Sei sulla pagina 1di 22

# Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

## Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jnlabr/ymssp

Tutorial Review

## Moving-load dynamic problems: A tutorial (with a brief overview)

Huajiang Ouyang n
School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, The Quadrangle, Liverpool L69 3GH, UK

a r t i c l e i n f o abstract

Article history: This tutorial is dedicated to the study of structural dynamics problems caused by
Received 24 June 2010 moving loads. Through a simple example of a simply supported beam traversed by a
Accepted 22 December 2010 moving mass, several fundamental concepts peculiar to moving-load problems are
introduced. The necessary mathematics involved is presented. The analytical procedure
Keywords: is also presented for a circular plate excited by a rotating oscillator. Then numerical
Moving load results of a circular beam spinning about its longitudinal axis excited by an axially
Vibration moving surface load are provided. A variety of moving-load problems are brieﬂy
Control reviewed with some published papers and books to help readers quickly get into
Nonstationary
problems of their interests. Readers are expected to get a ﬂavour of what moving-load
Contact
problems are about, what general methods are available and what research has been
Friction
done from studying this tutorial. Knowledge of partial differential equations and
vibration theory of beams and plates is required in order to understand this tutorial.
& 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2040
1.1. Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2040
1.2. Classiﬁcations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2040
1.3. Organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2040
2. Vibration of a beam excited by a moving mass—analytical formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2041
2.1. Assumptions and formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2041
2.2. Critical speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2042
2.3. Perturbation method and combination resonances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2043
3. Vibration of a circular plate excited by a moving oscillator—analytical formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2044
4. Vibration of a rotating shaft under moving surface load—numerical simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2046
5. Various moving-load problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2049
5.1. Vehicle–bridge interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2049
5.2. Vehicle–road/ground interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2050
5.3. Train–track interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2050
5.4. Flexible discs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2051
5.5. Friction-loaded discs and disc brake squeal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2051
5.6. Other discs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2051
5.7. Rotating beam/shafts and spindles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2052
5.8. Cranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2052
5.9. Strings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2052
5.10. Shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2052

n
Tel.: +441517944815; fax: + 441517944703.
E-mail address: h.ouyang@liverpool.ac.uk

0888-3270/\$ - see front matter & 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.ymssp.2010.12.010
2040 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

## 5.11. Moving materials and structures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2053

5.12. Separation and reattachment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2053
5.13. Structural identiﬁcation and health monitoring by moving loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2054
5.14. Vibration control of moving-load problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2054
5.15. Random features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2055
6. Numerical methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2055
7. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2056
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2056
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2056

1. Introduction

1.1. Background

Moving-load dynamic problems are very common in engineering and daily life. Any structures or machines subjected to
loads which move in space and excite the structures or machines into vibration are such problems. Examples are plentiful.
Vehicle-bridge interaction is an extensively studied moving load problem. Wood saws, computer discs, machine tools,
vehicle disc and drum brakes are just a few examples. If the relative speeds involved are very low in comparison with the
critical speed (to be deﬁned later in this tutorial), the problems can be cast as conventional, non-moving-load problems.
Treating them as moving-load problem involves more sophisticated mathematics and intensive computation.
The dynamic effects of moving loads were not recognized until mid-19th century. It was believed that the collapse of
Stephenson’s Bridge across River Dee at Chester in England in 1847 triggered the research into moving-load problems.
Stoke was credited to be the ﬁrst researcher who formally analysed a moving-load problem (it is actually a moving-force
problem). This history was chronicled by Timoshenko [1].
Fryba’s monograph described many simple moving-load problems and their analytic solutions [2]. The structural
components concerned were simple continuous elastic media such as rods, beams, plates and shells that are amenable to
analytical treatment. For complicated structures, the ﬁnite element method has to be used. If the whole structure is
discretised into ﬁnite elements, repeated ﬁnite element analyses at each time step using certain numerical integration
schemes in the time-domain are necessary. This is a very time-intensive process. In addition, if two structures in moving
contact have distinct geometry or loading, the ﬁnite element meshes of these two structures will not match when one
structure moves relatively from the other. This happens to be the case for a disc brake in that the piston-pad has a ﬁnite
element mesh containing a ring for the piston head, while the disc has a ﬁnite element mesh having cyclic symmetry.
There are many hundreds of published papers on moving-load dynamics. It is a nearly impossible task to list and review all
of them. Instead, some papers are reviewed in the tutorial when various moving-load problems are discussed. This is
intended to help readers with various interests quickly get into their individual problems.

1.2. Classiﬁcations

The earliest moving-load problems are about railway bridges excited by travelling trains. In these problems, the moving
structure basically travels in a straight line. In a computer disc–drive system, the magnetic reader/writer rhead exerts a
moving load in the circumferential direction and follows a circular path.
The simplest type of moving loads is a constant or harmonic, pure force. It will be seen later in this section that a
structure under a moving pure force is equivalent to a non-moving-load vibration problem and does not reveal most
properties speciﬁc to moving-load dynamics and hence does not qualify as a proper moving-load problem.
The special properties associated with moving-load problems can be demonstrated by the vibration of a beam
subjected to a moving point-wise mass (so-called moving-mass problem). So it will be used below to introduce some
fundamental concepts. Moving-load problems are usually self-excited vibration or parametric excitation problems.

1.3. Organisation

The organisation of this tutorial is as follows. Section 2 introduces some fundamental concepts of moving-load
dynamics, such as critical speed and combination resonances, using the vibration of an Euler beam subjected to a moving
mass as an example. Section 3 describes the analytical treatment of the more difﬁcult problem of a circular plate (disc).
Section 4 presents analytical formulation and then numerical analysis of a rotating shaft subjected to a moving surface
load. Various moving-load dynamic problems are brieﬂy reviewed in Section 5 with references for readers to explore at
their own pace and leisure. Numerical methods for solving moving-load problems are commented upon in Section 6.
Section 7 draws conclusions and presents an outlook of this topic. This tutorial is aimed at readers who have knowledge of
vibration of continuous systems such as beams and plates, matrix theory and basic theory of the ﬁnite element method,
but otherwise unfamiliar with moving-load dynamic problems.
H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2041

## 2.1. Assumptions and formulation

To understand how to tackle a moving-load problem mathematically and appreciate the special effects of moving loads,
a simple moving-load problem is ﬁrst presented and solved in this section. An analytical solution is sought as it provides
an insight into the resonances in relation to the speed of the moving load. The practical background is a vehicle travelling
on a bridge at a constant speed u. The vehicle is represented by a mass with a constant preload (its own weight) and the
bridge by a simply supported Euler beam, illustrated in Fig. 1. The friction force between the mass and the beam is not
considered since it is very small in a vehicle–bridge interaction problem. It is assumed that the mass travels in a straight
line in the horizontal direction and this movement is known; and the beam only vibrates in the z direction. It is also
assumed that the mass does not lose contact with the beam during its travel and vibration. This latter assumption can be
removed though. Please note self-weight of a moving structure should normally be included in moving-load problems.
The equation of the transverse motion w(x,t) for this simple model is
!
2
@2 w @4 w d v
rA 2 þ EI 4 ¼  N þm 2 dðxutÞ ð1Þ
@t @x dt

where r is the density, A the cross-sectional area, E the Young’s modulus, I the second moment of area of the beam; N a
constant force, u the constant travelling speed and v the vertical displacement of the moving mass m. d is the Dirac delta
function. According to Euler beam theory, the right-hand side of Eq. (1) is a distributed force per unit length. The use of d
function is to accommodate a point-wise concentrated load in place of a distributed load. The mathematical complication
associated with moving loads is due to this seemingly innocuous term.
It must be realized that the force on the right-hand side of Eq. (1) is acting on a moving coordinate, that is, the
instantaneous spatial location of the moving mass, which is ut in this case. As a result
2
dv @w @w d v @2 w @w @w @2 w
vðtÞ ¼ wðut,tÞ, ¼ þu , 2
¼ 2
þ2u þ u2 2 ð2Þ
dt @t @x dt @t @t @x @x
when it is assumed that the mass does not separate from the beam during its horizontal travel and vertical vibration. It is
noted here that although this seems an intuitive assumption separation can occur, to be discussed latter in the tutorial.
Now the equation of motion becomes
!
@2 w @2 w @w @w 2
2@ w @4 w
rA 2 þ m þ 2u þu dðxutÞ þEI 4 ¼ NdðxutÞ ð3Þ
@t @t 2 @t @x @x2 @x

There is usually no close-form analytical (exact) solution to moving-load problems. However, a formal solution can be
assumed–the analytic solution of Eq. (1) can be expressed in a modal expansion as
X
1
wðx,tÞ ¼ cj ðxÞqj ðtÞ ð4Þ
j¼1

where qj(t) is the modal co-ordinate for the jth mass-normalized mode cj(x) of the undamped beam (without the mass),
which is
sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ  
2 jpx
cj ðxÞ ¼ sin ðj ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ ð5Þ
rAl l

for a simply supported beam. This is obtained by solving the following eigenvalue problem:
@4 cj
EI rAo2j cj ¼ 0 ð6Þ
@x4
with the same boundary conditions as the beam, which satisﬁes the following orthogonality conditions:
Z l Z l
@4 cj ðxÞ
rA cn ðxÞcj ðxÞdx ¼ dnj , EI cn ðxÞ dx ¼ o2n dnj ðj,n ¼ 1,2,. . .Þ ð7Þ
0 0 @x4

z
u x
m
o
ut N

## Fig. 1. A simple model for vehicle-bridge interaction.

2042 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

where dnj is the Kronecker delta. The nth natural frequency of the simply supported beam is
sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
EI np2
on ¼ ðn ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ ð8Þ
rA l
Incidentally, Stanišić [3] used the modes of the undamped beam carrying the moving mass and found that the solution
in the form of Eq. (4) converged very rapidly. However, his modes vary with the location of the moving mass and hence are
functions of time. As a result, his eigenvalue equation is incorrect.
Substituting Eq. (4) into (1), multiplying the resultant equation with cn(x) and integrating it over the beam length,
one can derive
2 X1 2 X1 dc
d qn d q dqj
2
þm cj ðutÞcn ðutÞ 2j þ2mu j
ðutÞcn ðutÞ
dt j¼1
dt j¼1
dx dt
3 s ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

X1 d2 c
j 2
þ o2n qn þ mu2 ðutÞcn ðutÞqj 5 ¼  Nc ðutÞ ðn ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ ð9Þ
j¼1
dx2 rAl n

## For a simply supported beam, Eq. (9) becomes

2 3
2 X 1 npu  jpu  d2 q X1 npu  jpu  dq
4 d qn
þ
2m
sin t sin t
j 5 þ 4mpu jsin t sin t
j
dt 2 rAl j ¼ 1 l l dt 2 2
rAl j ¼ 1 l l dt
2 3 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
2m X1 npu  jpu jpu2 2 npu 
þ 4on qn 
2
sin t sin t qj 5 ¼  N sin t ðn ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ ð10Þ
rAl j ¼ 1 l l l rAl l

Please note that the orthogonality conditions of Eq. (7) have been used in the derivation of Eq. (9). In the above
integration, the following theorem concerning d function must be employed:
Z l
f ðxÞdðxx0 Þdx ¼ f ðx0 Þ
0

where f(x) is an arbitrary function with a certain degree of smoothness on ½0,l and 0 ox0 ol.
Three observations can be made by examining Eqs. (9) and (10). First, the coefﬁcients in the equations are functions of
time and hence they represent a nonstationary system. Second, if the beam is not simply supported (so that its modes are
not harmonic functions of space), these coefﬁcients are not periodic functions of time. Third, if the moving mass does not
travel at a constant speed, these coefﬁcients are not periodic functions of time either. The consequence is that the solution
is in general not periodic if a coefﬁcient is not periodic. Analysis and control of non-periodic systems are understandably
more challenging.

