Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
EN199211
Symposium Eurocodes: Backgrounds and Applications, Brussels 1820 February 2008
J.C. Walraven
22 February 2008
Vermelding onderdeel organisatie
1
EC2: Concrete Structures
EC2: General rules and rules for buildings
Bridges
Fire
Containers
Execution
Materials
Precast elements
Common rules
Product standards
Prestressing steel
Concrete
Reinforcing steel
22 February 2008
3
EC2: Concrete Structures
EC2: General rules and rules for buildings
Bridges
Fire
Containment structures
Execution
Materials
Precast elements
Common rules
Product standards
Prestressing steel
Concrete
Reinforcing steel
22 February 2008
4
EN 199211 “Concrete structures” (1) Content:
1. General
2. Basics
3. Materials
4. Durability and cover
5. Structural analysis
6. Ultimate limit states
7. Serviceability limit states
8. Detailing of reinforcement
9. Detailing of members and particular rules
10. Additional rules for precast concrete elements and structures
11. Lightweight aggregate concrete structures
12. Plain and lightly reinforced concrete structures
22 February 2008
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EN 199211 “Concrete structures” (2) Annexes:
A. Modifications of safety factor (I)
B. Formulas for creep and shrinkage (I)
C. Properties of reinforcement (N)
D. Prestressing steel relaxation losses (I)
E. Indicative strength classes for durability (I)
F. Inplane stress conditions (I)
G. Soil structure interaction (I)
H. Global second order effects in structures (I)
I. Analysis of flat slabs and shear walls (I)
J. Detailing rules for particular situations (I)
I = Informative N = Normative
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EN 199211 “Concrete structures” (3)
In EC2 “Design of concrete structures – Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings
109 national choices are possible
22 February 2008
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Chapter: 3 Materials
J.C. Walraven
22 February 2008
Vermelding onderdeel organisatie
8
Concrete strength classes
Concrete strength class C8/10 tot C100/115. (Characteristic cylinder strength / char. cube strength)
22 February 2008
9
Concrete strength classes and properties
Strength classes for concrete 

f _{c}_{k} (MPa) 
12 
16 
20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 
70 
80 
90 

f ck,cube 
15 
20 
25 
30 
37 
45 
50 
55 
60 
67 
75 
85 
95 
105 

(MPa) 

f 
cm 
20 
24 
28 
33 
38 
43 
48 
53 
58 
63 
68 
78 
88 
98 

(MPa) 

f 
ctm 
1,6 
1,9 
2,2 
2,6 
2,9 
3,2 
3,5 
3,8 
4,1 
4,2 
4,4 
4,6 
4,8 
5,0 

(MPa) 

f ctk,0,05 
1 
1 
1,3 
1,5 
1,8 
2,0 
2,2 
2,5 
2,7 
2,9 
3,0 
3,1 
3,2 
3,4 
3,5 

(MPa) 

f ctk,0,95 
2,0 
2,5 
2,9 
3,3 
3,8 
4,2 
4,6 
4,9 
5,3 
5,5 
5,7 
6,0 
6,3 
6,6 

(MPa) 

E cm 
27 
29 
30 
31 
32 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
41 
42 
44 

(Gpa) 

ε _{c}_{1} (‰) 
1,8 
1,9 
2,0 
2,1 
2,2 
2,25 
2,3 
2,4 
2,45 
2,5 
2,6 
2,7 
2,8 
2,8 

