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ME 2010 FLUID DYNAMICS

BSc Engineering - Semester 3

Tutorial 1: Governing Equations in Fluid Mechanics

Q1 A reducing elbow is used to deflect water flow at a 14 kg/m in a horizontal pipe


upward 300 while accelerating it. The elbow discharges water into the atmosphere.
The cross-sectional area of the elbow is 113 cm2 at the inlet and 7 cm2 at the outlet.
The elevation difference at the inlet and outlet is 30 cm. The weight of the water and
the elbow Is considered negligible. Determine the (gage pressure at the center of the
inlet of the elbow and (b) the anchoring force needed to hold the elbow in place.

Q2 Figure shows a horizontal, straight nozzle of diameter 20 mm located at the end of a


pipe of diameter 40 mm. Water flows through the system at a rate of 2 l/s, and
discharges to the atmosphere. The jet of water from the nozzle strikes a curved vane
and is deflected through 180 in the horizontal plane, as indicated in the figure.
Stating your assumptions clearly calculate

(a) the force acting on the nozzle,


(b) the force acting on the vane for the each of the following cases:

(i) the vane is stationary


(ii) the vane is moved in the direction of the jet at a velocity equal to two-third
of the jet velocity.

Pipe Nozzle Vane


Jet
Q3 Figure shows a jet pump designed to extracts 3 l/s of water from an open tank T,
which is situated 2 m below the center line of the pump. The diameters of the outer
pipe BC and the inner pipe AB of the pump are 50 mm and 25 mm, respectively. The
pump discharges to atmosphere at section C.

Calculate the pressure at section B and the required velocity of water in the pipe AB.
It may be assumed that the both supply pipes are loss-free.

A B C

Q4 The flow of air in a horizontal 2m2m square duct is obstructed by a streamlined


support of width 1m, as shown in the figure. The support extends the full 2m height of
the duct. The pressure and the velocity of the flow at Section A, well upstream of the
support are 10 mm Water Gauge and 5 m/s, respectively. Neglecting shear forces,
calculate

(i) the pressure at Section B


(ii) the force on the support
(iii) pressure at Section C, well downstream of the support where the velocity may
be taken as uniform
(iv) total rate of energy dissipation between Sections A and C.

A B C

Flow
1m 2m

A B C