## 2.2. Critical speed

It is apparent from Eq. (10) that a moving constant mass introduces time-varying inertia, damping and stiffness to the
system, and a moving constant force introduces a harmonic excitation. That is why moving loads can excite a wide range of
frequencies and is more difﬁcult to study. On the other hand, if the moving load only includes a moving force, the vibration
problem thus caused is identical to a forced vibration problem and hence is not considered a proper moving-load problem.
In another word, proper moving-load problems involve at least a mass, or a damper or a spring that is moving relatively to
another structure. Dahlberg [4] showed through numerical simulation that the contact force between a moving mass and a
stationary beam could be as high as 2.5 times the static weight of the moving mass when the inertia of the mass was
ignored (that is, the moving mass was treated simply as a moving force).
It is apparent from Eq. (10) that when
npu
¼ on ðn ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ ð11Þ
l
the constant force term on the right-hand side of Eq. (10) behaves like a harmonic excitation with the frequency of
excitation equalling a natural frequency of the beam, and therefore even a constant moving force can excite the structure
into resonance under these conditions. This is one peculiar feature of moving-load problems.
The lowest resonant speed [2] is
lo1
ucr ¼ ð12Þ
p
and is called the critical speed.
Eq. (10) is a system of simultaneous differential equations with time-dependent (periodic) coefﬁcients. As such, there is
no exact solution. Therefore approximate analytical methods or more often numerical methods are used.
H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2043

## 2.3. Perturbation method and combination resonances

If the parameter m is small, perturbation methods can be used to ﬁnd approximate analytic solutions. These solutions
can offer an insight into the dynamic behaviour of the beam subjected to a moving load.
One perturbation method, known as the method of multiple scales [5], is used to solve Eq. (10). First introduce a small
scaling parameter e so that
2m
eg ¼ ð13Þ
rAl
It follows that (by moving the mass-related terms to the right-hand side of the equation):
sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ " 2        # 
2 npu  X1
d qj jpu 2jpu dqj jpu jpu 2 jpu npu 
q€ n þ o2n qn ¼  N sin t eg sin t þ cos t qj sin t sin t
rAl l j¼1
dt 2 l l dt l l l l
ð14Þ
where the dot over a symbol denotes the derivative with respect to time t.
The method of multiple scales [5] needs to introduce new time scales
T0 ¼ t, T1 ¼ et, T2 ¼ e2 t; . . . ð15Þ
With the new time scales
2
d d
¼ D0 þ eD1 þ e2 D2 þ . . ., ¼ D20 þ e2D0 D1 þ e2 D21 þ . . . ð16Þ
dt dt 2
where
d d
D0 ¼ , D1 ¼
dT0 dT1
Expand the unknown modal coordinates as
qn ðtÞ ¼ qð0Þ ð1Þ
n ðT0 Þ þ eqn ðT1 Þ þ . . . ð17Þ
Eqs. (15) to (17) are substituted into Eq. (14) and the resultant equation is grouped into sub-equations of like powers of
e. The following equations can be derived as (after omitting terms with powers of e higher than one)
sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
2 npu 
D20 qð0Þ
n þ o 2 ð0Þ
n qn¼ N sin T0 ð18Þ
rAl l
"      2  # 
X 1
jpu 2jpu jpu ð0Þ jpu jpu npu 
D21 qð1Þ 2 ð1Þ
n þ on qn ¼ 2D0 D1 qn g
ð0Þ
D20 qjð0Þ sin T0 þ D0 qð0Þ
j cos T0 qj sin T0 sin T0
j¼1
l l l l l l
ð19Þ
Eq. (18) looks like forced vibration of a single degree of freedom and can be solved fairly easily. This solution is in the form of
qnð0Þ ðT0 Þ ¼ An ðT1 Þsinðon T0 Þ þ Bn ðT1 Þcosðon T0 Þ þ ½terms due to N ðn ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ ð20Þ
where An and Bn can be determined from the initial conditions and the right-hand side forcing term in Eq. (18). Those
terms due to N are already dealt with in subsection 2.2 and hence are not discussed here.
When the above solution is substituted into Eq. (19), many terms arise. To demonstrate combination resonances, those
irrelevant terms are not explicitly shown. The resultant equation becomes
( "  2 !    #
  X1
jpu jpu 2jpu jpu
D21 qð1Þ
n þ o 2 ð1Þ
q
n n ¼ irrelevant terms  g Aj  o 2
j þ sinð oj T 0 Þsin T 0 þ oj cosð oj T 0 Þcos T0
j¼1
l l l l
"  2 !     #) npu 
jpu jpu 2jpu jpu
þ Bj  o2j þ cosðoj T0 Þsin T0  oj sinðoj T0 Þcos T0  sin T0 ð21Þ
l l l l l

Through trigonometry, the products of sine and cosine functions on the right-hand side of Eq. (21) can be turned into
pure sine and cosine functions. As there are many terms involved, only the crucial mathematical parts of them are
explicitly shown. Then the equation becomes
  X1  

nj
D21 qð1Þ
n þ o 2 ð1Þ
q
n n ¼ irrelevant terms g Aju sin pu þ o j T0 þ jAj
j¼1
l
 
 
 

nj nþj nþj
þ Bju sin puoj T0 þ jBj þ Cju sin pu þ oj T0 þ jCj þ Dju sin puoj T0 þ jDj
l l l
ð22Þ
2044 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

where coefﬁcients Aju, Bju, Cju and Dju and phase angles jAj, jBj, jCj and jDj can be determined from the derivation of Eq. (21).
The mathematical expressions of these constants are not given here as they do not afford the useful information on
combination resonances.
Eq. (22) reveals a number of new resonances as follows:
nj nj
pu þ oj ¼ on , puoj ¼ on ,
l l

nþj n þj
pu þ oj ¼ on , puoj ¼ on
l l
These resonances can be classiﬁed as (when n =j)
npu
¼ on ðn ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ
l
which is identical to Eq. (11) and is called a single-mode resonance as the relationship involves only one mode, and
n7j
pu ¼ on þ oj ðj, n ¼ 1,2,3,. . .; n Z jÞ ðsummation typeÞ ð23Þ
l

n7j
pu ¼ on oj ðj,n ¼ 1,2,3,. . .; n ZjÞ ðdifference typeÞ ð24Þ
l
which are called combination resonances as either relationship involves more than one frequency/mode.
Eqs. (23) and (24) indicate that when the speed of the travelling mass happens to satisfy any of these equations, the
whole system will be in resonance, even if the magnitude of the mass is low. The speed causing resonance depends on the
system parameters and involves two natural frequencies of the basic structure (the beam in this case) in the case of
combination resonances. The time-domain response can be aperiodic if the two natural frequencies involved are not
commensurable. This is another peculiar feature of moving load dynamics. Incidentally, there is a possibility that at a
particular speed, more than two frequencies are excited.
One consequence of moving mass (load) is that there are much more opportunities for resonances to occur. In another
word, moving loads can excite many frequencies or a wide range of frequencies. Rao [6] gave a detailed analysis of the
vibration of a beam excited by a moving oscillator using a perturbation method. With combination resonances (called
internal resonances by the author) present, the maximum dynamic deﬂection can be nearly 4 times the maximum static
deﬂection. This is in contrast with 2.5 times the maximum static deﬂection in a single-mode resonance, as reported in
Ref. [4] and also in Ref. [6].
There are numerous papers on beam vibration excited by a moving mass. Interested readers may refer to Refs. [7–11].
Among them, Ting et al. [7] used the Green function in the central formulation of the mathematical model, which has been
adopted by some other researchers. Sniady and colleagues [12] were interested in vibration of beams excited by a series of
random moving forces. For a moving rigid body [13], the rotational inertia must be considered.
A natural extension to the moving mass problem is the so-called moving oscillator problem [14–17], in which the
moving structure is a point-wise system of a mass, a spring and a damper. It is interesting to use the relative displacement
as the unknown to be solved [17]. Beams with other boundary conditions were also studied [18]. Incidentally, the moving
structure modelled as a multi-degrees-of-freedom system [19] will be touched upon in the sections on vehicle–bridge
interaction and train–track interaction. On the other hand, the supporting structure may have multiple spans [20–25].
As the modes of a multi-span beam may present difﬁculties due to the hyperbolic functions, special consideration is often
needed, for example, by using a semi-analytical approach [25]. A special case of multi-span structures is an inﬁnite
periodic beam as a model of rails [26].
It must be said that although when any of Eqs. (11), (23) and (24) is satisﬁed, resonance is predicted to occur. In reality,
the moving load on a beam usually stays on it for a short duration (and then exits from it). As a result, the peak amplitude
of the beam will not be as high as the peak amplitude generated by a stationary excitation at resonance. Similarly, when a
perturbation method predicts unstable vibration, actually vibration will stay ﬁnite as the cause of the instability (the
moving load) leaves the beam after a ﬁnite (usually short) duration. The next section gives an example in which resonance
and instability can occur as the moving load keep energising and never leaves the stationary structure.

## 3. Vibration of a circular plate excited by a moving oscillator—analytical formulation

The study of vibration of circular plates (discs) subjected to moving loads was initiated in the 1970s. They were meant
to represent computer ﬂoppy discs or wood saws. Mote [27] ﬁrst studied the vibration of a disc modelled as a thin, ﬂat,
circular Kirchhoff plate subjected to a moving mass. Mote and his colleagues have published numerous papers on the
vibration of different disc models under various moving loads. Iwan and Moeller [28] ﬁrst studied the vibration of a
spinning disc subjected to a stationary load. In the latter, the gyroscopic and centripetal effects due to disc rotation have to
be considered in the equation of motion of the disc. Vibration of a circular plate excited by a moving oscillator is described
in this section.
H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2045

The equation of motion of a circular plate under a moving oscillator rotating at a constant angular speed O can be
written as
!
4
@2 w @w @r w @4 w @2 w @w
rh 2 þ c1 þc2 þ Dr4 w 4 ¼  N þm 2 þ c þ kw dðrr0 ÞdðyOtÞ ð25Þ
@t @t @t @x @t @t

where h is the plate thickness, c1 and c2, are respectively, external and internal damping coefﬁcients of the plate
!2
@2 @ @2
r4 ¼ þ þ
@r 2 r@r r 2 @y2

is biharmonic differential operator in the polar coordinate system, D the ﬂexural rigidity of the plate; m, c and k are,
respectively, the mass, damping and spring constant of the rotating oscillator, N a constant force and r0 the radial location
of the oscillator.
The solution of Eq. (25) can be expressed as below
X
1 X
1
wðr, y,tÞ ¼ cij ðrÞexpðijyÞqij ðtÞ ð26Þ
i ¼ 0 j ¼ 1
pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
where i ¼ 1 is the imaginary unit; cij(r) the modes of the unloaded, undamped disc in the r direction, and are a
combination of Bessel functions of the ﬁrst and second kinds and satisfy the following orthogonality conditions:
Z Z b
rh b D
cln ðrÞcij ðrÞrdr ¼ dli dnj , cln ðrÞr4r cij ðrÞrdr ¼ o2ln dli dnj ð27Þ
2p a 2p a
where a and b are the inner and outer radii of the plate, oln the natural frequency corresponding to mode cln in which l and
n are, respectively, the number of nodal circle(s) and number of nodal diameter(s)
!2
@2 @ j2
r4r ¼ þ 
@r 2 r@r r 2

When Eq. (26) is substituted into Eq. (25) and the resultant equation is multiplied by cln(r)exp(  iny) and then integrated
over the radial interval ½a,b and the circumferential interval of ½0,2p, one can derive
2   X 1 X1
d qln c1 c2 2 dqln
þ in þ o ln þ o2ln qln ¼ Ncln ðr0 ÞexpðinOtÞcln ðr0 Þ cij ðr0 Þexp½iðjnÞOt
dt 2 rh D dt i ¼ 0 j ¼ 1
( !   )
2
d d 2 2 d
 m þ 2ij O j O þ c þ ijO þ k qij ðl ¼ 0,1,2,. . .; n ¼ 1,. . .,0,1,2,. . .Þ ð28Þ
dt 2 dt dt

## Re-arrangement of Eq. (28) yields

8 9 8
<d2 q  
d qij = <
X 1 X1 2
ln c1 c2 2 dqln
þ c ln ðr0 Þ c ij ðr0 Þexp ½iðjnÞ O t m þ in þ o ln
: dt 2
i ¼ 0 j ¼ 1
dt 2 ; : rh D dt
9
X1 X 1
dq =
þ cln ðr0 Þ cij ðr0 Þexp½ðiðjnÞOtði2mjO þ cÞ ij
i ¼ 0 j ¼ 1
dt ;
8 9
< X1 X1 =
2
þ o2nl qln þ cln ðr0 Þ cij ðr0 Þexp½iðjnÞOtðmj2 O þijcO þ kÞqij
: ;
i ¼ 0 j ¼ 1

## ¼ N cln ðr0 ÞexpðinOtÞ ðl ¼ 0,1,2,. . .; n ¼ 1,. . .,0,1,2,. . .Þ ð29Þ

A strong similarity in Eq. (29) to Eq. (10) can be observed by comparing them. Like the vibration of a beam excited by a
moving mass, the vibration of a circular plate excited by a rotating oscillator is also governed by a system of simultaneous
differential equations with time-varying coefﬁcients. Again there is no closed-form solution.
Eq. (29) indicates that single-mode resonance occurs whenever
nO ¼ oln ð30Þ
This allows the critical disc speed to be deﬁned as
o 
Ocr ¼ min ln ðl, ¼ 0,1,2,. . .; n ¼ 1,2,. . .Þ ð31Þ
n n
Similarly, combination resonances take place when (assuming n Zj)

## ðn 7jÞpO ¼ oln oij ðdifference typeÞ ð33Þ

2046 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

Papers published on disc vibration caused by a rotating oscillator or on vibration of rotating discs subjected to a
stationary oscillator are numerous. Just a few of them are commented upon here. Yu and Mote [29] studied vibration of
asymmetric discs due to imperfection. Shen and Mote [30] found that damping of the rotating system (without friction)
could be destabilising in the supercritical speed range to the stationary disc. Huang and Mote [31] investigated the effect of
a large damping force on a spinning disc. Chung et al. [32] included in-plane vibration and geometric nonlinearity in their
accelerating disc. Discs subjected to loads moving in both circumferential and radial directions were studied by Weisenel
and Schlack [33]. Mottershead [34] reviewed papers on vibration of stationary discs excited by moving systems and the
dual problem of discs spinning past stationary systems, particularly in relation to computer discs and brake discs.