ε cu1 (‰) 
3,5 
3,2 
3,0 
2,8 
2,8 
2,8 

ε _{c}_{2} (‰) 
2,0 
2,2 
2,3 
2,4 
2,5 
2,6 

ε cu2 (‰) 
3,5 
3,1 
2,9 
2,7 
2,6 
2,6 

n 
2,0 
1,75 
1,6 
1,45 
1,4 
1,4 

ε _{c}_{3} (‰) 
1,75 
1,8 
1,9 
2,0 
2,2 
2,3 

ε cu3 (‰) 
3,5 
3,1 
2,9 
2,7 
2,6 
2,6 
22 February 2008
10
Design Strength Values
(3.1.6)
• Design compressive strength, f _{c}_{d}
^{f} cd ^{=} ^{α} cc ^{f} ck ^{/}^{γ} c
• Design tensile strength, f _{c}_{t}_{d}
^{f} ctd ^{=} ^{α} ct ^{f} ctk,0.05 ^{/}^{γ} c
α _{c}_{c} (= 1,0) and α _{c}_{t} (= 1,0) are coefficients to take account of long term effects on the compressive and tensile strengths and of unfavourable effects resulting from the way the load is applied (national choice)
22 February 2008
11
Concrete strength at a time t (3.1.2)
Expressions are given for the estimation of strengths at times other than 28 days for various types of cement
f _{c}_{m} (t) = β _{c}_{c} (t) f _{c}_{m}
where f _{c}_{m} (t) is the mean compressive strength at an age of t days
β _{c}_{c} (t) = exp {s[1(28/t) ^{1}^{/}^{2} ]}
The coeeficient s depends on type of cement: s = 0,20 for rapid hardening cement (Class R), s = 0,25 for normal hardening (Class N) and s = 0,38 for Class S (slow hardening) cement. Classes according to EN 1971
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Elastic deformation (3.1.3)
• Values given in EC2 are indicative and vary according to type of aggregate
• E _{c}_{m} (t) = (f _{c}_{m} (t)/f _{c}_{m} ) ^{0}^{,}^{3} E _{c}_{m}
• Tangent modulus E _{c} may be taken as 1,05 E _{c}_{m}
• Poissons ratio:
0,2 for uncracked concrete
0 for cracked concrete
• Linear coefficient of expansion 10⋅10 ^{}^{6} K ^{}^{1}
22 February 2008
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Concrete stress  strain relations (3.1.5 and 3.1.7)
ε _{c}_{1} ( ^{0} / _{0}_{0} ) = 0,7 f _{c}_{m}
^{ε} cu1 ^{(} ^{0} ^{/} 00 ^{)} ^{=}
0,31
2,8 + 27[(98f _{c}_{m} )/100] ^{4} f _{c}_{m} )/100] ^{4}
for f _{c}_{k} ≥ 50 MPa otherwise 3.5
22 February 2008
For section analysis
n = 1,4 + 23,4 [(90 f _{c}_{k} )/100] ^{4} for f _{c}_{k} ≥ 50 MPa otherwise 2,0
σc 


“Bilinear” 

fck 

fcd 



0
ε
c3
^{ε} cu3
ε c
ε _{c}_{3} ( ^{0} / _{0}_{0} ) = 1,75 + 0,55 [(f _{c}_{k} 50)/40]
for f _{c}_{k} ≥ 50 MPa otherwise 1,75
ε _{c}_{u}_{3} ( ^{0} / _{0}_{0} ) =2,6+35[(90f _{c}_{k} )/100] ^{4} for f _{c}_{k} ≥ 50 MPa otherwise 3,5
ε _{c}_{2} ( ^{0} / _{0}_{0} ) = 2,0 + 0,085(f _{c}_{k} 50) ^{0}^{,}^{5}^{3}
for f _{c}_{k} ≥ 50 MPa otherwise 2,0
ε _{c}_{u}_{2} ( ^{0} / _{0}_{0} ) = 2,6 + 35 [(90f _{c}_{k} )/100] ^{4} for f _{c}_{k} ≥ 50 MPa otherwise 3,5
14
Concrete stressstrain relations
 Higher concrete strength show more brittle behaviour, reflected by shorter horizontal branche
22 February 2008
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Chapter 3.1: Concrete
Simplified σ  ε relation for cross sections with non rectangular crosssection
λ= 0,8 for f _{c}_{k} ≤ 50 MPa λ = 0,8 – (f _{c}_{k} 50)/400 for 50 ≤ fck ≤ 90 MPa
η = 1,0 for f _{c}_{k} ≤ 50 MPa η = 1,0 – (f _{c}_{k} 50)/200 for 50 ≤ fck ≤ 90 MPa
22 February 2008
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Shrinkage (3.1.4)
• The shrinkage strain ε _{c}_{s} is composed of two components:
^{ε} cs ^{=} ^{ε} cd + ^{ε} ca
where
 drying shrinkage strain ε _{c}_{d} (t) = β _{d}_{s} (t, t _{s} )⋅k _{h} ⋅ε _{c}_{d}_{,}_{0} where ε _{c}_{d}_{,}_{0} is the basic drying shrinkage strain
 autogenous shrinkage strain ε _{c}_{a} (t) = β _{a}_{s} (t)⋅ε _{c}_{a} (∞)
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Autogenous shrinkage
Concrete strength f _{c} =90 MPa
Stichtse Bridge, 1997:
Autogenous shrinkage 20.10 ^{}^{3} after 2 days
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Shrinkage (3.1.4)
β
ds
( ,
t t
s
)
=
( 
t − 
t 
s 
) 

