck = 70 MPa

2 b 1.8 d 1 1.6 h 1.4 d 1 1.2 d /h = 0.1
2
b
1.8
d
1
1.6
h
1.4
d
1
1.2
d
/h = 0.1
A
1
s f yk /bhf ck
1
f ck = 90
1.0
0.8
0.8 0.9
0.6 0.7
0.6
0.4 0.5
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
0.55
0.6
N d /bhf cd

M d /bh 2 f cd

0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 N d /bhf cd M

Shear

Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven

22 February 2008

Group Concrete Structures

Shear Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven 22 February 2008 Group Concrete Structures 57

57

Principles of shear control in EC-2

Until a certain shear force V Rd,c no calculated shear reinforcement is necessary (only in beams minimum shear reinforcement is prescribed)

If the design shear force is larger than this value V Rd,c shear reinforcement is necessary for the full design shear force. This

shear reinforcement is calculated with the variable inclination truss analogy. To this aim the strut inclination may be chosen between

two values (recommended

range 1cot θ 2,5)

The shear reinforcement may not exceed a defined maximum value to ensure yielding of the shear reinforcement

reinforcement may not exceed a defined maximum value to ensure yielding of the shear reinforcement 22

Concrete slabs without shear reinforcement

Concrete slabs without shear reinforcement Shear resistance V R d , c governed by shear flexure

Shear resistance V Rd,c governed by shear flexure failure: shear crack develops from flexural crack

V R d , c governed by shear flexure failure: shear crack develops from flexural crack

Concrete slabs without shear reinforcement

Concrete slabs without shear reinforcement Prestressed hollow core slab Shear resistance V R d , c

Prestressed hollow core slab

Shear resistance V Rd,c governed by shear tension failure:

crack occurs in web in region uncracked in flexure

R d , c governed by shear tension failure: crack occurs in web in region uncracked

Concrete beam reinforced in shear

Concrete beam reinforced in shear Shear failure introduced by yielding of stirrups, followed by strut rotation

Shear failure introduced by yielding of stirrups, followed by strut rotation until web crushing

Shear failure introduced by yielding of stirrups, followed by strut rotation until web crushing 22 February

Principle of variable truss action

Approach “Variable inclination struts”:

a realistic

Stage 1: web uncracked in shear

Stage 2: inclined cracks occur Stage 3: stabilized inclined cracks Stage 4: yielding of stirrups, further rotation, finally web crushing

Strut rotation as measured in tests (TU Delft)

stirrups, further rotation, finally web crushing Strut rotation as measured in tests (TU Delft) 22 February
stirrups, further rotation, finally web crushing Strut rotation as measured in tests (TU Delft) 22 February

Principles of variable angle truss

Strut rotation, followed by new cracks under lower angle, even in high strength concrete (Tests TU Delft)

rotation, followed by new cracks under lower angle, even in high strength concrete (Tests TU Delft)
rotation, followed by new cracks under lower angle, even in high strength concrete (Tests TU Delft)
rotation, followed by new cracks under lower angle, even in high strength concrete (Tests TU Delft)

Web crushing in concrete beam

Web crushing in concrete beam Web crushing provides maximum to shear resistance At web crushing: V

Web crushing provides maximum to shear resistance

At web crushing:

V Rd,max = b w z υ f cd /(cotθ + tanθ)

resistance At web crushing: V R d , m a x = b w z υ

Advantage of variable angle truss analogy

-Freedom of design:

low angle θ leads to low shear reinforcement

High angle θ leads to thin webs, saving concrete and dead weight Optimum choice depends on type of structure

- Transparent equilibrium model, easy in use

weight Optimum choice depends on type of structure - Transparent equilibrium model, easy in use 22

Shear design value under which no shear reinforcement is necessary in elements unreinforced in shear (general limit)

V

Rd c

,

C Rd,c

=

C

Rd c

,

k

(100ρ

l

f

ck

)

1/3

b d

w

coefficient derived from tests (recommended 0,12)

k size factor = 1 + (200/d) with d in meter

ρ l longitudinal reinforcement ratio ( 0,02)

f ck characteristic concrete compressive strength

b w

smallest web width

d

effective height of cross section

concrete compressive strength b w smallest web width d effective height of cross section 22 February

Shear design value under which no shear reinforcement is necessary in elements unreinforced in shear (general limit)

Minimum value for V Rd,c:

V Rd,c = v min b w d

Values for v min (N/mm 2 )