## 4. Vibration of a rotating shaft under moving surface load—numerical simulation

Sections 2 and 3 present an analytical treatment of a beam and a circular plate exited by a moving mass and a moving
oscillator, respectively. The analytical formulation affords some mathematical insight into the dynamics of these problems.
However, general moving-load problems must be solved by numerical methods, as exempliﬁed in this section.
Consider a simply supported cylindrical beam of radius r subjected to a concentrated load which has three normal
components and travels in the axial direction x on the surface of the beam, as shown in Fig. 2. Its instantaneous location at
arbitrary time t measured from the left end is s(t). The beam spins about its longitudinal axis x at a constant rotational
speed O. For the sake of completeness, some material presented in Ref. [35] is adapted here.
As the equilibrium of a beam is established on the neutral axis, the loads acting on the beam surface have to be
translated to the neutral axis (also the longitudinal spinning axis in this example). When Px is translated to the neutral axis
x, a bending moment Mz must be added, as shown in Fig. 3. When Pz is translated to the neutral axis x, a torque T must be
added, also shown in Fig. 3. Py can be translated to the neutral axis x without adding anything.
Obviously
Mz ¼ Px r, T ¼ Pz r ð34Þ
Using Timoshenko beam theory, there are four unknown displacements to be determined: v and w are the
displacements of the neutral axis of the beam in the y and z directions, j and y the rotations of the cross-section about
the y and z axes. If Newtonian approach is followed, there will be four coupled partial differential equations in these
unknowns. However, Lagrangian approach seems more convenient and hence has been used by more researchers.
The kinetic energy and potential energy of a spinning Timoshenko beam are [35] (adapted from Ref. [36])
Z ( " 2  2 # " 2  2   #)
r l @v @w @j @y @y @j
K¼ A þ þI þ 2O j y þ 2O2 dx ð35Þ
2 0 @t @t @t @t @t @t

## Z l ( " 2  2 # " 2  2 #) Z l " 2  2 #

1 @j @y @v @w 1 @v @w
U¼ EI þ þ ks GA y þ þj dx Px þ dx ð36Þ
2 0 @x @x @x @x 2 sðtÞ @x @x

y
y
s(t) Py
Py
Pz
Px z
z

Pz x

Ω
Fig. 2. A beam spinning about its longitudinal axis subjected to axially moving loads (re-used with permission from Journal of Sound and Vibration).
(a) spinning beam and its loads and (b) cross-section of the beam.

Py

Pz
Mz
T

Fig. 3. Loads, torque and moment when the surface loads are transferred to the neural axis (re-used with permission from Journal of Sound and
Vibration).
H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2047

where the torsional angle of the beam is assumed small and thus is neglected, ks and G are the Timoshenko shear
coefﬁcient and shear modulus, and other symbols retain their usual meanings. A= pr2 and I= pr4/4.
The virtual work done on the virtual displacements dv, dw, dj and dy is [35]
dW ¼ Py dvðs,tÞ þPz dvðs,tÞ þ Mz dyðs,tÞ ð37Þ
where the forces are linear functions of the local displacements
Py ¼ P y ky vðs,tÞ, Pz ¼ P z kz wðs,tÞ ð38Þ
and P y and P z , and ky and kz are constant. Forces in the form of Eq. (38) behave like a (moving) force and spring each.
As there is no closed-form solution to this problem, an approximate solution will be sought. The solution can be
expressed as
X
n
vðx,tÞ ¼ fi ðxÞai ðtÞ ¼ /T ðxÞaðtÞ ð39Þ
i¼1

X
n
wðx,tÞ ¼ fi ðxÞbi ðtÞ ¼ /T ðxÞbðtÞ ð40Þ
i¼1

X
n
jðx,tÞ ¼ ci ðxÞci ðtÞ ¼ wT ðxÞcðtÞ ð41Þ
i¼1

X
n
yðx,tÞ ¼ ci ðxÞdi ðtÞ ¼ wT ðxÞdðtÞ ð42Þ
i¼1

where /T ={f1 f2 f3y} and wT ={c1 c2 c3y} with fi(x) and ci(x) ði ¼ 1,2,. . .,nÞ being complete and orthogonal sets of functions
(bases) that satisfy the displacement and slope boundary conditions of the beam, respectively, and preferably the mode shape
function of the stationary beam; and aT ={a1 a2 a3y}, bT ={b1 b2 b3y}, cT ={c1 c2 c3y} and dT ={d1 d2 d3 y} with ai (t), bi (t), ci (t)
and di (t) ði ¼ 1,2,. . .,nÞ being ‘modal coordinates’. When n approaches inﬁnity, Eqs. (39)–(42) are supposed to represent the ‘exact’
solution, though its closed-form cannot be obtained. A sufﬁciently accurate solution can be found with a ﬁnite n.
Lagrange’s equation can be written in general as
 
d @L @L
 ¼f ð43Þ
dt @q_ @q
where the Lagrangian
L ¼ KU ð44Þ
T T
q is the generalised coordinate vector (qT ¼ f aT b cT d g in this case) and f the generalised force vector
corresponding to the virtual generalised coordinate dq through the virtual work

dW ¼ f T dq ð45Þ
Substituting Eqs. (39)–(42) into (44) and then (43), making use of Eq. (45) yields
h i
rAAa€ þ ks GACPx Cp ðtÞ þky /ðsðtÞÞ/T ðsðtÞÞ aks GAEd ¼ Py /ðsðtÞÞ ð46Þ

h i
rAAb€ þ ks GACPx Cp ðtÞ þkz /ðsðtÞÞ/T ðsðtÞÞ b þks GAEc ¼ Pz /ðsðtÞÞ ð47Þ

## rIBc€ þ 2rIOBd_ þ ðEID þks GABÞcþ ks GAET b ¼ 0 ð48Þ

rIBd2rIOBc_ þ ðEID þks GABÞdks GAET a ¼ rPx wðsðtÞÞ ð49Þ
where
Z l Z l
A¼ /ðxÞ/T ðxÞdx, B ¼ wðxÞwT ðxÞdx,
0 0

Z l Z l
C¼ /uðxÞ/uT ðxÞdx, Cp ðtÞ ¼ /uðxÞ/uT ðxÞdx,
0 sðtÞ

Z l Z l
D¼ wuðxÞwuT ðxÞdx, E ¼ /uðxÞwT ðxÞdx,
0 0

## where a dash represents a derivative with respect to space coordinate x.

2048 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

Eqs. (46)–(49) are a system of simultaneous ordinary differential equations in the unknown ‘modal coordinates’. They
are solved by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta algorithm.
Consider a simply supported beam subjected to a load travelling from left to right at a constant speed u. The parameters
used in this simulated example are as follows: l= 1 m, r= 0.03 m; E= 2.1  1011 Pa, G = 7.8  1010 Pa, ks = 0.9; Px = 200 N,
P y ¼ 300 N, P z ¼ 1000 N; r ¼ 7700 kg m3 ; O ¼ 1933rad=s. The fundamental frequency of the stationary beam is
pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ
o1 ¼ ðp=lÞ2 EI=rA ¼ 773:135 rad=s. The critical speed of the stationary beam is ucr =246 m/s. For simplicity, ky and kz
are taken to be the same. Five speeds of u= 1 m/s, u =10 m/s, u= 123 m/s, u = 246 m/s and u = 369 m/s are used. These
correspond to speed ratios (deﬁned as b = u/ucr) of 0.004, 0.04, 0.5, 1 and 1.5. Numerical results of the ratios of the dynamic
deﬂections at the moving load location to the mid-span deﬂections, a = v(ut,t)/v0, are shown below; where v0 is the static
mid-span deﬂection of the stationary beam when the load is acting at mid-span. w(ut,t) displays the same pattern and so
its numerical results are not presented. Two cases are simulated below.

(1) ky = kz =0. This is a moving force problem. The results are illustrated in Fig. 4.
At the very low speed of u= 1m/s, the deﬂection is like an inﬂuence line as the dynamic effect of the moving load is
negligible at very load speeds. However, due to the moving bending couple Mz, there is a small-amplitude, high-
frequency oscillation on top of the nearly static deﬂection curve. This small-amplitude oscillation could mean
unacceptable surface roughness if this is a turning operation.
At the low speed of u = 10 m/s, the deﬂection is similar to that of u =1 m/s, again close to the static deﬂection curve,
with small-amplitude, high-frequency oscillation (even though the amplitude become greater and the frequency
becomes lower, in comparison with the small-amplitude oscillation at u =1 m/s).
At high speeds of b =0.5 and b =1, there are considerable dynamic effects in that the maximum deﬂection ratios are greater
than 1. However, when the speed is very high, say at b =1.5, the dynamic deﬂection is smaller than the static deﬂection.
(2) ky ¼ kz ¼ 0:3rAlo21 . The numerical results are illustrated in Fig. 5.

1 1
0.8 0.8
0.6 0.6
0.4 0.4
0.2 0.2
0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
ut/l ut/l

1.6
1
1.2 0.8

0.8 0.6

0.4
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
ut/l
ut/l

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
ut/l

Fig. 4. Numerical results of a at various speeds u. (a) u= 1 m/s (b¼0.004), (b) u= 10 m/s (b¼0.04), (c) u= 123 m/s (b¼0.5), (d) u =246 m/s (b¼1) and
(e) u= 369 m/s (b¼1.5).
H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2049

2.7 2.7

1.8 1.8

0.9 0.9

0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
ut/l ut/l

3
2.5 1.2

2
0.8
1.5
1 0.4
0.5
0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
ut/l ut/l

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
ut/l

Fig. 5. Numerical results of a at various speeds u. (a) u= 1 m/s (b¼0.004), (b) u= 10 m/s (b¼0.04), (c) u= 123 m/s (b¼0.5), (d) u= 246 m/s (b¼1) and
(e) u= 269 m/s (b¼1.5).

It can be seen that the dynamic deﬂections at the same speeds in case (2) are greater than those of case (1). This is due
to the decreased stiffness provided by the moving spring. The patterns of the deﬂections remain the same. If, on the other
hand, ky ¼ kz ¼ 0:3rAlo21 , then the dynamic deﬂections would be smaller than those of ky = kz = 0 due to the increased
stiffness in the moving spring at respective speeds and again the patterns of the dynamic deﬂections remain the same.
These results are not shown here.

## 5. Various moving-load problems

To help new researchers of moving-load problems to get into their problem areas quickly, various moving-load
problems are brieﬂy discussed and supplemented with a number of papers and sometimes books on each of these
problems. If an engineering application involves substantial moving loads but is not treated as such or the moving-load
excited vibration is not the subject matter of the work, then this work is usually not mentioned in this tutorial (if such a
work is mentioned below, the fact that it is not treated as a moving-load problem will be pointed out). This excludes many
works on vibration control of cranes, and vehicle and bridge/track/guide-way interaction. Some specialised topics, such as
dynamic ﬂuid-structure interaction, are not covered in this review either.

