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Types of Jet Engines

6.1 Turbojet

The turbojet engine contains four main sections. These sections are the compressor,

combustion, turbine and exhaust/nozzle sections. The compressor takes in large volumes of air

from the inlet and compresses it. The high pressure air enters the combustion chamber where it is

mixed with jet fuel and ignited. The hot gases travel through the turbine adding kinetic energy to

it and then exiting it rear of the engine. All of the engine's thrust comes from the air exiting the

turbine after it has been burned in the combustion chamber creating a jet of air that propels the

engine forward due to Newton's 2end law of energy

Figure 9. A basic view of a turbojet engine. [9]

6.2 Turbofan

The turbofan is used on most large passenger airplanes. is has all of the same

components as a turbojet but with a large air bypass that syphons most of the air away from the

combustion chamber. The turbofan requires a larger inlet and to gather more air coming into the
engine. The larger fan makes the combustion chamber able to produce more thrust and the air

bypassing the combustion chamber make it more efficient. This small increase in speed of the air

exiting the exhaust couples with the speed of the compressed bypass air makes the engine able to

produce a lot more thrust than a turbojet engine.

Figure 10. A side view of the operation of a Turbofan engine.[10]

6.3 Ramjet

The ramjet is a special type of engine because it has no moving parts in its operation. The

speed of the aircraft forces air into the intake. This is also known as Ramming the airflow. The

air is compressed with a convergent duct until it is mixed with fuel and ignited. Since there is no

compression of the engine running as slower speed the engine is optimal only over Mach 1.

These engines are commonly used on guided missile systems and spacecraft because of their

speed during flight.

Figure 11. A side view of the operation of a Ramjet engine.[15]

6.4 Pulsejet

A pulse jet operates on the principles of suctions to draw air into the combustion

chamber. This engine has no moving parts similar to the ramjet but it can operate at a stationary

speed. The process that allows this engine to function is known as the Lenoir Cycle because of

its lack of compression for the air entering the pulsejet. Air is drawn in through the intake by the

suction from the previous detonation and is mixed with fuel in the combustion chamber. A spark

plug is used to ignite the gas rather than a flame tube of most jet engines. When the mixture is

ignited then rapid expansion pushes the gas out of the nozzle of the pulsejet creating a vacuum

pulling more air into the engine. The drawbacks of this engine is the high noise level makes it

impractical to use for most applications but the engine is very versatile on the different fuels that

can be used. This engine can burn sawdust, coal, jet fuel, and kerosene.
Figure 12. A side view of a Pulsejet engine.[15]

6.5 Turboshaft

Turboshaft engines are the engines primarily used on helicopters that do not need any

thrust coming from the engine. Rather, they need the thrust converted into rotational motion to

drive the propeller blades. The driveshaft from the propeller blades is fused with the turbine

blades for the turbine in order to create rotational thrust. The output shaft however, is not

mechanically linked to the turbine similar to the drive shaft of a bicycle where the rotational

motion can continue even if no power is added to the engine. This can be accomplished by a

torque converter which used non compressible fluid to drive the propeller blades. This engine

can also be used in aircraft as auxiliary power units that use spinning magnets to generate

electricity for airplane components.

Figure 13. A side view of the operation of a Turboshaft Engine. [13]

6.6 Turboprop

The turboprop engine operates similar to the turboshaft in the the turbines of the engine

are linked to to propeller that are used to generate thrust by the use of airfoils pushing airflow

behind the aircraft. The engine is places in reverse in a turboprop where the exhaust comes out of

the front of the gine on the side of the cowling and the intake is at the rear of the engine after it

has been sped up by the propeller. This allows the engine to operate more efficiently and the

turbines are located closer the the front of the aircraft for transfer of power. The turboprop must

use a reduction gearing system because to optimal operating speed of the propeller is less than

the normal speed of the engine. The turboprop is mostly used in small aircraft where an turbofan

would cause more weight than thrust for an aircraft. The purbopro can also operate at lower

speeds and lower altitude with greater fuel economy.