( 
t 
t 
) 
+ 0,04 
h 
3 

− 
s 

0 
where t = age of concrete at time considered, t _{s} = age at beginning of drying shrinkage (mostly end of curing)
ε
ca
( ) =
t
where
β
as
( )
t ε
ca
(∞)
ε
ca
(
∞
)
=
2,5(
f
ck
−
10) 10 ^{−}
⋅
6
and
β
as
( )
t
=
1
−
exp( 0,2
−
t
0,5
)
22 February 2008
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Creep of concrete
(3.1.4)
C55/67
C70/85
C90/105
22 February 2008
20
Confined Concrete (3.1.9)
σ2
f _{c}_{k}_{,}_{c} = f _{c}_{k} (1.000 + 5.0 σ _{2} /f _{c}_{k} ) = f _{c}_{k} (1.125 + 2.50 σ _{2} /f _{c}_{k} )
^{ε} c2,c ^{=} ^{ε} c2 ^{(}^{f} ck,c ^{/}^{f} ck ^{)}^{2}
^{ε} cu2,c ^{=} ^{ε} cu2 ^{+} ^{0}^{,}^{2} ^{σ} 2 ^{/}^{f} ck
for σ _{2} ≤ 0.05f _{c}_{k} for σ _{2} > 0.05f _{c}_{k}
22 February 2008
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Stressstrain relations for reinforcing steel
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22
Reinforcement (2) – From Annex C
22 February 2008
23
Idealized and design stress strain relations for reinforcing steel
Alternative design stress/strain relationships are permitted:
 inclined top branch with a limit to the ultimate strain horizontal  horizontal top branch with no strain limit
k = (f _{t} /f _{y} ) _{k} ε _{u}_{d} = 0.9 ε _{u}_{k}
22 February 2008
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Durability and cover
Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven
22 February 2008
Group Concrete Structures
25
Penetration of corrosion stimulating components in concrete
22 February 2008
26
Deterioration of concrete
Corrosion of reinforcement by chloride penetration
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27
Deterioration of concrete structures
Corrosion of reinforcement by chloride attack in a marine environment
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Avoiding corrosion of steel in concrete
Design criteria
 Aggressivity of environment
 Specified service life
Design measures
 Sufficient cover thickness
 Sufficiently low permeability of concrete (in combination with cover thickness)
 Avoiding harmfull cracks parallel to reinforcing bars
 Other measures like: stainless steel, cathodic protection, coatings, etc.
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Aggressivity of the environment
Main exposure classes:
• The exposure classes are defined in EN2061. The main classes are:
• XO – no risk of corrosion or attack
• XC – risk of carbonation induced corrosion
• XD – risk of chlorideinduced corrosion (other than sea water)
• XS – risk of chloride induced corrosion (sea water)
• XF – risk of freeze thaw attack
• XA – Chemical attack
22 February 2008
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Agressivity of the environment
Further specification of main exposure classes in subclasses (I)
22 February 2008
31
Cover to reinforcement, required to fulfill service life demands
Definition of concrete cover
On drawings the nominal cover should be specified. It is defined as a minimum cover c _{m}_{i}_{n} plus an allowance in design for deviation Δc _{d}_{e}_{v}_{,} _{s}_{o}
^{c} nom ^{=} ^{c} min ^{+}^{Δ}^{c} dev
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Allowance in design for deviation, Δc _{d}_{e}_{v}
The determination of Δc _{d}_{e}_{v} is up to the countries to decide, but:
Recommended value 10mm
Reduction allowed if:
A quality assurance system is applied including measuring the cover thickness (max. reduction 5mm)
 An advanced measuring system is used and non conforming members are rejected (max. reduction 10mm)
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Procedure to determine c _{m}_{i}_{n}_{,}_{d}_{u}_{r}
EC2 leaves the choice of c _{m}_{i}_{n}_{,}_{d}_{u}_{r} to the countries, but gives the following recommendation:
The value c _{m}_{i}_{n}_{,}_{d}_{u}_{r} depends on the “structural class”, which has to be determined first. If the specified service life is 50 years, the structural class is defined as 4. The “structural class” can be modified in case of the following conditions:
The service life is 100 years in stead of 50 years The concrete strength is higher than necessary  Slabs (position of reinforcement not affected by construction process  Special quality control measures apply
The finally applying service class can be calculated with Table 4.3N
22 February 2008
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Table for determining final Structural Class
22 February 2008
35
Final determination of c _{m}_{i}_{n}_{,}_{d}_{u}_{r} (1)
The value c _{m}_{i}_{n}_{,}_{d}_{u}_{r} is finally determined as a function of the structural class and the exposure class:
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Special considerations
In case of stainless steel the minimum cover may be reduced. The value of the reduction is left to the decision of the countries (0 if no further specification).
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Structural Analysis
22 February 2008
38
Methods to analyse structures
Linear elastic analysis
1. Suitable for ULS and SLS
2. Assumptions:
 uncracked crosssections
 linear σ  ε relations
 mean Emodulus
3. Effect of imposed deformations in ULS to be calculated with reduced stiffnesses and creep
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Geometric Imperfections (5.2)
• Deviations in crosssection dimensions are normally taken into account in the material factors and should not be included in structural analysis
• Imperfections need not be considered for SLS
• Outofplumb is represented by an inclination, θ _{l}
θ _{l} = θ _{0} α _{h} α _{m} where
θ _{0} = l/200 α _{h} = 2/√l; 2/3 ≤ α _{h} ≤ 1 α _{m} = √(0,5(1+1/m)
l is the height of member (m) m is the number of vert. members
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Forces due to geometric imperfections on
structures(5.2)
Bracing System ^{H} i ^{=} ^{θ} i ^{(}^{N} b ^{}^{N} a ^{)}
H _{i} = θ _{i} (N _{b} +N _{a} )/2
θ
i
Roof
H _{i} = θ _{i} N _{a}
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Methods to analyse structures
5.5 Linear elastic analysis with limited redistribution
δ ≥ k _{6} for reinforcement class A
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Redistribution limits for Class B & C steel
Methods to analyse structures
5.6 Plastic methods of analysis
(a) Yield line analysis
(b) Strut and tie analysis (lower bound)
 Suitable for ULS
 Suitable for SLS if compatibility is ensured (direction of struts oriented to compression in elas tic analysis
22 February 2008
44
Methods to analyse structures
Ch. 5.7 Nonlinear analysis
“Nonlinear analysis may be used for both ULS and SLS, provided that equilibrium and compatibility are satisfied and an adequate non linear behaviour for materials is assumed. The analysis may be first or second order”.
22 February 2008
45
Chapter 5 “Structural analysis”
5.8 Second order effects with axial loads
 Slenderness criteria for isolated members
and buildings (when is 2 ^{n}^{d} order analysis required?)
 Methods of second order analysis
• General method based on nonlinear behaviour, including geometric nonlinearity
• Analysis based on nominal stiffness
• Analysis based on moment magnification factor
• Analysis based on nominal curvature
Extended calculation tools are given
22 February 2008
46
Methods of analysis
Biaxial bending
M
M
_{R}_{d}_{z}_{/}_{y}
_{R}_{d}_{z}_{/}_{y}
design moment around respective axis
moment resistance in respective direction
For circular and elliptical crosssection
a = 2.
For rectangular cross section, see table
N 
E /N Rd 
0,1 
0,7 
1,0 
a 
1,0 
1,5 
2,0 
22 February 2008
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Methods of analysis
Lateral buckling of beams
No lateral buckling if:
22 February 2008
48
Bending with or without axial force
Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven
22 February 2008
Group Concrete Structures
49
Concrete design stress  strain relations (3.1.5 and 3.1.7) for section analysis
n = 1,4 + 23,4 [(90 f _{c}_{k} )/100] ^{4} for f _{c}_{k} ≥ 50 MPa otherwise 2,0
ε _{c}_{2} ( ^{0} / _{0}_{0} ) = 2,0 + 0,085(f _{c}_{k} 50) ^{0}^{,}^{5}^{3} for f _{c}_{k} ≥ 50 MPa otherwise 2,0
ε _{c}_{u}_{2} ( ^{0} / _{0}_{0} ) = 2,6 + 35 [(90f _{c}_{k} )/100] ^{4} for f _{c}_{k} ≥ 50 MPa otherwise 3,5
σc 