## 5.1. Vehicle–bridge interaction

This is arguably the most extensively studied type of moving-load problems. Fryba’s monograph [2] is a good starting
point. Yang et al. [37] presented a comprehensive treatment and their book is highly recommended.
2050 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

The many different kinds of bridges make this study very fascinating. Chatterjee et al. [38] studied vibration of
suspension bridges. The bridge was allowed to undergo ﬂexural-torsional vibration. The dynamic analysis included the
nonlinear bridge–vehicle interactive force, eccentricity of vehicle path, surface irregularity (a stationary random process
from Monte Carlo simulation) of the bridge pavement, cable–tower connection and end conditions for the stiffening girder.
The responses from three types of vehicle models, namely, 3-D, 2-D, and a single sprung mass system were compared.
Humar and Kashif [39] simulated vibration of an orthotropic plate for a slab bridge under a moving sprung mass for a
vehicle to identify inﬂuential parameters. Heavy vehicles were found likely to be detrimental to road bridges [40].
Vibration of highway steel bridges was the focus of Huang and Wang’s work [41]. Their vehicle was a tractor with a trailer,
together modelled with 11 degrees-of-freedom. The multi-girder bridge was modelled as a grillage of beams. They were
particularly interested in the longitudinal gradient of the road bridge, which was largely ignored by other researchers. Yau
and Yang [42] were interested in reducing vibration of cable-stayed bridges using tuned mass damper. They used a
‘vehicle–bridge interaction element’ they developed before. Lee and Yhim [43] carried out numerical and experimental
studies of dynamic behaviour of long-span box-girder bridges. González et al. [44] looked at the inﬂuence of the speed and
distance between vehicles travelling on a bridge and validated their simple model against ﬁeld measured vibration data.
Au et al. [45] reviewed vibration analysis work on bridges under moving loads, in particular, trains.
The experimental work by Xia et al. [46] deserves a special mention. A bridge located on the high-speed railway line
between Paris and Brussels was tested. It consists of multi-span simply supported prestressed concrete girders. The moving
loads were from high-speed Thalys articulated trains. The project was a collaboration among several international institutions.
Incidentally, foot bridges are excited by walkers. The vibration in turn affects how walkers walk and thus modiﬁes the
forces they apply to the bridge. As a part of a feedback loop, the walking force is actually difﬁcult to characterise as a
moving load. Often walking forces are treated as random loads. This topic is not covered in this review.

## 5.2. Vehicle–road/ground interaction

This topic is similar to vehicle–bridge interaction. What is special here is that the road or ground may be modelled as an
elastic or viscoelastic foundation or a semi-inﬁnite body, which can even be nonlinear. Rough roads cause random excitations
to travelling vehicles and in return travelling vehicles produce dynamic loads to roads. Simplistic models can be found in
Ref. [47]. On the other hand, Ju et al. [48] investigated ground vibration induced by moving vehicles, including mass transit
systems, high-speed train railway and general railway on bridges, embankments, and in tunnels, by means of ﬁeld experiments
and theoretical studies. It seems that the closeness of the frequencies of the moving structure and the stationary structures had
a subtle inﬂuence on the magnitude of resulting vibration. Koziol and Mares [49] used a wavelet approach for the vibration of a
semi-inﬁnite elastic body traversed by a fast moving load. An interesting idea is the ‘road-friendliness’ of a vehicle [50].
Lombaert et al. [51] built a numerical model of free ﬁeld vibration induced by a travelling vehicle on an uneven road.
The road unevenness excited the vehicle into vertical vibration that in turn produced dynamic axle load. The dynamic
interaction between the road and the soil was used to calculate the free ﬁeld vibration based on a dynamic substructure
method, using a boundary element method for the soil and an analytical beam model for the road.
For road vehicles and roads, interested readers should refer to the comprehensive handbook by Cebon [52]. As for trains,
because of the track, vehicle–ground interaction usually involves models of the track and hence will be looked upon in the next
section.

## 5.3. Train–track interaction

This is another extensively studied topic. Although it is in many ways similar to vehicle–bridge interaction in theory,
track presents some special characteristics. There are two rails resting on sleepers or concrete slabs. Sleepers are supported
by ballast. Various models are possible, ranging from ﬁnite-length beam to inﬁnite beam for rails, and from elastic or
viscoelastic foundation to semi-inﬁnite space for the ballast, subballast, subgrade and earth.
Due to the geometric proﬁle of the train wheel and that of the rail head, a complicated contact mechanics problem with
a stick-slip (creep) patch results. The Handbook [53] compiled by Iwnicki covers various relevant topics (including many
issues other than moving-load vibration). Another book on railway vehicle dynamics by Shabana [54] is also well regarded.
Verichev and Metrikine [55] modelled a rigid body travelling on a Timoshenko beam (the rail) supported by an elastic
foundation. Vibration of an embedded railway subjected to a moving load was studied in Ref. [56]. The rail was modelled
as a periodically supported beam in Ref. [57]. Popp et al. [58] considered a more realistic vehicle model. Lou [59] and
Auersch [60] both studied vehicle–track–bridge interaction in the context of rail trafﬁc. Dynamic interaction between a
train and a monorail [61] looks very interesting.
Dinh et al. [62] recently published a paper on the wheel-rail contact for a high-speed train crossing a bridge. There was
a three-dimensional contact at the wheel-rail interface based on Kalker’s theory. Each carriage consisted of one car body
(ﬁve degrees-of-freedom), two bogies (each having ﬁve degrees-of-freedom) and four wheelsets (each having four
degrees-of-freedom). A ballast-less concrete slab and a girder bridge were modelled. A case study of a ten-car train passing
over a two-span continuous bridge at various speeds and rail irregularity wavelength ranges was made. This seems to be
the most realistic and sophisticated model of vehicle–track–bridge interaction, to the author’s knowledge.
H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2051

Sheng et al. (and Thompson’s team) studied ground vibration excited by trains running in tunnels [63] and dynamic
interaction between train wheels and the track [64]. Thompson’s monograph [65] is dedicated to vibration and noise
problems in railway engineering and covers both theory and applications.
Hunt and his co-workers [66,67] developed the so-called Pipe-in-Pipe model for ground vibration excited by trains
travelling through underground tunnels. Its advantage is the low computational effort and hence efﬁciency.

## 5.4. Flexible discs

In mass storage media such as CD systems, the disc spins at a very high speed past a reader/writer head. The air gap
between them must be right; if they are too close, the head may run into the disc and cause damage; on the other hand, if
they are too far away, data would be lost or misread. The spinning disc interacts with the surrounding air and presents a
challenging ﬂuid–structure interaction problem. The structural part of the system is also complicated. Iwan and Stahal,
Mote, and Bogy are the pioneers of this research topic. In the early days, the reader/writer system was modelled only as an
oscillator [30,68,69]. Later on, the dynamic interaction between the disc and the surrounding air was studied [70–76] and
the ﬂuid was modelled with increasingly more sophisticated ﬂuid dynamics theories. Flutter instability has always been a
major interest. Nonlinear vibration of rotating discs [77,78] has also been a popular topic.
Stakhiev [79] showed that discs could ﬂutter at large amplitude at high enough rotating speeds in air and would cease
to do so when rotating in vacuum, which is clear evidence that ﬂuid–structure interaction is responsible for unstable disc
vibration. D’Angelo and Mote [70] carried out extensive experiments on discs rotating in open air and in enclosed nitrogen
atmosphere. They found that ﬂutter was due to instability of a reﬂected travelling wave and ﬂutter speeds would increase
with decreasing air density in the enclosed atmosphere. Renshaw et al. [71] studied ﬂutter of rotating discs and modelled
the air as compressible potential ﬂow. Kim et al. [72] extended the experimental approach to a hard-disc system in
enclosed atmosphere. The method put forward by Hansen et al. [73] took advantage of the differential damping of the
forward and backward travelling waves of the disc.
Kang and Raman [74] made a detailed study of different aeroelastic instability mechanisms of a disc rotating in an
enclosed compressible ﬂuid. Jana and Raman [75] examined rotating discs in unbounded compressible irrotational inviscid
ﬂuid and the competing effect of the material damping and aerodynamic damping on ﬂutter speeds. Eguchi [76] found
through experiments on rotating discs surrounded by a shroud that aerodynamic damping was dominant and the disc-to-
shroud gap was an important factor.

## 5.5. Friction-loaded discs and disc brake squeal

Disc brakes are such a common component of an automobile that people tend to take them for granted. Yet, they can
emanate all sorts of noise, among which the most irritant one is squeal at about 1 kHz up to 20 KHz (sometime said to be
16 kHz). Many hundreds of papers have been written about brake squeal and a variety of squeal mechanisms have been
put forward. For automotive disc brake squeal, please refer to the review paper by Kinkaid et al. [80].
Research into this fascinating subject can be roughly divided into two categories: that on a simple circular place loaded
with one or few simple oscillators or under a simple distributed elastic medium with friction, and that of a realistic disc
brake. The former will be discussed at ﬁrst.
Chan et al. [81] treated friction as a follower force rotating around a stationary circular plate as a simplistic model of a
disc brake, similar to the work on a circular plate spinning past a follower force as a model of a computer disc by Ono et al.
[69]. Lee and Waas [82] considered a multi-layered plate spinning past a follower friction force. Ouyang et al. [83]
introduced the negative gradient of the friction–velocity relationship and found some new combination resonances due to
this negative gradient. They also computed the nonlinear vibration of a stationary disc excited by a rotating elastic slider
that underwent stick-slip oscillation [84]. Ouyang and Mottershead [85] explored on what conditions forward or backward
travelling waves dominated the vibration of a disc excited by a rotating oscillator with a follower friction force. They also
introduced a moving couple to a circular plate as a result of the surface friction forces [86]. Hochlenert et al. [87] derived
more complete equations of motion of rotating discs under friction through vector algebra. Spelsberg-Korspeter et al. [88]
went on to study both in-plane and out-of-plane vibration of a rotating disc. Kang et al. [89] included gyroscopic, negative
friction gradient and mode-coupling mechanism in their model of a rotating plate under friction loading.
Ouyang et al. [90] ﬁrst formally introduced the moving-load model for disc brake squeal. Ouyang et al. [91] and Cao
et al. [92] carried out complex eigenvalue analysis of a vented and a solid disc brakes with the contact and friction forces at
the disc and pads interface treated as moving loads and compared numerical results of unstable frequencies with
experimental squeal frequencies of the same brakes.

## 5.6. Other discs

Discs are a fundamental component in mechanical engineering. Beside data storage discs and brake discs discussed in
the previous sections, there are also other applications, such as circular wood saws, clutches, gears and atomising discs.
2052 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

Hutton et al. [93] are early researchers of vibration of circular wood saws. Tian and Hutton [94] conducted a dynamic
stability analysis of wood saws. The instability mechanism was regenerative vibration that is also responsible for chatter in
machining, to be discussed later in this tutorial.
Another interesting but seemingly obscure application is atomising discs used in centrifugal atomisation for producing
powders. Molten metal (melt) descends on to the centre of a fast-spinning disc (atomising disc) and spreads out on the disc
surface due to gravity and the centrifugal force, the latter of which breaks down the melt into droplets that ﬂy off the disc.
They become powders when cooling down in air. Due to the very high rotating speed and possible asymmetric solid
deposit of the melt because of premature solidiﬁcation, large-amplitude vibration and loud noise can be excited. Ouyang
[95] studied vibration of atomising disc excited by the melt modelled as moving distributed mass. Deng and Ouyang [96]
considered melt ﬁlm as a growing wave and predicted powder size.

## 5.7. Rotating beam/shafts and spindles

Like discs, shafts are also a fundamental component in mechanical engineering. Due to the gyroscopic coupling as a
result of rotation around the longitudinal axis, a shaft subjected to a traverse load in one direction produces not only
deﬂection in that direction but also deﬂection in the direction normal to the loading direction and the longitudinal axis.
Vibration of turning operation in machining can be modelled as a shaft under a moving load (from the cutter).
Lee et al. [97] and Katz et al. [98] initiated research into vibration of a rotating beam under a moving load (force).
Argento and Scott [99] considered an accelerating surface force. Zu and Han [100] studied a rotating Timoshenko beam
with general boundary conditions. Lee [101] added the axial force. Huang and Lee’s shaft was a Rayleigh beam [102].
Zibdeh and Juma’s moving load was a random quantity [103]. El-Saeidy [104] used the ﬁnite element method and
considered nonlinear boundary conditions. Ouyang and Wang [35] included a moving couple due to the surface feed force
in a turning operation. Moving forces as a linear function of local deﬂection were considered in [105,106].
Many of the above-mentioned works on rotating shafts were meant to address vibration and chatter in turning
(machining) operations. Huang and Yang [107] simulated repeated cutting of a workpiece as a moving-load problem.
Chen and Wang [108] investigated vibration of high-speed spindles. There was a coupling between the rotating shaft
and the nonlinear bearings.

5.8. Cranes

Cranes take a number of forms. They all involve moving components. A gantry crane and bridge crane travel along
tracks. The trolley moves along the main girder beams and carries a payload which can swing about and excite the
structure into vibration. A tower crane has a jib that carries a payload moving along it and rotates around the tower. A
lufﬁng crane turns around its base while carrying a payload.
Park et al. [109] studied the frequencies and response of a bridge crane modelled as a moving-cart-on-beam system. It
should be noted the model in Ref. [109] was actually for a moving-boundary problem. Oguamanam et al. [110] worked on
the three-dimensional dynamics of a bridge crane. Fung and Yau [111] derived equations of motion for a cantilever beam
rotating in the horizontal plane and carrying a moving mass using Stanisic’s approach [3]. Yang et al. [112] extended their
work to include the payload as a swinging pendulum and derived the equations of motion. Both works were about tower
cranes. Wu et al. [113] suggested a ﬁnite element and analytical combined method to compute the dynamics response of a
gantry crane. They also carried out laboratory experiments.