Figure 14. A side view of the operation of a Turboprop Engine. [14]

Figure 15.A comparison of engine Net thrust to airspeed. [15]

7. Types of Systems

7.1 Cooling System

The turbine engine is most efficient when the turbine entry temperature (TET) of the

airflow is increased. This rise in temperature for efficient can stress the metallurgical limits of

the blades and increased wear over time. The temperate mixed with the centrifugal forces of the

spinning blades can cause Creep in the blades which is a term describing the warming of metal

as it is under prolonged stress. To combat this, about twenty percent of air entering the engine is

beled off from the compressor to cool the engine cowling and internal mechanism. Some engines

have specially design blades and cowlings that have tiny channels and holes that allow cold air to

flow around inside of the blade to decrease its temperature

Other systems that are used to cool the gine are cowl flaps that can be owed to allow air

to circulate around the engine. Liquid cooling is a modern form of cooling that uses radiators to

syphon heat off the the engine and cool the air with the ambient air temoeprate at crussingalttide

where air can be chilled to negative 70 degrees fahrenheit. While the liquid lines and radiators

will add ecra weigh to the trubine, The amount of stress on engine components is decreased a

more reliable engine is engineered. The bleed air from the intake is also used to cool the shaft

and the turbine of the engine. The bleed air from the intake of the compresor system is also bled

off in order to supply oxygenated air to the cabin through a series of pipes and valves that can be

opened through passenger air vents.

The same process is used with exhaust air flowing through a radiator system to cycle

warm water throughout the cabin and the airframe of the cabin to decrease thermal wear and

keep passengers comfortable during flight.

Figure 16. A schematic view of the turbine bleed system used for cabin temperature

regulation and pressurization [17]

7.2 Fuel System

The fuel system is used to control the turbine speed, compressed air and lubrication

system inside of the turbine. The fuel system sprays a continuous amount of fuel into the engine

based on the level of thrust desired by the pilot or autopilot. The sequence of thrust in a modern

aircraft is the pilot engines the thrust level which sends a message to the onboard computer

system to increase the level of flow to the turbine. This increases the amount of fuel being

burned which in turn, Increases the speed and temperature of the gases flowing through the

turbine. Increases the speed of the compressor fan which produces more thrust.

The fuel control unit (FCU) automatically controls the two variables associated with fuel

which are pressure and amount of fuel. These variables are constantly adjusted to match the

aircraft's speed and altitude since the pressure decreases as the airplane climbs. There are many

different probes inside of the engine that give inputs to the FCU so that is can efficiently perform
its job. One of the most important probes is the engine speed governor that measures the rotation

movement of the airplane and makes sure that the engine isnt overspeeding.

Propellent pumps are the outputs of the FCU and can raise the pressure of the fuel as well

as the amount of fuel being delivered to the engine. Most propellent pumps are centrifugal

pumps that rise the pressure of the fuel past the airflow pressure of the compressor so that the

fuel can be injected into the combustor. The propellent pumps pull jet fuel from the storage tanks

located in the wings and draw it through a series of valves designed to act as containment and

shutoff valves in an energy such as a fire or loss of engine thrust. Once they pass through he

FCU they are sent to the gine to be injected into the combustor and ignited generating thrust.

Figure 17 A schematic view of the engine storage and pumping system on a Boeing 777

series airplane [18]

7.3 Engine Starting System

Each jet engine has a starting system that allows the compressor to spin fast enough in

order generate enough thrust for the engine to be self sustainable. The three types of engine
starting systems are electric, and APU. Within an electric start, the electric motor is attached to

the main axel of the engine and has a clutch that disengages when the engine has reached self

sustaining speed. The electric start also includes the ignition system that is used to ignite the fuel

coming into the combustor.

The Auxiliary power unit (APU) is used on many commercial aircraft such as the Boeing

737 and the Airbus A320. The APU is a small turbine engine located in the tail of the aircraft

that is used to spin a magnet to generate electricity for the airplane components. When the engine

is starting up, Bleed air from the APU is channeled to the main engines to spin them up the

required combustion pressure and then the electricity provided by the APU is used to spark the

engine into ignition. After the engine is ignited the APU is turned off because all of the

electricity generating capabilities are taken over by the main engines.

Figure 18. A rear view of the placement and size of the Auxiliary Power Unit. [19]
7.4 Lubrication System

The lubrication system is used to reduce friction on the bearings and reduce the

temperature of the turbine and compressor and cowling so that the parts do not suffer from

thermal wear. This system is isolated from the rest of the airplane systems because the oil must

stay free of impurities that could damage the small spaces that the oil must flow through. The oil

in a airplane must be changed often because of the fluctuations in temperature of the oil cause

the oil to break down and reduces its lubricating potential. The oil system is comprised of the oil

tank, the de-agitator, main oil pump, main oil filter, pressure regulating valve and the oil cooler.