“Bilinear” 

fck 

fcd 



0
ε
c3
^{ε} cu3
ε c
ε _{c}_{3} ( ^{0} / _{0}_{0} ) = 1,75 + 0,55 [(f _{c}_{k} 50)/40] for f _{c}_{k} ≥ 50 MPa otherwise 1,75
ε _{c}_{u}_{3} ( ^{0} / _{0}_{0} ) =2,6+35[(90f _{c}_{k} )/100] ^{4} for f _{c}_{k} ≥ 50 MPa otherwise 3,5
22 February 2008
50
Concrete design stress strain relations for different strength classes
 Higher concrete strength shows more brittle behaviour, reflected by shorter horizontal branche
22 February 2008
51
Simplified concrete design stress block
λ = 0,8
= 0,8
η = 1,0
for f _{c}_{k} ≤ 50 MPa
_{−} (f
ck
50)
^{−}
400
for 50 < f _{c}_{k} ≤ 90 MPa
for f _{c}_{k} ≤ 50 MPa
= 1,0 – (f _{c}_{k} – 50)/200 for 50 < f _{c}_{k} ≤ 90 MPa
22 February 2008
52
Simplified factors for flexure (1)
Factors for NA depth (n) and lever arm (=z) for concrete grade ≤ 50 MPa
M/bd ^{2} f _{c}_{k}
22 February 2008
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Simplified factors for flexure (2)
Factors for NA depth (=n) and lever arm (=z) for concrete grade 70 MPa
M/bd ^{2} f _{c}_{k}
22 February 2008
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Column design chart for f _{c}_{k} ≤ 50 MPa
M _{d} /bh ^{2} f _{c}_{d}
22 February 2008
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Column design chart for f _{c}_{k} = 70 MPa
M _{d} /bh ^{2} f _{c}_{d}
22 February 2008
56
Shear
Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven
22 February 2008
Group Concrete Structures
57
Principles of shear control in EC2
Until a certain shear force V _{R}_{d}_{,}_{c} no calculated shear reinforcement is necessary (only in beams minimum shear reinforcement is prescribed)
If the design shear force is larger than this value V _{R}_{d}_{,}_{c} shear reinforcement is necessary for the full design shear force. This
shear reinforcement is calculated with the variable inclination truss analogy. To this aim the strut inclination may be chosen between
two values (recommended
range 1≤ cot θ ≤ 2,5)
The shear reinforcement may not exceed a defined maximum value to ensure yielding of the shear reinforcement
22 February 2008
58
Concrete slabs without shear reinforcement
Shear resistance V _{R}_{d}_{,}_{c} governed by shear flexure failure: shear crack develops from flexural crack
22 February 2008
59
Concrete slabs without shear reinforcement
Prestressed hollow core slab
Shear resistance V _{R}_{d}_{,}_{c} governed by shear tension failure:
crack occurs in web in region uncracked in flexure
22 February 2008
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Concrete beam reinforced in shear
Shear failure introduced by yielding of stirrups, followed by strut rotation until web crushing
22 February 2008
61
Principle of variable truss action
Approach “Variable inclination struts”:
a realistic
Stage 1: web uncracked in shear
Stage 2: inclined cracks occur Stage 3: stabilized inclined cracks Stage 4: yielding of stirrups, further rotation, finally web crushing
Strut rotation as measured in tests (TU Delft)
22 February 2008
62
Principles of variable angle truss
Strut rotation, followed by new cracks under lower angle, even in high strength concrete (Tests TU Delft)
22 February 2008
63
Web crushing in concrete beam
Web crushing provides maximum to shear resistance
At web crushing:
V _{R}_{d}_{,}_{m}_{a}_{x} = b _{w} z υ f _{c}_{d} /(cotθ + tanθ)
22 February 2008
64
Advantage of variable angle truss analogy
Freedom of design:
• low angle θ leads to low shear reinforcement
• High angle θ leads to thin webs, saving concrete and dead weight Optimum choice depends on type of structure
 Transparent equilibrium model, easy in use
22 February 2008
65
Shear design value under which no shear reinforcement is necessary in elements unreinforced in shear (general limit)
V
Rd c
,
C _{R}_{d}_{,}_{c}
=
C
Rd c
,
k
(100ρ
l
f
ck
)
1/3
b d
w
coefficient derived from tests (recommended 0,12)
k size factor = 1 + √(200/d) with d in meter
ρ _{l} longitudinal reinforcement ratio ( ≤0,02)
f _{c}_{k} characteristic concrete compressive strength
b _{w} 
smallest web width 
d 
effective height of cross section 
22 February 2008
66
Shear design value under which no shear reinforcement is necessary in elements unreinforced in shear (general limit)
Minimum value for V _{R}_{d}_{,}_{c}_{:}
^{V} Rd,c ^{=} ^{v} min ^{b} w ^{d}
Values for v _{m}_{i}_{n} (N/mm ^{2} )
d=200 
d=400 
d=600 
d=800 