5.9. Strings

Strings are also widely used as engineering components. Examples include electrical power lines and waveguides
(they could also be modelled as beams).
The dynamics of an inﬁnite string on an elastic foundation subjected to a moving force was investigated by Gavrilov
[114]. The nonstationary wave generated at supersonic speeds was the author’s main interest. The engineering background
of this problem is waveguides. Wu and Brennan [115] modelled a railway overhead wire as an inﬁnite periodically
supported string. The steady-state response of a long string on a nonlinear, viscoelastic foundation to uniformly moving
constant point loads was studied by Metrikine [116] in the context of overhead power lines. Strings that move will be
discussed in the section on moving structures and materials later.

5.10. Shells

As the only difference in the vibration of shells excited by moving loads from that of other structures is the governing
differential equations, there is no need to detail the works published on this topic. Only one paper is commented on here.
De Faria and Oguamanam [117] used an adaptive ﬁnite element mesh in their work on the vibration of spherical caps
under a moving force or a moving mass. This work will be reviewed in further detail in the Numerical Method section.
H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2053

## 5.11. Moving materials and structures

In some engineering applications, the main structure moves relatively to a stationary load or a stationary minor
structure, for example, cables for elevators and conveyor belts, band saw blades, paper and magnetic tapes and thread
lines in the textile industry. The mathematics of moving structures or materials is very similar to that of stationary
structures subjected to moving-loads when certain assumptions are made. To demonstrate the mathematics of this
category of problems, the equation of an axially moving slender (Euler) beam is used below.
Tabarrok et al. [118] established four nonlinear differential equations and one algebraic equation of a moving Euler
beam whose length can vary with time. When the displacement gradients are assumed to be small and the neutral axis of
the beam is assumed inextensible, the equation of motion of the beam when measured from an inertia (space-ﬁxed)
coordinate frame is (adapted from Ref. [118])
! " #
@2 w @w @w 2
2@ w du @w @4 w du @w @2 w
rA þ 2u þu þ þEI 4 rA ðlxÞ 2 ¼ N dðx0 Þ ð50Þ
@t 2 @t @x @x2 dt @x @x dt @x @x

where x0 is the ﬁxed location of the traverse concentrated force N. Other symbols are the same as those for the beam
shown in Fig. 1.
When the travelling speed of the beam is constant, Eq. (50) reduces to
!
@2 w @w @w 2
2@ w @4 w
rA 2
þ 2u þu 2
þ EI 4 ¼ N dðx0 Þ ð51Þ
@t @t @x @x @x

Comparing the left-hand sides of Eqs. (3) and (50), one can see that the equation of a beam subjected to a moving mass
is very similar to the equation of motion of a moving beam. When the velocity is constant, the latter is simpler in that there
is no d function and hence no time-dependent coefﬁcients for the unknown.
Vibration and dynamics instability of moving structures is a subject in its own right. Here a very limited number of
typical papers are brieﬂy reviewed.
Wickert and Mote [119] modelled a monocable ropeway (such as a tramway or ski lift) as an axially moving string that
transports an attached discrete mass between two supports. A Volterra integral equation was derived with delay that
governed the interaction force in the coupled system. There was good agreement between responses measured in the
laboratory and those predicted by the method.
Hwang and Perkins [120] studied the supercritical stability of an axially moving beam, which may represent a belt.
Zhu and Ni [121] investigated the energetics and stability of translating media of varying length. Elevator cables or wire
ropes of cranes may be modelled by these media. Chen and Yang [122] studied nonlinear free vibration of an axially
moving beam and compare models when the tension in the beam is assumed constant or otherwise. Michon et al. [123]
looked at parametric instability of moving belts under multiple excitations and carried out experimental validation. Brake
and Wickert [124] included a friction force to an axially moving beam as a model for tapes. Huang and Hsu [125] studied
the resonant phenomena of a rotating shell under a moving force. Vangipuram-Canchi and Parker [126] examined the
parametric instability of a rotating ring with moving springs.
Needless to say, those papers on rotating/spinning discs and beams mentioned before also belong to this category.

## 5.12. Separation and reattachment

When the travelling speed of the moving structure is high enough, it is possible that the moving structure may leave
the supporting structure (separation) brieﬂy. It is also possible for it to land onto (reattachment) the supporting structure
afterwards. If the vertical velocity at the reattachment is not small, an impact takes place and hence excites higher modes
of the supporting structure. The investigation of separation and reattachment may be useful for applications such as high-
speed trains.
Fryba is perhaps the ﬁrst researcher to study separation of the moving structure from the supporting structure (and the
following impact when the former descends on the latter) [127]. He considered irregularity of the roadway on a bridge
(a beam) and used a linearised Hertzian law for the contact forces between two wheels (rigid masses) and the beam.
However, how impact was dealt with was not presented. H P Lee [9] showed separation of a moving mass from a beam in
simulated examples. U Lee [10] made a more detailed study of separation between a moving mass and a beam. However,
neither considered the reattachment of the moving mass to the supporting structure after separation. Cheng et al. [128]
seemed to be the ﬁrst researchers to study both separation and reattachment. They put forward a method to determine the
vibration after the impact at reattachment. Stancioiu [129] put forward a simpliﬁed method for computing the dynamic
response after the impact at reattachment. They also showed some interesting separation maps (graphs of zero moving
contact force in terms of some parameters). Baeza and Ouyang [130] studied separation and reattachment of a truss-like
bridge structure traversed by an oscillator. They [131] also looked at a jumping oscillator crossing a simply supported
beam.
2054 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

## 5.13. Structural identiﬁcation and health monitoring by moving loads

Identiﬁcation of structural damage (including cracks) relies on decent experimental data that contains the information
about the damage. Sometimes it is difﬁcult to excite a real structure into vibration of sufﬁcient magnitude to enable good-
quality experimental data to be measured. As moving loads are capable of exciting large-amplitude vibration, they have
been used intentionally for the purpose of structural identiﬁcation. As vibration has been a major means in structural
health monitoring, it is also reviewed brieﬂy in this section.
Parhi and Behera [132] made an analytical and experimental study of a cracked beam traversed by a moving mass. The
cracked section is represented by a reduced local stiffness matrix. Incidentally, using a reduced stiffness at the crack
location has been a popular way of representing the role of a crack [133]. Majumder and Manohar [134] used a moving
oscillator to generate data to detect local or distributed loss of stiffness in beam structures undergoing vibration. A time
domain structural damage detection scheme was developed, within a ﬁnite element modelling framework, taking into
account time varying structural matrices, structural nonlinearities and spatial incompleteness of measured data. Yang
et al. [135] determined the modal behaviour and forced response of a beam of functionally graded material with an open
edge crack subjected to an axial force and a concentrated transverse force.
Piombo et al. [136] made the more challenging investigation into modelling and identiﬁcation of a real bridge of three
spans. The bridge, modelled as a simply supported orthotropic plate, was excited by moving vehicles, modelled as multi-body
systems of seven degrees-of-freedom each, with linear suspensions and tyre ﬂexibility. The dynamic response was measured
by seven capacitance accelerometers and processed by a wavelet approach. Bilello and Bergman [137] built an analytical
model for a damaged beam under a moving mass and carried out laboratory experiments. The damage was represented by a
rotational spring in the model. They observed an increase in structural damage sensitivity under the moving load.
Identiﬁcation of the moving force and damage has been a major interest to Law and Zhu, and their co-workers. Zhu and Law
[138] developed a method based on modal superposition and regularisation technique to identify moving loads on an elastically
supported multi-span continuous bridge deck and examined the effects of different parameters, such as measurement noise,
sampling rate, vertical and rotational stiffness and the travelling velocity of the moving loads. Numerical simulations showed that
the method could identify accurately the moving loads on the bridge. They also found that measured acceleration gave better
results than those from strains, and the number of vibration modes used in the identiﬁcation should exceed the highest frequency
of the excitation forces for an accurate identiﬁcation. They presented a time-domain method for detecting damage of a simply
supported concrete bridge structure subjected to moving vehicles as excitation [139]. A damage function was used to simulate the
crack damage in a reinforced concrete beam. Prior knowledge of the moving loads was not required, which is a strength of the
method. Simulation results showed that the method was effective and noise-insensitive. Yu and Chan [140] reviewed the current
knowledge on those factors affecting the performance of identiﬁcation methods of moving forces.
Paultre et al. [141] tested a number of highway bridges under normal and controlled trafﬁc loads. They wanted to
evaluate the dynamic ampliﬁcation factor for different highway bridges and develop standard testing procedures;
evaluated the dynamic properties of bridges and in particular the effect of structural reinforcement on the dynamic
ampliﬁcation factor and the dynamic properties by testing prior to and after reinforcing; calibrated ﬁnite-element models
of the bridges being tested; and studied the effects of changes in the stiffness of structural elements and the inﬂuence of
secondary structural elements on the dynamic response.
Marchesiello et al. [142] studied structural identiﬁcation of a bridge-like structure crossed by trafﬁc loads. The task is
very challenging because the system input was unknown (output-only measures). They built a scaled train-bridge model
excited by a crossing train with realistic conditions. Accelerations were measured along the beam bridge at different
locations. They evaluated two identiﬁcation methods.
Spiridonakos and Fassois [143] presented a study of a similar problem to the above and again used output-only data.
They also tested a laboratory bridge-like structure. Like Ref. [142], Fassois’ group has been interested in time-domain
identiﬁcation methods. A functional series vector time-dependent autoregressive moving average method was used in this
particular investigation.
Structural health monitoring of structures subjected to moving loads such as bridges has also been an attractive research
topic. Lee et al. [144] studied damage estimation of a bridge structure using ambient vibration data caused by trafﬁc loads.
The method consisted of identifying the operational modal properties. They reported that the identiﬁed damage locations
and severities agreed reasonably well with the real damages on the laboratory structure. Ou and his group have worked on
structural health monitoring and vibration control of bridges, oil platforms and high-rise buildings for a number of years. The
work done by them and other researchers and practitioners in mainland China was reviewed by Ou and Li [145].
On the other hand, Deng and Cai [146] identiﬁed vehicle parameters from vibration data collected during the period
when the vehicles were running on bridges. They tested a real truck on a real bridge. Nguyen and Tran [147] identiﬁed
cracks in a beam from vibration data of a vehicle crossing the beam. The numerical simulations showed the possibility of
using an instrumented vehicle to identify damages in bridges.

## 5.14. Vibration control of moving-load problems

It should now be clear that moving-load problems are very common and large-amplitude vibration and/or a wide
range of frequencies are often excited. As the vibration is unavoidable, it is sensible to study how to reduce it by passive or
H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2055

active means. All the afore-mentioned moving-load problems can be controlled. So this topic naturally involves many
papers.
Most published papers in this category seem to be passive control of moving-mass/oscillator-on-beam problems using
dampers [148–152]. Take the work in Ref. [150] as an example. Younesian et al. used an optimal tuned mass damper
(TMD) system to suppress the undesirable vibration of a Timoshenko beam using a Galerkin’s method. Additionally, they
simulated the dynamic response of an actual railway bridge traversed by a high-speed train and compared the dynamic
performance of the bridge before and after the installation of the TMD system. On the other hand, active vibration control
has also been used. Sung [153] simulated the vibration of a beam traversed by a moving mass with two piezoelectric
actuators at different locations determined by the minimisation of an optimal cost functional. Nikkhoo et al. [154] used a
linear classical optimal control algorithm with a time varying gain matrix (the solution of Riccati matrix equation) with
displacement–velocity feedback. Abdel-Rohman [155] studied nonlinear vibration of long span bridges suspended by
cables subjected to wind and moving loads. A simple controller was designed based on the feedback of the velocity
measurements taken at the control force location.
Lin and Cao [156] looked at motion and its control of a beam ﬁxed on a moving cart and developed a neuro-fuzzy
controller with two separate feedback loops for positioning and damping. This is a moving-boundary problem.
Yau [157] investigated the dynamic response of a maglev vehicle travelling over a series of guideway girders
undergoing ground support settlement. The vehicle is represented as a rigid car body supported by a rigid levitation frame
using a uniformly distributed spring–dashpot system and the guideway as a series of simple beams with identical span.
A PI controller tuned with Ziegler–Nicholas (Z–N) method was used to regulate the electromagnetic forces between the
magnetic-wheels and guide-rail. The dynamic response of the system was solved by a Galerkin’s method and computed by
a Newmark algorithm.
On the dynamic interaction in machining, Alter and Tsao [158] made a detained stability analysis and used an actively
controlled motor for stable turning operation. They also conducted experimental work and showed the effectiveness of their
approach. Yang and Mote [159] modelled a band saw as a moving string and studied active vibration control in theory and with
experiments. Ouyang and Mottershead [160] simulated placing different numbers of oscillators at various locations of a stationary
disc to suppress its vibration caused by a rotating oscillator with frictional follower force and found the optimal solution.
There are numerous published papers on control of various cranes. However, among the limited number of papers read
by the author none modelled the moving-load effects. So only one typical paper is commented upon in this review.
Terashima et al. [161] presented an open-loop control strategy for sway-free, point-to-point motion of a load mass in the
three-dimensional motion of a rotary crane. The minimum time-control problem that considered the change of the rope
length was compared with the pre-shaping control. The proposed control method using the straight transfer transforma-
tion model was shown to be effective in eliminating the inﬂuence of centrifugal force from simulation and experiments.
However, the moving loads that occurred during crane operations were not considered.
There are also numerous papers of semi-active and active suspensions of vehicles for vibration reduction. These are related
to moving-load problems but often do not involve the necessary mathematics of moving loads, and so they are not covered in
this tutorial. One work worthy of note is that of Sun [162] on the optimal design of ‘road-friendly’ suspension systems.