 

d=200

d=400

d=600

d=800

C20

0,44

0,35

0,25

0,29

C40

0,63

0,49

0,44

0,41

C60

0,77

0,61

0,54

0,50

C80

0,89

0,70

0,62

0,58

0,49 0,44 0,41 C60 0,77 0,61 0,54 0,50 C80 0,89 0,70 0,62 0,58 22 February 2008

Shear design value under which no shear reinforcement is necessary in elements unreinforced in shear (special case of shear tension)

reinforcement is necessary in elements unreinforced in shear (special case of shear tension) 22 February 2008
reinforcement is necessary in elements unreinforced in shear (special case of shear tension) 22 February 2008
reinforcement is necessary in elements unreinforced in shear (special case of shear tension) 22 February 2008
reinforcement is necessary in elements unreinforced in shear (special case of shear tension) 22 February 2008

Special case of shear tension (example hollow core slabs)

V

Rd c

,

I

b w

S

f ctd

α l

σ cp

=

I ⋅ b w 2 ( f ) +α σ f ctd l cp ctd
I
b
w
2
(
f
)
+α σ
f
ctd
l
cp
ctd
S

moment of inertia smallest web width section modulus design tensile strength of concrete reduction factor for prestress in case of prestressing strands or wires in ends of member concrete compressive stress at centroidal axis ifor for fully developed prestress

ends of member concrete compressive stress at centroidal axis ifor for fully developed prestress 22 February

Design of members if shear reinforcement is needed (V E,d >V Rd,c )

s z θ A f sw yw z cot θ V u,3 s σc= z
s
z
θ
A
f
sw yw
z cot θ
V
u,3
s
σc=
z
θ
θ
Afswyw
=
f
θ
V
zcot
V
u3
u2

For most cases:

θ
θ
θ
θ

θ

θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ Afswyw = f θ V zcot V u3 u2 For most cases: θ V u,2
θ Afswyw = f θ V zcot V u3 u2 For most cases: θ V u,2

V u,2

σ c

=

f

c1

= υf c

-Assume cot θ = 2,5 (θ = 21,8 0 ) -Calculate necessary shear reinforcement -Check if web crushing capacity is not exceeded (V Ed >V Rd,s ) -If web crushing capacity is exceeded, enlarge web width or calculate the value of cot θ for which V Ed = V Rd,c and repeat the calculation

calculate the value of cot θ for which V E d = V R d ,

Upper limit of shear capacity reached due to web crushing

s z θ A f sw yw z cot θ V u,3 s σc= θ
s
z
θ
A
f
sw yw
z cot θ
V
u,3
s
σc=
θ
z
θ
Afswyw
=
f
θ
V
zcot
V
u3
u2

For yielding shear reinforcement:

V Rd,s = (A sw /s) z f ywd cotθ

θ from 45 0 to 21,8 0 2,5 times larger capacity

θ
θ
θ
θ

θ

θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ
θ from 45 0 to 21,8 0 2,5 times larger capacity θ V u,2 σ c
θ from 45 0 to 21,8 0 2,5 times larger capacity θ V u,2 σ c

V u,2

σ c

=

f

c1

= υf c

At web crushing:

V Rd,max = b w z υ f cd /(cotθ + tanθ)

θ from 21,8 0 to 45 0 1,45 times larger capacity

z υ f c d /(cot θ + tan θ ) θ from 21,8 0 to

Special case of loads near to supports

d a a v v
d
a
a
v
v

d

For a v 2d the contribution of the point load to the shear force V Ed may be reduced by a factor a v /2d where 0.5 a v 2d provided that the longitudinal reinforcement is fully anchored at the support. However, the condition

V Ed 0,5b w dυf cd

should always be fulfilled

support. However, the condition V E d ≤ 0,5b w d υ f c d should

Influence of prestressing on shear resistance (1)

1. Prestressing introduces a set of loads on the beam

of prestressing on shear resistance (1) 1. Prestressing introduces a set of loads on the beam
of prestressing on shear resistance (1) 1. Prestressing introduces a set of loads on the beam

Influence of prestressing on shear resistance (2)

Prestressing increases the load V Rc,d below which no calculated shear reinforcement is required

V

Rd c

,

k 1

σ cp

=

[

C

Rd c

,

k

(100

ρ

l

f

ck

)

1/3

+

k

1

σ

cp

]

b d

w

coefficient, with recommended value 0,15 concrete compressive stress at centroidal axis due to axial loading or prestressing

value 0,15 concrete compressive stress at centroidal axis due to axial loading or prestressing 22 February

Influence of prestressing on shear resistance (3)