C20 
0,44 
0,35 
0,25 
0,29 
C40 
0,63 
0,49 
0,44 
0,41 
C60 
0,77 
0,61 
0,54 
0,50 
C80 
0,89 
0,70 
0,62 
0,58 
22 February 2008
67
Shear design value under which no shear reinforcement is necessary in elements unreinforced in shear (special case of shear tension)
22 February 2008
68
Special case of shear tension (example hollow core slabs)
V
Rd c
,
I
b _{w}
S
f _{c}_{t}_{d}
α _{l}
σ _{c}_{p}
=
moment of inertia smallest web width section modulus design tensile strength of concrete reduction factor for prestress in case of prestressing strands or wires in ends of member concrete compressive stress at centroidal axis ifor for fully developed prestress
22 February 2008
69
Design of members if shear reinforcement is needed (V _{E}_{,}_{d} >V _{R}_{d}_{,}_{c} )
For most cases:
θ
V u,2
σ c
=
f
c1
= υf _{c}
Assume cot θ = 2,5 (θ = 21,8 ^{0} ) Calculate necessary shear reinforcement Check if web crushing capacity is not exceeded (V _{E}_{d} >V _{R}_{d}_{,}_{s} ) If web crushing capacity is exceeded, enlarge web width or calculate the value of cot θ for which V _{E}_{d} = V _{R}_{d}_{,}_{c} and repeat the calculation
22 February 2008
70
Upper limit of shear capacity reached due to web crushing
For yielding shear reinforcement:
V _{R}_{d}_{,}_{s} = (A _{s}_{w} /s) z f _{y}_{w}_{d} cotθ
θ from 45 ^{0} to 21,8 ^{0} 2,5 times larger capacity
θ
V u,2
σ c
=
f
c1
= υf _{c}
At web crushing:
V _{R}_{d}_{,}_{m}_{a}_{x} = b _{w} z υ f _{c}_{d} /(cotθ + tanθ)
θ from 21,8 ^{0} to 45 ^{0} 1,45 times larger capacity
22 February 2008
71
Special case of loads near to supports
d
For a _{v} ≤ 2d the contribution of the point load to the shear force V _{E}_{d} may be reduced by a factor a _{v} /2d where 0.5 ≤ a _{v} ≤ 2d provided that the longitudinal reinforcement is fully anchored at the support. However, the condition
V _{E}_{d} ≤ 0,5b _{w} dυf _{c}_{d}
should always be fulfilled
22 February 2008
72
Influence of prestressing on shear resistance (1)
1. Prestressing introduces a set of loads on the beam
22 February 2008
73
Influence of prestressing on shear resistance (2)
Prestressing increases the load V _{R}_{c}_{,}_{d} below which no calculated shear reinforcement is required
V
Rd c
,
k _{1}
σ _{c}_{p}
=
[
C
Rd c
,
k
(100
ρ
l
f
ck
)
1/3
+
k
1
σ
cp
]
b d
w
coefficient, with recommended value 0,15 concrete compressive stress at centroidal axis due to axial loading or prestressing
22 February 2008
74
Influence of prestressing on shear resistance (3)
1. Prestressing increases the web crushing capacity
V
Rd
,max
= α
cw
b
w
z
f
ν
cd
/(cot
θ +
tan
θ
)
α _{c}_{w}
α _{c}_{w} =
factor depending on prestressing force
1 