## 5.15. Random features

Many published works (for example, [38,41,51]) on vehicle–bridge/road/track interaction considered the roughness of
the road/track surface. Chatterjee et al. [38] modelled the pavement surface irregularity as a stationary random process
characterised by a power spectral density function (PSDF) and it was generated from Monte Carlo simulation in their study
of vehicle–bridge interaction. Huang and Wang [41] also considered road surface roughness. On the other hand, Dinh et al.
[62] considered surface irregularity of the track.
Sniady and his co-workers have studied various moving-load problems with random parameters, for example, the source
of excitation was a series of random moving forces in Ref. [12]. On the other hand, the moving oscillator in Ref. [163] had
random mass, velocity and acceleration.

6. Numerical methods

Moving-load problems involve two structures and hence are understandably difﬁcult to study. There are two issues to
be grappled with: (1) there are now multiple contact points or even a continuous contact patch between the moving
structure and the supporting structure; (2) both the moving structure and supporting structure can be complicated. These
present a challenging computational problem and need efﬁcient algorithms. Various numerical methods have been put
forward. Some of these are brieﬂy reviewed below. It must be stressed that the limited space in this tutorial does not allow
the sufﬁcient details of the speciﬁc methods to be presented and the original papers must be consulted to have a good
understanding of the speciﬁc methods.
Olsson discussed some computational issues [164]. Messac’s approach [165] was to model both ﬂexible structures with
ﬁnite elements. However, the mathematics is difﬁcult to follow. Henchi et al. [166] used a modal expansion technique for
bridge components discretised with the ﬁnite elements and central difference scheme for time integration. Both modal
and physical coordinates were used. Yang et al. [16] cast a moving-oscillator problem in an integral equation that was
2056 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

amenable to numerical solutions. Koh et al. [167] put forward a ‘moving element’ method speciﬁcally for moving-load
problems. A shortcoming is that the structure modelled by this type of elements must have the same cross-section along
the moving direction. De Faria and Oguamanam [117] used an adaptive ﬁnite element mesh to accommodate the travel of
the moving force/mass that traversed a spherical cap. It is observed that the tracking of the moving location and
subsequent dealing with the force equilibrium and displacement continuity at this location can easily be achieved by the
method reported in Ref. [130].
Ouyang et al. [90] put forward an analytical–numerical combined method and applied it to a small ﬁnite element model
for a disc brake without the disc (which was modelled as a Kirchhoff plate). There is a big advantage of using an analytical
formulation for a moving-load problem because when a load moves in the spatial domain its location always corresponds
to a degree-of-freedom (a continuous coordinate) in an analytical formulation. This allows easy enforcement of
displacement continuity and force equilibrium of the moving and stationary bodies at the moving coordinate. In contrast,
in a ﬁnite element formulation, the moving load is located in different element domains at different time, hence it is
difﬁcult to track its location constantly and in particular relate its motion to that of the FE nodal displacement vector as it
traverses different element domains. Apparently, the numerical procedure for a moving-load problem using the ﬁnite
element method is more complicated and less accurate than using an analytical method, if the latter afford an analytical
expression of modes. This approach was then extended to proper models of real brakes [91,92] and a beam subjected to a
moving ﬂexible body [168]. When neither of the two structures is amenable to analytical methods, the analytical modes
can be obtained by converting the ﬁnite element modes through element shape functions. This idea was implemented in
Ref. [130], in which a truss was excited by a moving oscillator, to accommodate both complicated structures while
retaining the advantage of the analytical approach in moving-load problems and versatility of the ﬁnite element method.
Many investigations of moving-load problems entail complicated mathematical equations. Symbolic computation can
derive approximate analytical solutions or reduce the equations to forms that are amenable to numerical computation.
Cartmell et al. [169] reviewed application of the method of multiple scales in solving dynamics of weakly nonlinear
mechanical systems, including those involving some moving-load problems.

7. Conclusions

This paper presents an easy-to-follow tutorial of some typical moving-load dynamic problems. Through a simple
example of a simply supported beam excited by a moving mass, the important concepts of the critical speed, single-mode
resonance and combination resonances, which are peculiar to moving-load problems, are explained. A popular
perturbation method, the method of multiple scales, is applied to demonstrate its application to the above problem
when a system parameter is small. A circular plate subjected to a relatively moving oscillator serves to provide another
useful example for understanding more complicated problems. Following the analytical approach, numerical simulation of
a rotating shaft subjected to a moving surface load is carried out.
To aid understanding and provide a short cut to acquisition of knowledge of moving load problems to new researchers,
various kinds of moving load problems are brieﬂy reviewed with useful references for each kind of problems. Some
computational issues associated with moving-load problems and some numerical methods for dealing with these issues
are discussed, before concluding this tutorial.

Acknowledgments

The author wishes to acknowledge the Royal Academy of Engineering and Leverhulme Trust Senior Fellowship and
ﬁnancial support from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Grant reference number: EP/H022287/1).
The following former and current colleagues have contributed to the author’s research work on moving-load problems:
Professor John E Mottershead, Dr Danut Stancioiu and Dr Simon James of University of Liverpool, Professor Matthew P
Cartmell of University of Glasgow, Professor Michael I Friswell of University of Swansea, Professor Qingjie Cao of Harbin
Institute of Technology, Dr Wei Li of General Motors Company, Professor Minjie Wang of Dalian University of Technology,
Professor Luis Baeza of Polytechnic University of Valencia, Mr Huaxia Deng of University of Liverpool. Professor Chin An
Tan of Wayne State University provided several useful reference papers.

References

[1] S.P. Timoshenko, History of Strength of Materials: With a Brief Account of the History of Theory of Elasticity and Theory of Structures, McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1953.
[2] L. Fryba, Vibration of Solids and Structures under Moving Loads, Noordhoff, Groningen, 1972.
[3] M.M. Stanišić, On a new theory of the dynamic behaviour of the structures carrying moving masses, Ingenieur-Archiv 55 (1985) 176–185.
[4] T. Dahlberg, Vehicle–bridge interaction, Vehicle System Dynamics 13 (1984) 187–206.
[5] A.H. Nayfeh, D.T. Mook, Nonlinear Oscillation, Wiley-Intersciences, New York, 1979.
[6] G.V. Rao, Linear dynamics of an elastic beam under moving loads, ASME Journal of Vibration and Acoustics 122 (2000) 281–289.
[7] E.C. Ting, J. Genin, J.H. Ginsberg, A general algorithm for moving mass problems, Journal of Sound and Vibration 33 (1974) 49–58.
[8] J.E. Akin, M. Moﬁd, Numerical solution for response of beams with moving mass, ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering 115 (1989) 120–131.
[9] H.P. Lee, On the separation of a mass travelling on a beam with axial forces, Mechanics Research Communications 22 (1995) 371–376.
H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2057

[10] U. Lee, Separation between the ﬂexible structure and the moving mass sliding on it, Journal of Sound and Vibration 209 (1998) 867–877.
[11] A.V. Pesterev, L.A. Bergman, A contribution to the moving mass problem, ASME Journal of Vibration and Acoustics 120 (1998) 824–826.
[12] D. Bryja, P. Sniady, Random vibration of a suspension bridge due to highway trafﬁc, Journal of Sound and Vibration 125 (1988) 379–387.
[13] G.T. Michaltsos, The inﬂuence of centripetal and coriolis forces on the dynamic response of light bridges under moving vehicles, Journal of Sound
and Vibration 247 (2001) 261–277.
[14] A.V. Pesterev, L.A. Bergman, Response of elastic continuum carrying moving linear oscillator, ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics 123 (1997)
878–884.
[15] A.V. Metrikine, S.N. Verichev, Instability of vibration of a moving oscillator on a ﬂexibly supported Timoshenko beam, Archive of Applied Mechanics
71 (2001) 613–624.
[16] B. Yang, C.A. Tan, L.A. Bergman, Direct numerical procedure for solution of moving oscillator problems, ASCE Journal of Engineering Mechanics 126
(2000) 462–469.
[17] G. Muscolino, A. Palmeri, A. Soﬁ, Absolute versus relative formulations of the moving oscillator problem, International Journal of Solids and
Structures 46 (2009) 1085–1094.
[18] S.A.Q. Siddiqui, M.F. Golnaraghi, G.R. Heppler, Dynamics of a ﬂexible cantilever beam carrying a moving mass, Nonlinear Dynamics 15 (1998)
137–154.
[19] E. Esmailzadeh, N. Jalili, Vehicle–passenger–structure interaction of uniform bridges traversed by moving vehicles, Journal of Sound and Vibration
260 (2003) 611–635.
[20] K. Henchi, M. Fafard, G. Dhatt, M. Talbot, Dynamic behaviour of multi-span beams under moving loads, Journal of Sound and Vibration 199 (1997)
33–50.
[21] S. Marchesiello, A. Fasana, L. Garibaldi, B.A.D. Piombo, Dynamics of multi-span continuous straight bridges subject to multi-degrees of freedom
moving vehicle excitation, Journal of Sound and Vibration 224 (1999) 541–561.
[22] Y.K. Cheung, F.T.K. Au, D.Y. Zheng, Y.S. Cheng, Vibration of multi-span non-uniform bridges under moving vehicles and trains using modiﬁed beam
vibration functions, Journal of Sound and Vibration 228 (1999) 611–628.
[23] T.H. Chan, B.D. Ashebo, Moving axle load from multi-span continuous bridge: laboratory study, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics 128 (2006)
521–526.
[24] D. Stancioiu, H. Ouyang, J.E. Mottershead, Vibration of a continuous beam with multiple elastic supports excited by a moving two-axle system with
separation, Meccanica 44 (2009) 293–303.
[25] A.E. Martı́nez-Castro, P. Museros, A. Castillo-Linares, Semi-analytic solution in the time domain solution for nonuniform multi-span Bernoulli–Euler
beams traverse by moving loads, Journal of Sound and Vibration 294 (2006) 278–297.
[26] P.M. Belotserkovskiy, On the oscillations of inﬁnite periodic beams subjected to a moving concentrated force, Journal of Sound and Vibration 193
(1996) 705–712.
[27] C.D. Mote Jr., Stability of circular plates subjected to moving-loads, Journal of the Franklin Institute 290 (1970) 329–344.
[28] W.D. Iwan, T.L. Moeller, The stability of a spinning elastic disc with a transverse load system, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 43 (1976)
485–490.
[29] R.L. Yu, C.D. Mote Jr., Vibration and parametric excitation in asymmetric plates under moving loads, Journal of Sound and Vibration 119 (1987)
409–427.
[30] I.Y. Shen, C.D. Mote Jr., On the mechanism of instability of a circular plate under a rotating spring-mass-dashpot system, Journal of Sound and
Vibration 148 (1991) 307–318.
[31] F.Y. Huang, C.D. Mote Jr., Mathematical analysis of stability of spinning disc under rotating, arbitrary large damping forces, ASME Journal of
Vibration and Acoustics 118 (1996) 657–662.
[32] J. Chung, J.-E. Oh, H.H. Yoo, Non-linear vibration of a ﬂexible spinning disc with angular acceleration, Journal of Sound and Vibration 231 (2000)
375–391.
[33] G.N. Weisenel, A.L. Schlack Jr., Response of annular plates to circumferentially and radially moving loads, Journal of Applied Mechanics 60 (1993)
649–661.
[34] J.E. Mottershead, Vibration and friction-induced instability in discs, The Shock and Vibration Digest 30 (1998) 14–31.
[35] H. Ouyang, M. Wang, A dynamics model for a rotating shaft subjected to axially moving forces, Journal of Sound and Vibration 308 (2007) 674–682.
[36] L.-W. Chen, D.-M. Ku, Dynamic stability of a cantilever shaft-disk system, ASME Journal of Vibration and Acoustics 181 (1992) 326–329.
[37] B.Y. Yang, J.D. Yau, Y.S. Wu, Vehicle-Bridge Interaction Dynamics, World Scientiﬁc Publishing Co., 2004.
[38] P.K. Chatterjee, T.K. Data TK, C.S. Surana, Vibration of suspension bridges under vehicular movement, Journal of Structural Engineering 120 (1994)
681–703.
[39] J.L. Humar, A.H. Kashif, Dynamic response analysis of slab-type bridges, Journal of Structural Engineering 121 (1995) 48–62.
[40] M.F. Green, D. Cebon, Dynamic interaction between heavy vehicles and highway bridges, Computers and Structures 62 (1997) 253–264.
[41] D.Z. Huang, T.L. Wang, Vibration of highway steel bridges with longitudinal grades, Computers and Structures 69 (1998) 235–245.
[42] J.D. Yau, Y.B. Yang, Vibration reduction for cable-stayed bridges traveled by high-speed trains, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 40 (2004)
341–359.
[43] S.-Y. Lee, S.-S. Yhim, Dynamic behavior of long-span box girder bridges subjected to moving loads: Numerical analysis and experimental
veriﬁcation, International Journal of Solids and Structures 42 (2005) 5021–5035.
[44] A. González, E.J. O’Brien, D. Cantero, Y. Li, J. Dowling, A. Žnidarič, Critical speed for the dynamics of truck events on bridges with a smooth road
surface, Journal of Sound and Vibration 329 (2010) 2127–2146.
[45] F.T.K. Au, Y.S. Cheng, Y.K. Cheung, Vibration analysis of bridges under moving vehicles and trains: An overview, Progress in Structural Engineering
and Materials 3 (2001) 299–304.
[46] H. Xia, G. De Roeck, N. Zhang, J. Maeck, Experimental analysis of a high-speed railway bridge under Thalys trains, Journal of Sound and Vibration
268 (2003) 103–113.
[47] L. Fryba, Dynamic interaction of vehicles with tracks and roads, Vehicle System Dynamics 16 (1987) 129–138.
[48] S.-H. Ju, H.-T. Lin, J.-Y. Huang, Dominant frequencies of train-induced vibrations, Journal of Sound and Vibration 319 (2009) 247–259.
[49] P. Koziol, C. Mares, E. Ibrahim, Wavelet approach to vibratory analysis of surface due to a load moving in the layer, International Journal of Solids
and Structures 45 (2008) 2140–2159.
[50] T.E.C. Potter, D. Cebon, D.J. Cole, Assessing ’road-friendliness’: A review, IMechE Journal of Automobile Engineering 211 (1997) 455–475.
[51] G. Lombaert, G. Degrande, D. Clouteau, Numerical modelling of free ﬁeld trafﬁc-induced vibrations, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 19
(2000) 473–488.
[52] D. Cebon, Handbook of Vehicle–Road Interaction, Taylor & Francis, 2000.
[53] S. Iwnicki (Ed.), Taylor and Francis, 2006.
[54] A.A. Shabana, Railroad Vehicle Dynamics: A Computational Approach, CRC, Taylor & Francis, 2008.
[55] S.N. Verichev, A.V. Metrikine, Instability of a bogie moving on a ﬂexibly supported Timoshenko beam, Journal of Sound and Vibration 253 (2002)
653–668.
[56] M. Shamalta, A.V. Metrikine, Analytical study of the dynamic response of an embedded railway track to a moving load, Archive of Applied
Mechanics 73 (2003) 131–146.
[57] A.V. Vostroukhov, A.V. Metrikine, Periodically supported beam on a visco-elastic layer as a model for dynamic analysis of a high-speed railway
track, International Journal of Solids and Structures 40 (2003) 5723–5752.
2058 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