From the oil tank the oil is passed through a de-agitator where all of the air bubbles that

might be in the oil are removed in order to ensure no gaps in old delivery. The it goes to the main

oil pump where the necessary pressure it added to force the oil through each oil line. Directly

after the main oil pump is the oil filter where all of the impurities such as metal shavings or dust

is removed from the oil. The Filter is placed here because directly if the oil is pumped is where

the oil is under the most pressure. Then it goes through a series of safety values and finally to the

place in the engine where the lubrication is needed. Finally the oil is taken to a radiator were the

heat is removed from the oil before it is returned to the oil tank where the cycle repeats.
Figure 19. A schematic view of an turbine lubrication system. [20]

7.5 Control System

To control and airplane in flight, there are three control surfaces that work in unison the

give the pilot the most control of the aircraft. First, the elevators which are located on the air of

the plane oriented horizontally are used to control the pitch of the plane. The pitch of the plane is

the degree of difference from the horizon that allows the plane to increase or decrease in

elevation. Second, The rudder which is located on the tail of the plane oriented vertically

controls the yaw of the plane. The yaw is the twist of the plane either right or left similar to a

ship turning port and starboard. The last control surface is the ailerons which are located on the

rear edge of each wing and can roll the plane side to side by alternated their pattern either up or

down. The Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) can be operated in either a one axis, two

axis, or three axis configuration depending on how many of the flight surfaces the pilot wants to

be automatically controlled. For example, If a pilot wants to steer the plane but keep the altitude

constant he can activate a one axis autopilot to keep the pitch stationary and he can control the

rudder and the ailerons.

The autopilot consist of a centralized computer system with several processors that take

in information from different probes around the airplane such as the gyroscope, accelerometer,

compass, airspeed indicator, and alitimiter. The autopilot compares these data points to the data

points set by the pilot. If a parameter need to be adjusted a signal is sent to a servomechanism

that is linked to a control surface to adjust it.

An influential step in the advancement of autopilot was the use of global positioning

systems to install a global positioning system ot the aircraft. This extends the autopilots

capabilities from just keeping the plane straight to allows it to execute a designated flight plan.

Figure 20. An illistron of the sensors associated with the Automatic Flight control system

8. How a Jet Engine Works

8.1 Braytons Cycle

The brayton cycle is a thermodynamic created by George Bailey Brayton to explain the

works of a constant heating jet engine. This cycle explains how the heat exchanger of the exhaust

gases are is used to power the engine. The working fluid flows into the compressor, then mixed

with fuel and ignition and then flows through a turbine to generate thrust. The turbine is able to

generate large amounts of kinetic energy because of the expanding gases that result from the

combustion reaction. The stages of a turbines operation can be simplified into this chart.

Stage Location Process

Stage 1 Upstream Isentropic Compression

Stage 2 Inlet Isentropic Compression

Stage 3 Compressor entry Isentropic Compression

Stage 4 Compressor exit Constant Pressure


Stage 5 Turbiner entry Isentropic Expansion

Stage 6 Turbine exit Isentropic Expansion

Stage 7 Nozzle entry Isentropic Expansion

Stage 8 Nozzle exit Constant Pressure Heat


This chart highlights the four processes that make up the Brayton Cycle. Isentropic

compression is when the entropy of a ideal gas is constant but the pressure of that gas rises.

Constant pressure combustion is when the mixture is combusted but there is no where for the gas

to expand so it remains at the same pressure. Isentropic expansion is when the gas is able to

expand and force the turbine to turn. Constant pressure heat rejection occurs when the heat from

the exhaust gas is dispersed in the atmosphere.

Figure 21. A graph of the ideal Brayton Cycle [23]

9.Calculations and Formulas

9.1 Thrust

The thrust of an Turbojet is generated by a propulsion system. To calculate the thrust this


F = [meVe] - [moVo]

Where m equals the mass flow rate, V equals the velocity and the subscript o equals

exhaust and the subscript o equals the intake.

The Thrust of a turbojet engine is generated partly by the propulsion system and party

from a fan take pushes air through the system. To acaulkte the thryst, this evaluation is used.

F = [meVe] - [moVo] + BPR ⋅ McVf

Where m equals the mass flow rate, V equals the velocity and the subscript o equals

exhaust and the subscript o equals the intake. BPR is the bypass rate which is calculated by

dividing the amount of air bypassed ( Mf ) by the amount of air injected into the engine ( Mc ).

9.2 Pressure

The pressure ratio of the engine is generated by the compressor. To calculate the thrust,

this equation is used

Pressure Ratio = Pe / Po

Where Pe is the pressure of the airflow entering the compressor and Po is the pressure of

the airflow exiting the compressor.

9.3 Turbine

The efficiency of a turbine is used to calculate how much fuel is needed for an aircraft.

To calculate the efficiency, this equation is used

M=Work Done/ Heat Absorbed = (Q1 - Q2) / (Q1)

9.4 Nozzle

The amount of thrust pressure of exhaust gases is determined from the nozzle. To

calculate the pressure this equation is used.

P = Veq / GO

Where VEG equals the nozzle exit velocity and GO is the gravity acceleration of the

exhaust gases.

10. References

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