(1+σ _{c}_{p} /f _{c}_{d} 
) 
1,25 
2,5(1 σ _{c}_{p} /f _{c}_{d} )
for non prestressed structures for 0,25 < σ _{c}_{p} < 0,25f _{c}_{d}
for
for 0,5f _{c}_{d} <σ _{c}_{p} < 1,0f _{c}_{d}
0,25f _{c}_{d} <σ _{c}_{p} <0,5f _{c}_{d}
22 February 2008
75
Increase of web crushing capacity by prestressing (4)
22 February 2008
76
Influence of prestressing on shear resistance (4)
Reducing effect of prestressing duct (with or without tendon) on web crushing capacity
Grouted ducts
b _{w}_{,}_{n}_{o}_{m} = b _{w}  Σφ
Ungrouted ducts b _{w}_{,}_{n}_{o}_{m} = b _{w} – 1,2 Σφ
22 February 2008
77
Shear between web and flanges of Tsections
Strut angle θ:
1,0 ≤ cot θ _{f} ≤ 2,0 for compression flanges (45 ^{0} ≥ θ _{f} ≥ 26,5 ^{0} 1,0 ≤ cot θ _{f} ≤ 1,25 for tension flanges (45 ^{0} ≥ θ _{f} ≥ 38,6 ^{0} )
No transverse tension ties required if shear stress in interface
v _{E}_{d} = ΔF _{d} /(h _{f} ·Δx) ≤ kf _{c}_{t}_{d}
(recommended k = 0,4)
22 February 2008
78
Shear at the interface between concretes cast at different times
Interface shear models based on shear friction principle
22 February 2008
79
Shear at the interface between concretes cast at different times
22 February 2008
80
Shear at the interface between concrete’s cast at different times (Eurocode 2, Clause
6.5.2)
v _{R}_{d}_{i} = c⋅f _{c}_{t}_{d} + μ⋅σ _{n} + ρ⋅f _{y}_{d} (μ⋅sin β + cos β) ≤ 0,5 ν⋅f _{c}_{d}
(=tan α)
f _{c}_{t}_{d} =concrete design tensile strength σ _{n} = eventual confining stress, not from reinforcement ρ= reinforcement ratio
inclination between reinforcement and concrete surface f _{c}_{d} = concrete design compressive strength = 0,6 for f _{c}_{k} ≤ 60 MPa
υ
β
=
= 0,9 – f _{c}_{k} /200≥0,5 for f _{c}_{k} ≥ 60 MPa
c 
μ 