[58] K. Popp, I. Kaiser, H. Kruse, System dynamics of railway vehicles and track, Archive of Applied Mechanics 72 (2003) 949–961.
[59] P. Lou, A vehicle-track-bridge interaction element considering vehicle’s pitching effect, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 41 (2005) 397–427.
[60] L. Auersch, The excitation of ground vibration by rail trafﬁc: theory of vehicle–track–soil interaction and measurements on high-speed lines,
Journal of Sound and Vibration 284 (2005) 103–132.
[61] C.H. Lee, M. Kawatani, C.W. Kim, N. Nishimura, Y. Kobayashi, Dynamic response of a monorail steel bridge under a moving train, Journal of Sound
and Vibration 294 (2006) 562–579.
[62] V.N. Dinh, K.D. Kim, P. Warnitchai, Dynamic analysis of three-dimensional bridge-high-speed train interactions using a wheel-rail contact model,
Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 3090–3106.
[63] X. Sheng, C.J.C. Jones, D.J. Thompson, Modelling ground vibration from tunnels using wavenumber ﬁnite and boundary element methods,
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, 461 (2005) 2043–2070.
[64] X. Sheng, M. Li, C.J.C. Jones, D.J. Thompson, Using the Fourier series approach to study interactions between moving wheels and a periodically
supported rail, Journal of Sound and Vibration 303 (2007) 873–894.
[65] D. Thompson, Railway Noise and Vibration: Mechanisms, Modelling and Means of Control, Elsevier, 2009.
[66] M.F.M. Hussein, H.E.M. Hunt, Modelling of ﬂoating-slab tracks with continuous slabs under oscillating moving loads, Journal of Sound and
Vibration 297 (2006) 37–54.
[67] J.A. Forrest, H.E.M. Hunt, Ground vibration generated by trains in underground tunnels, Journal of Sound and Vibration 294 (2006) 706–736.
[68] Z.W. Jiang, S. Chonan, H. Abe, Dynamic response of a read/write head ﬂoppy disc system subjected to axial excitation, ASME Journal of Vibration
and Acoustics 112 (1990) 53–58.
[69] K. Ono, J.-S. Chen, D.B. Bogy, Stability analysis for the head-disc interface in a ﬂexible disc drive, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 58 (1991)
1005–1014.
[70] C. D’Angelo III, C.D. Mote Jr., Aerodynamically excited vibration and ﬂutter of a thin disk rotating at supercritical speed, Journal of Sound and
Vibration 168 (1) (1993) 15–30.
[71] A.A. Renshaw, C. D’Angelo III, C.D. Mote Jr., Aerodynamically excited vibration of a rotating disc, Journal of Sound and Vibration 177 (5) (1994)
577–590.
[72] B.C. Kim, A. Raman, C.D. Mote Jr., Prediction of aeroelastic ﬂutter in a hard disk drive, Journal of Sound and Vibration 238 (2000) 309–325.
[73] M.H. Hansen, A. Raman, C.D. Mote Jr., Estimation of nonconservative aerodynamic pressure leading to ﬂutter of spinning disks, Journal of Fluids and
Structures 15 (2001) 39–57.
[74] N.C. Kang, A. Raman, Aeroelastic ﬂutter mechanisms of a ﬂexible disk rotating in an enclosed compressible ﬂuid, Journal of Applied Mechanics 71
(1) (2004) 120–130.
[75] A. Jana, A. Raman, Aeroelastic ﬂutter of a disk rotating in an unbounded acoustic medium, Journal of Sound and Vibration 289 (2006) 612–631.
[76] T. Eguchi, Aerodynamic damping on vibration of rotating disks and effects of shroud and top cover, IEEE Transaction on Magnetics 44 (2008)
3742–3745.
[77] N. Malhotra, N. Sri Namachchivaya, R.J. McDonald, Multipulse orbits in the motion of ﬂexible spinning discs, Journal of Nonlinear Science 12 (2002)
1–26.
[78] A. DasGupta, Non-linear dynamics of a thin rotating disc with aerial forces, IMechE Journal of Mechanical Engineering Sciences 219 (2005)
1169–1178.
[79] Y.M. Stakhiev, Vibrations in thin steel discs, Russian Engineering Journal 52 (1972) 14–17.
[80] N.M. Kinkaid, O.M. O’Reilly, P. Papadopoulos, Automotive disc brake squeal: a review, Journal of Sound Vibration 267 (2003) 105–166.
[81] S.N. Chan, J.E. Mottershead, M.P. Cartmell, Parametric resonances at subcritical speeds in discs with rotating frictional loads, IMechE Journal of
Mechanical Engineering Sciences 208 (1994) 417–425.
[82] D. Lee, A.M. Waas, Stability analysis of a rotating multi-layer annular plate with a stationary frictional follower load, International Journal of
Mechanical Sciences 39 (1997) 1117–1138.
[83] H. Ouyang, J.E. Mottershead, M.P. Cartmell, M.I. Friswell, Friction-induced parametric resonances in discs: effect of a negative friction–velocity
relationship, Journal of Sound and Vibration 209 (1998) 251–264.
[84] H. Ouyang, J.E. Mottershead, M.P. Cartmell, D.J. Brookﬁeld, Friction-induced vibration of an elastic slider on a vibrating disc, International Journal of
Mechanical Science 41 (1999) 325–336.
[85] H. Ouyang, J.E. Mottershead, Unstable travelling waves in the friction-induced vibration of discs, Journal of Sound and Vibration 248 (2001)
768–779.
[86] H. Ouyang, J.E. Mottershead, Dynamic instability of an elastic disc under the action of a rotating friction couple, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics
71 (2004) 753–758.
[87] D. Hochlenert, G. Spelsberg-Korspeter, P. Hagedorn, Friction induced vibrations in moving continua and their application to brake squeal, ASME
Journal of Applied Mechanics 74 (2007) 542–549.
[88] G. Spelsberg-Korspeter, D. Hochlenert, O.N. Kirillov, P. Hagedorn, In and out-of-plane vibrations of a rotating plate with frictional contact:
Investigations on squeal phenomena, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 76 (2009) 041006.
[89] J. Kang, C.M. Krousgrill, F. Sadeghi, Comprehensive stability analysis of disc brake vibrations including gyroscopic, negative friction slope and
mode-coupling mechanisms, Journal of Sound and Vibration 324 (2009) 387–407.
[90] H. Ouyang, J.E. Mottershead, D.J. Brookﬁeld, S. James, M.P. Cartmell, A methodology for the determination of dynamic instabilities in a car disc
brake, International Journal of Vehicle Design 23 (2000) 241–262.
[91] H. Ouyang, Q. Cao, J.E. Mottershead, T. Treyde, Vibration and squeal of a disc brake: Modelling and experimental results, IMechE Journal of
Automobile Engineering 217 (2003) 867–875.
[92] Q. Cao, H. Ouyang, M.I. Friswell, J.E. Mottershead, Linear eigenvalue analysis of the disc-brake squeal problem, International Journal for Numerical
Methods in Engineering 61 (2004) 1546–1563.
[93] S.G. Hutton, S. Chonan, B.F. Lehmam, Dynamic response of a guided circular saw, Journal of Sound Vibration 112 (1987) 527–539.
[94] J.F. Tian, S.G. Hutton, Cutting-induced vibration in circular saws, Journal of Sound and Vibration 242 (2001) 907–922.
[95] H. Ouyang, Vibration of an atomising disc subjected to a growing distributed mass, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 53 (2005)
1000–1014.
[96] H. Deng, H. Ouyang, Vibration of spinning discs and powder formation in centrifugal atomization, in: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London,
Series A 467 (2011) 361–380.
[97] C.W. Lee, R. Katz, A.G. Ulsoy, R.A. Scott, Modal analysis of a distributed parameter rotating shaft, Journal of Sound and Vibration 122 (1987)
119–130.
[98] R. Katz, C.W. Lee, A.G. Ulsoy, R.A. Scott, The dynamic response of a rotating shaft subject to a moving load, Journal of Sound and Vibration 122
(1987) 134–148.
[99] A. Argento, R.A. Scott, Dynamic response of a rotating beam subjected to an accelerating distributed surface force, Journal of Sound and Vibration
157 (1992) 221–231.
[100] J.W.Z. Zu, R.P.S. Han, Dynamic-response of a spinning Timoshenko beam with general boundary-conditions and subjected to a moving load, ASME
Journal of Applied Mechanics 61 (1994) 152–160.
[101] H.P. Lee, Dynamic response of a rotating Timoshenko shaft subject to axial forces and moving loads, Journal of Sound and Vibration 181 (1995)
169–177.
[102] Y.M. Huang, C.Y. Lee, Dynamics of a rotating Rayleigh beam, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 40 (1998) 779–792.
H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2059