1. Prestressing increases the web crushing capacity

V

Rd

,max

= α

cw

b

w

z

f

ν

cd

/(cot

θ +

tan

θ

)

α cw

α cw =

factor depending on prestressing force

1

(1+σ cp /f cd

)

1,25

2,5(1- σ cp /f cd )

for non prestressed structures for 0,25 < σ cp < 0,25f cd

for

for 0,5f cd <σ cp < 1,0f cd

0,25f cd <σ cp <0,5f cd

0,5f c d < σ c p < 1,0f c d 0,25f c d < σ

Increase of web crushing capacity by prestressing (4)

Increase of web crushing capacity by prestressing (4) 22 February 2008 76
Increase of web crushing capacity by prestressing (4) 22 February 2008 76

Influence of prestressing on shear resistance (4)

Reducing effect of prestressing duct (with or without tendon) on web crushing capacity

Grouted ducts

b w,nom = b w - Σφ

Ungrouted ducts b w,nom = b w – 1,2 Σφ

b w , n o m = b w - Σφ Ungrouted ducts b w ,
b w , n o m = b w - Σφ Ungrouted ducts b w ,
b w , n o m = b w - Σφ Ungrouted ducts b w ,

Shear between web and flanges of T-sections

Shear between web and flanges of T-sections Strut angle θ : 1,0 ≤ cot θ f

Strut angle θ:

1,0 cot θ f 2,0 for compression flanges (45 0 ≥ θ f 26,5 0 1,0 cot θ f 1,25 for tension flanges (45 0 ≥ θ f 38,6 0 )

No transverse tension ties required if shear stress in interface

v Ed = ΔF d /(h f ·Δx) kf ctd

(recommended k = 0,4)

in interface v E d = Δ F d /(h f · Δ x) ≤ kf

Shear at the interface between concretes cast at different times

at the interface between concretes cast at different times Interface shear models based on shear friction
at the interface between concretes cast at different times Interface shear models based on shear friction

Interface shear models based on shear friction principle

between concretes cast at different times Interface shear models based on shear friction principle 22 February
between concretes cast at different times Interface shear models based on shear friction principle 22 February

Shear at the interface between concretes cast at different times

Shear at the interface between concretes cast at different times 22 February 2008 80
Shear at the interface between concretes cast at different times 22 February 2008 80
Shear at the interface between concretes cast at different times 22 February 2008 80

Shear at the interface between concrete’s cast at different times (Eurocode 2, Clause

6.5.2)

cast at different times (Eurocode 2, Clause 6.5.2) v R d i = c ⋅ f

v Rdi = cf ctd + μ⋅σ n + ρ⋅f yd (μ⋅sin β + cos β) 0,5 ν⋅f cd

(=tan α)

f ctd =concrete design tensile strength σ n = eventual confining stress, not from reinforcement ρ= reinforcement ratio

inclination between reinforcement and concrete surface f cd = concrete design compressive strength = 0,6 for f ck 60 MPa

υ

β

=

= 0,9 – f ck /2000,5 for f ck 60 MPa

= 0,9 – f c k /200 ≥ 0,5 for f c k ≥ 60 MPa
 

c

μ

Very smooth

0,25

0,5

smooth

0,35

0,6

rough

0,45

0,7

indented

0,50

0,8

smooth 0,25 0,5 smooth 0,35 0,6 rough 0,45 0,7 indented 0,50 0,8 22 February 2008 81

Torsion

Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven

22 February 2008

Group Concrete Structures

82

Modeling solid cross sections by equivalent thin-walled cross sections

zi TEd tef/2 tef
zi
TEd
tef/2
tef

Centre-line

Cover

Outer edge of effective crossection, circumference u

Effective wall-thickness follows from t ef,i =A/u, where;

A

= total area of cross section within outer circumference, including hollow areas

U

= outer circumference of the cross section

outer circumference, including hollow areas U = outer circumference of the cross section 22 February 2008

Design procedure for torsion (1)

Shear flow in any wall follows from:

τ

t , i

t

ef

,

i

where

=

T Ed

2 A

k

τ t,I

torsional shear stress in wall I

t ef,I effective wall thickness (A/u) T Ed applied torsional moment

A k

area enclosed by centre lines of connecting walls, including hollow areas

torsional moment A k area enclosed by centre lines of connecting walls, including hollow areas 22
torsional moment A k area enclosed by centre lines of connecting walls, including hollow areas 22

Design procedure for torsion (2)

Shear force V Ed in wall i due to torsion is:

V

Ed i

,

=τ

t i

,

t

ef

,

i

z

i

where

τ t,I

t ef,I

Z i

torsional shear stress in wall i effective wall thickness (A/u) inside length of wall I defined by distance of intersection points with adjacent walls

(A/u) inside length of wall I defined by distance of intersection points with adjacent walls 22
(A/u) inside length of wall I defined by distance of intersection points with adjacent walls 22

Design procedure for torsion (3)

The shear reinforcement in any wall can now be designed like a beam using the variable angle truss analogy, with 1cot θ 2,5

now be designed like a beam using the variable angle truss analogy, with 1 ≤ cot
now be designed like a beam using the variable angle truss analogy, with 1 ≤ cot

Design procedure for torsion (4)

The longitudinal reinforcement in any wall follows from:

(4) The longitudinal reinforcement in any wall follows from: Σ A f sl T yd Ed
(4) The longitudinal reinforcement in any wall follows from: Σ A f sl T yd Ed

Σ A f

sl

T

yd

Ed

cotθ

=

u

k 2 A

k

where

u k

f yk

θ angle of compression struts

perimeter of area A k design yield stress of steel

u k f y k θ angle of compression struts perimeter of area A k design

Punching shear

Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven

22 February 2008

Group Concrete Structures

88

Design for punching shear

Most important aspects:

- Control perimeter

- Edge and corner columns

- Simplified versus advanced control methods

aspects: - Control perimeter - Edge and corner columns - Simplified versus advanced control methods 22
aspects: - Control perimeter - Edge and corner columns - Simplified versus advanced control methods 22
aspects: - Control perimeter - Edge and corner columns - Simplified versus advanced control methods 22

Definition of control perimeter

Definition of control perimeter 22 February 2008 90
Definition of control perimeter 22 February 2008 90
Definition of control perimeter 22 February 2008 90

Definition of control perimeters

The basic control perimeter u 1 is taken at a distance 2,0d from the loaded area and should be constructed as to minimise its length

taken at a distance 2,0d from the loaded area and should be constructed as to minimise
taken at a distance 2,0d from the loaded area and should be constructed as to minimise

Limit values for design punching shear stress in design

The following limit values for the punching shear stress are used in design:

If

v

where:

Ed

v

Rd c

,

v

Rd ,c

= C

Rd ,c

k

(100

ρ f

l

ck

no punching shear reinforcement required

)

1/3

+

0,10

σ

cp

(

v

min

+

0,10

σ

cp

)

ρ f l ck no punching shear reinforcement required ) 1/3 + 0,10 σ cp ≥

How to take account of eccentricity

More sophisticated method for internal columns:

z 2d y c1 c2 2d
z
2d
y
c1
c2
2d
method for internal columns: z 2d y c1 c2 2d e y and e z b

e y and e z b y and b z

eccentricities M Ed /V Ed along y and z axes dimensions of control perimeter

and b z eccentricities M E d /V E d along y and z axes dimensions

How to take account of eccentricity

Or, how to determine β in equation C β = 1,5 B A β =
Or, how to determine β in equation
C
β = 1,5
B
A
β = 1,4
β = 1,15

v Ed

= β

V

Ed

u d

i

For structures where lateral stability does not depend on frame action and where adjacent spans do not differ by more than 25% the approximate values for β shown below may be used:

spans do not differ by more than 25% the approximate values for β shown below may

How to take account of eccentricity

Alternative for edge and corner columns: use perimeter u 1* in stead of full perimeter and assume uniform distribution of punching force

perimeter u 1 * in stead of full perimeter and assume uniform distribution of punching force
perimeter u 1 * in stead of full perimeter and assume uniform distribution of punching force

Design of punching shear reinforcement

If v Ed v Rd,c shear reinforcement is required.

The steel contribution comes from the shear reinforcement crossing a surface at 1,5d from the edge of the loaded area, to ensure some anchorage at the upper end. The concrete component of resistance is taken 75% of the design strength of a slab without shear reinforcement

component of resistance is taken 75% of the design strength of a slab without shear reinforcement
component of resistance is taken 75% of the design strength of a slab without shear reinforcement

Punching shear reinforcement

Capacity with punching shear reinforcement V u = 0,75V Rd,c + V S Shear reinforcement within 1,5d from column is accounted for with f y,red = 250 + 0,25d(mm)f ywd

within 1,5d from column is accounted for with f y , r e d = 250
within 1,5d from column is accounted for with f y , r e d = 250

Punching shear reinforcement