Very smooth 
0,25 
0,5 
smooth 
0,35 
0,6 
rough 
0,45 
0,7 
indented 
0,50 
0,8 
22 February 2008
81
Torsion
Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven
22 February 2008
Group Concrete Structures
82
Modeling solid cross sections by equivalent thinwalled cross sections
Centreline
Cover
Outer edge of effective crossection, circumference u
Effective wallthickness follows from t _{e}_{f}_{,}_{i} =A/u, where;
A 
= total area of cross section within outer circumference, including hollow areas 
U 
= outer circumference of the cross section 
22 February 2008
83
Design procedure for torsion (1)
Shear flow in any wall follows from:
τ
t , i
t
ef
,
i
where
=
T Ed
2 A
k
τ _{t}_{,}_{I}
torsional shear stress in wall I
t _{e}_{f}_{,}_{I} effective wall thickness (A/u) T _{E}_{d} applied torsional moment
A _{k}
area enclosed by centre lines of connecting walls, including hollow areas
22 February 2008
84
Design procedure for torsion (2)
Shear force V _{E}_{d} in wall i due to torsion is:
V
Ed i
,
=τ
t i
,
t
ef
,
i
z
i
where
τ _{t}_{,}_{I}
t _{e}_{f}_{,}_{I}
Z _{i}
torsional shear stress in wall i effective wall thickness (A/u) inside length of wall I defined by distance of intersection points with adjacent walls
22 February 2008
85
Design procedure for torsion (3)
The shear reinforcement in any wall can now be designed like a beam using the variable angle truss analogy, with 1≤ cot θ ≤ 2,5
22 February 2008
86
Design procedure for torsion (4)
The longitudinal reinforcement in any wall follows from:
Σ A f
sl
T
yd
Ed
cotθ
=
u
k 2 A
k
where
u _{k}
f _{y}_{k}
θ angle of compression struts
perimeter of area A _{k} design yield stress of steel
22 February 2008
87
Punching shear
Prof.dr.ir. J.C. Walraven
22 February 2008
Group Concrete Structures
88
Design for punching shear
Most important aspects:
 Control perimeter
 Edge and corner columns
 Simplified versus advanced control methods
22 February 2008
89
Definition of control perimeter
22 February 2008
90
Definition of control perimeters
The basic control perimeter u _{1} is taken at a distance 2,0d from the loaded area and should be constructed as to minimise its length
22 February 2008
91
Limit values for design punching shear stress in design
The following limit values for the punching shear stress are used in design:
If 
v 
where: 
Ed
≤ v
Rd c
,
v
Rd ,c
= C
Rd ,c
k
(100
ρ f
l
ck
no punching shear reinforcement required
)
1/3
+
0,10
σ
cp
≥
(
v
min
+
0,10
σ
cp
)
22 February 2008
92
How to take account of eccentricity
More sophisticated method for internal columns:
e _{y} and e _{z} b _{y} and b _{z}
eccentricities M _{E}_{d} /V _{E}_{d} along y and z axes dimensions of control perimeter
22 February 2008
93
How to take account of eccentricity
v Ed
^{=} ^{β}
V
Ed
u d
i
For structures where lateral stability does not depend on frame action and where adjacent spans do not differ by more than 25% the approximate values for β shown below may be used:
22 February 2008
94
How to take account of eccentricity
Alternative for edge and corner columns: use perimeter u _{1}_{*} in stead of full perimeter and assume uniform distribution of punching force
22 February 2008
95
Design of punching shear reinforcement
If v _{E}_{d} ≥ v _{R}_{d}_{,}_{c} shear reinforcement is required.
The steel contribution comes from the shear reinforcement crossing a surface at 1,5d from the edge of the loaded area, to ensure some anchorage at the upper end. The concrete component of resistance is taken 75% of the design strength of a slab without shear reinforcement
22 February 2008
96
Punching shear reinforcement
Capacity with punching shear reinforcement V _{u} = 0,75V _{R}_{d}_{,}_{c} + V _{S} Shear reinforcement within 1,5d from column is accounted for with f _{y}_{,}_{r}_{e}_{d} = 250 + 0,25d(mm)≤f _{y}_{w}_{d}
22 February 2008
97
Punching shear reinforcement
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