[103] H.S. Zibdeh, H.S. Juma, Dynamic response of a rotating beam subjected to a random moving load, Journal of Sound and Vibration 223 (1999)
741–758.
[104] F.M.A. El-Saeidy, Finite element dynamic analysis of a rotating shaft with or without nonlinear boundary conditions subjected to a moving load,
Nonlinear Dynamics 21 (2000) 377–407.
[105] R. Katz, C.W. Lee, A.G. Ulsoy, R.A. Scott, Dynamic stability and response of a beam subjected to a deﬂection-dependent moving load, ASME Journal
of Vibration, Acoustics, Stress and Reliability in Design 109 (1987) 361–365.
[106] A. Argento, H.L. Morano, A spinning beam subjected to a moving deﬂection dependent load, 2: Parametric resonance, Journal of Sound and
Vibration 182 (1995) 617–622.
[107] Y.M. Huang, M.L. Yang, Dynamic analysis of a rotating beam subjected to repeating axial and transverse forces for simulating a lathing process,
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 51 (2009) 256–268.
[108] C.H. Chen, K.W. Wang, An integrated approach toward the modeling and dynamic analysis of high-speed spindles, Part II: Dynamics under moving
end load, ASME Journal of Vibration and Acoustics 116 (1994) 514–522.
[109] S. Park, W.K. Chung, Y. Youm, J.W. Lee, Natural frequencies and open-loop responses of an elastic beam ﬁxed on a moving cart and carrying an
intermediate lumped mass, Journal of Sound and Vibration 230 (2000) 591–615.
[110] D.C.D. Oguamanam, J.S. Hansen, G.R. Heppler, Dynamics of a three-dimensional overhead crane system, Journal of Sound and Vibration 242 (2001)
411–426.
[111] E.H.K. Fung, D.T.W. Yau, Vibration frequencies of a rotating ﬂexible arm carrying a moving mass, Journal of Sound and Vibration 241 (2001)
857–878.
[112] W. Yang, Z. Zhang, R. Shen, Modeling of system dynamics of a slewing ﬂexible beam with moving payload pendulum, Mechanics Research
Communications 34 (2007) 260–266.
[113] J.J. Wu, A.R. Whittaker, M.P. Cartmell, Dynamic responses of structures to moving bodies using combined ﬁnite element and analytical methods,
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 43 (2001) 2555–2579.
[114] S. Gavrilov, Non-stationary problems in dynamics of a string on an elastic foundation subjected to a moving load, Journal of Sound and Vibration
222 (1999) 345–361.
[115] T.X. Wu, M.J. Brennan, dynamic stiffness of a railway overhead wire system and its effect on pantograph–catenary system dynamics, Journal of
Sound and Vibration 219 (1999) 483–502.
[116] A.V. Metrikine, Steady state response of an inﬁnite string on a non-linear visco-elastic foundation to moving point loads, Journal of Sound and
Vibration 272 (2004) 1033–1046.
[117] A.R. de Faria, D.C.D. Oguamanam, Adaptive ﬁnite element analysis of the dynamic response of spherical caps under traversing loads, Finite
Elements in Analysis and Design 41 (2005) 1027–1042.
[118] B. Tabarrok, C.M. Leech, Y.I. Kim, On the dynamics of an axially moving beam, Journal of the Franklin Institute 297 (1974) 201–220.
[119] J.A. Wickert, C.D. Mote Jr., Travelling load response of an axially moving string, Journal of Sound and Vibration 149 (1991) 267–284.
[120] S.-J. Hwang, N.C. Perkins, Supercritical stability of an axially moving beam part I: Model and equilibrium analysis, Journal of Sound and Vibration
154 (1992) 381–396.
[121] W.D. Zhu, J. Ni, Energetics and stability of translating media with an arbitrarily varying length, ASME Journal of Vibration and Acoustics 122 (2000)
295–304.
[122] L.-Q. Chen, X.-D. Yang, Nonlinear free vibration of an axially moving beam: Comparison of two models, Journal of Sound and Vibration 299 (2007)
348–354.
[123] G. Michon, L. Manin, D. Remond, R. Dufour, R.G. Parker, Parametric instability of an axially moving belt subjected to multi-frequency excitations:
Experiments and analytical validation, ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 75 (2008) 041004.
[124] M.R. Brake, J.A. Wickert, Frictional vibration transmission from a laterally moving surface to a traveling beam, Journal of Sound and Vibration 310
(2008) 663–675.
[125] S.C. Huang, B.S. Hsu, Resonant phenomena of a rotating cylindrical shell subjected to a harmonic moving load, Journal of Sound and Vibration 136
(1990) 215–228.
[126] S. Vangipuram-Canchi, R.G. Parker, Parametric instability of a rotating ring with moving, time-varying springs, ASME Journal of Vibration and
Acoustics 128 (2006) 231–243.
[127] L. Fryba, Impacts of two-axle system traversing a beam, International Journal of Solids and Structures 4 (1968) 1107–1123.
[128] Y.S. Cheng, F.T.K. Au, Y.K. Cheung, D.Y. Zheng, On the separation between the moving vehicle and bridge, Journal of Sound and Vibration 222 (1999)
781–801.
[129] D. Stancioiu, H. Ouyang, J.E. Mottershead, Vibration of a beam excited by a moving oscillator considering separation and reattachment, Journal of
Sound and Vibration 310 (2008) 1128–1140.
[130] L. Baeza, H. Ouyang, Dynamics of a truss structure and its moving-oscillator exciter with separation and impact-reattachment, Proceedings of the
Royal Society of London, Series A 464 (2008) 2517–2533.
[131] L. Baeza, H. Ouyang, Dynamics of an elastic beam and a jumping oscillator moving in the longitudinal direction of the beam, Structural Engineering
and Mechanics 30 (2008) 369–382.
[132] D.R. Parhi, A.K. Behera, Dynamic deﬂection of a cracked beam with moving mass, IMechE Journal of Engineering Sciences 211 (1997) 77–87.
[133] A.D. Dimarogonas, Vibration of cracked structures—a state of the art review, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 5 (1996) 831–857.
[134] L. Majumder, C.S. Manohar, Nonlinear reduced models for beam damage detection using data on moving oscillator-beam interactions, Computers
and Structures 82 (2002) 301–314.
[135] J. Yang, Y. Chen, Y. Xiang, X.L. Jia, Free and forced vibration of cracked inhomogeneous beams under an axial force and a moving load, Journal of
Sound and Vibration 312 (2008) 166–181.
[136] B.A.D. Piombo, A. Fasana, S. Marchesiello, M. Ruzzene, Modelling and identiﬁcation of the dynamic response of a supported bridge, Mechanical
Systems and Signal Processing 14 (2000) 75–89.
[137] C. Bilello, L.A. Bergman, Vibration of damaged beams under a moving mass: Theory and experimental validation, Journal of Sound and Vibration
274 (2004) 567–582.
[138] X.Q. Zhu, S.S. Law, Moving load identiﬁcation on multi-span continuous bridges with elastic bearings, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20
(2006) 1759–1782.
[139] X.Q. Zhu, S.S. Law, Damage detection in simply supported concrete bridge structure under moving vehicular loads, Journal of Vibration and Control
129 (2004) 58–65.
[140] L. Yu, T.H.T. Chan, Recent research on identiﬁcation of moving loads on bridges, Journal of Sound and Vibration 305 (2007) 3–21.
[141] P. Paultre, J. Proulx, M. Talbot, Dynamic testing procedures for highway bridges using trafﬁc loads, Journal of Structural Engineering 121 (1995)
362–376.
[142] S. Marchesiello, S. Bedaoui, L. Garibaldi, P. Argoul, Time-dependent identiﬁcation of a bridge-like structure with crossing loads, Mechanical Systems
and Signal Processing 23 (2009) 2019–2028.
[143] M.D. Spiridonakos, S.D. Fassois, Parametric identiﬁcation of a time-varying structure based on vector vibration response measurements,
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 23 (2009) 2029–2048.
[144] J.W. Lee, J.D. Kim, C.B. Yun, J.H. Yi, J.M. Shim, Health-monitoring method for bridges under ordinary trafﬁc loadings, Journal of Sound and Vibration
(2002) 247–264.
[145] J. Ou, H. Li, Structural health monitoring in mainland China: Review and future trends, Structural Health Monitoring 9 (2010) 219–231.
2060 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

[146] L. Deng, C.S. Cai, Identiﬁcation of parameters of vehicles moving on bridges, Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 2474–2485.
[147] K.V. Nguyen, H.T. Tran, Multi-cracks detection of a beam-like structure based on the on-vehicle vibration signal and wavelet analysis, Journal of
Sound and Vibration 329 (2010) 4455–4465.
[148] J.F. Wang, C.C. Lin, B.L. Chen, Vibration suppression for high-speed railway bridges using tuned mass dampers, International Journal of Solids and
Structures 40 (2003) 465–491.
[149] P. Museros, D. Martı́nez-Rodrigo, Vibration control of simply supported beams under moving loads using ﬂuid viscous dampers, Journal of Sound
and Vibration 300 (2007) 292–315.
[150] D. Younesian, M.H. Kargarnovin, E. Esmailzadeh, Optimal passive vibration control of Timoshenko beams with arbitrary boundary conditions
traversed by moving loads, IMechE Journal of Multi-body Dynamics 222 (2008) 179–188.
[151] H.S. Zibdeh, I. Abu-Alshaikh, Vibration response of a beam with different appendages subjected to a moving system, International Journal of
Vehicle Noise and Vibration 4 (2008) 93–106.
[152] F.S. Samani, F. Pellicano, Vibration reduction on beams subjected to moving loads using linear and nonlinear dynamic absorbers, Journal of Sound
and Vibration 325 (2009) 742–754.
[153] Y.-G. Sung, Modelling and control with piezoactuators for a simply supported beam under a moving mass, Journal of Sound and Vibration 250
(2002) 617–626.
[154] A. Nikkhoo, F.R. Rofooei, M.R. Shadnam, Dynamic behavior and modal control of beams under moving mass, Journal of Sound and Vibration 306
(2007) 712–724.
[155] M. Abdel-Rohman, Design of a simple controller to control suspension bridge non-linear vibrations due to moving loads, Journal of Vibration and
Control 11 (2005) 867–885.
[156] J. Lin, W.-S. Chao, Vibration suppression control of beam-cart system with piezoelectric transducers by decomposed parallel adaptive neuro-fuzzy
control, Journal of Vibration and Control 15 (2009) 1885–1906.
[157] J.D. Yau, Vibration control of maglev vehicles traveling over a ﬂexible guideway, Journal of Sound and Vibration 321 (2009) 184–200.
[158] D.M. Alter, T.C. Tsao, Stability of turning processes with actively controlled linear motor feed drives, ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry 116
(1994) 298–307.
[159] B. Yang, C.D. Mote Jr., Vibration control of band saws: Theory and experiment, Wood Science and Technology 24 (1990) 355–373.
[160] H. Ouyang, J.E. Mottershead, Optimal suppression of parametric vibration in discs under rotating frictional loads, IMechE Journal of Mechanical
Engineering Sciences 215 (2001) 65–75.
[161] K. Terashima, Y. Shen, K. Yano, Modeling and optimal control of a rotary crane using the straight transfer transformation method, Control
Engineering Practice 15 (2007) 1179–1192.
[162] L. Sun, Optimum design of ’’road-friendly’’ vehicle suspension systems subjected to rough pavement, Applied Mathematical Modelling 26 (2002)
635–652.
[163] G. Muscolino, S. Benfratello, A. Sidoti, Dynamic analysis of distributed parameter system subjected to a moving oscillator with random mass,
velocity and acceleration, Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics 17 (2002) 63–72.
[164] M. Olsson, On the fundamental moving-load problem, Journal of Sound Vibration 145 (1991) 299–307.
[165] A. Messac, Flexible-body dynamics modeling of a vehicle moving on the rails of a structure, Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics 19 (1996)
540–548.
[166] K. Henchi, M. Fafard, M. Talbort, G. Dhatti, An efﬁcient algorithm for dynamic analysis of bridge under moving vehicles using coupled modal and
physical components approach, Journal of Sound and Vibration 212 (1998) 663–683.
[167] C.G. Koh, J.S.Y. Ong, D.K.H. Chua, J. Feng, Moving element method for train-track dynamics, International Journal for Numerical Methods in
Engineering 56 (2003) 1549–1567.
[168] H. Ouyang, J.E. Mottershead, A numerical-analytical combined method for vibration of a beam excited by a moving ﬂexible body, International
Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 72 (2007) 1181–1191.
[169] M.P. Cartmell, S.W. Ziegler, R. Khanin, D.I.M. Forehand, Multiple scales analyses of the dynamics of weakly nonlinear mechanical systems, Applied
Mechanics Review 56 (2003) 455–492.