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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jnlabr/ymssp

Tutorial Review

Huajiang Ouyang n

School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, The Quadrangle, Liverpool L69 3GH, UK

a r t i c l e i n f o abstract

Article history: This tutorial is dedicated to the study of structural dynamics problems caused by

Received 24 June 2010 moving loads. Through a simple example of a simply supported beam traversed by a

Accepted 22 December 2010 moving mass, several fundamental concepts peculiar to moving-load problems are

introduced. The necessary mathematics involved is presented. The analytical procedure

Keywords: is also presented for a circular plate excited by a rotating oscillator. Then numerical

Moving load results of a circular beam spinning about its longitudinal axis excited by an axially

Vibration moving surface load are provided. A variety of moving-load problems are brieﬂy

Control reviewed with some published papers and books to help readers quickly get into

Nonstationary

problems of their interests. Readers are expected to get a ﬂavour of what moving-load

Contact

problems are about, what general methods are available and what research has been

Friction

done from studying this tutorial. Knowledge of partial differential equations and

vibration theory of beams and plates is required in order to understand this tutorial.

& 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2040

1.1. Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2040

1.2. Classiﬁcations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2040

1.3. Organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2040

2. Vibration of a beam excited by a moving mass—analytical formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2041

2.1. Assumptions and formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2041

2.2. Critical speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2042

2.3. Perturbation method and combination resonances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2043

3. Vibration of a circular plate excited by a moving oscillator—analytical formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2044

4. Vibration of a rotating shaft under moving surface load—numerical simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2046

5. Various moving-load problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2049

5.1. Vehicle–bridge interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2049

5.2. Vehicle–road/ground interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2050

5.3. Train–track interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2050

5.4. Flexible discs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2051

5.5. Friction-loaded discs and disc brake squeal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2051

5.6. Other discs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2051

5.7. Rotating beam/shafts and spindles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2052

5.8. Cranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2052

5.9. Strings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2052

5.10. Shells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2052

n

Tel.: +441517944815; fax: + 441517944703.

E-mail address: h.ouyang@liverpool.ac.uk

0888-3270/$ - see front matter & 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ymssp.2010.12.010

2040 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

5.12. Separation and reattachment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2053

5.13. Structural identiﬁcation and health monitoring by moving loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2054

5.14. Vibration control of moving-load problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2054

5.15. Random features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2055

6. Numerical methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2055

7. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2056

Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2056

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2056

1. Introduction

1.1. Background

Moving-load dynamic problems are very common in engineering and daily life. Any structures or machines subjected to

loads which move in space and excite the structures or machines into vibration are such problems. Examples are plentiful.

Vehicle-bridge interaction is an extensively studied moving load problem. Wood saws, computer discs, machine tools,

vehicle disc and drum brakes are just a few examples. If the relative speeds involved are very low in comparison with the

critical speed (to be deﬁned later in this tutorial), the problems can be cast as conventional, non-moving-load problems.

Treating them as moving-load problem involves more sophisticated mathematics and intensive computation.

The dynamic effects of moving loads were not recognized until mid-19th century. It was believed that the collapse of

Stephenson’s Bridge across River Dee at Chester in England in 1847 triggered the research into moving-load problems.

Stoke was credited to be the ﬁrst researcher who formally analysed a moving-load problem (it is actually a moving-force

problem). This history was chronicled by Timoshenko [1].

Fryba’s monograph described many simple moving-load problems and their analytic solutions [2]. The structural

components concerned were simple continuous elastic media such as rods, beams, plates and shells that are amenable to

analytical treatment. For complicated structures, the ﬁnite element method has to be used. If the whole structure is

discretised into ﬁnite elements, repeated ﬁnite element analyses at each time step using certain numerical integration

schemes in the time-domain are necessary. This is a very time-intensive process. In addition, if two structures in moving

contact have distinct geometry or loading, the ﬁnite element meshes of these two structures will not match when one

structure moves relatively from the other. This happens to be the case for a disc brake in that the piston-pad has a ﬁnite

element mesh containing a ring for the piston head, while the disc has a ﬁnite element mesh having cyclic symmetry.

There are many hundreds of published papers on moving-load dynamics. It is a nearly impossible task to list and review all

of them. Instead, some papers are reviewed in the tutorial when various moving-load problems are discussed. This is

intended to help readers with various interests quickly get into their individual problems.

1.2. Classiﬁcations

The earliest moving-load problems are about railway bridges excited by travelling trains. In these problems, the moving

structure basically travels in a straight line. In a computer disc–drive system, the magnetic reader/writer rhead exerts a

moving load in the circumferential direction and follows a circular path.

The simplest type of moving loads is a constant or harmonic, pure force. It will be seen later in this section that a

structure under a moving pure force is equivalent to a non-moving-load vibration problem and does not reveal most

properties speciﬁc to moving-load dynamics and hence does not qualify as a proper moving-load problem.

The special properties associated with moving-load problems can be demonstrated by the vibration of a beam

subjected to a moving point-wise mass (so-called moving-mass problem). So it will be used below to introduce some

fundamental concepts. Moving-load problems are usually self-excited vibration or parametric excitation problems.

1.3. Organisation

The organisation of this tutorial is as follows. Section 2 introduces some fundamental concepts of moving-load

dynamics, such as critical speed and combination resonances, using the vibration of an Euler beam subjected to a moving

mass as an example. Section 3 describes the analytical treatment of the more difﬁcult problem of a circular plate (disc).

Section 4 presents analytical formulation and then numerical analysis of a rotating shaft subjected to a moving surface

load. Various moving-load dynamic problems are brieﬂy reviewed in Section 5 with references for readers to explore at

their own pace and leisure. Numerical methods for solving moving-load problems are commented upon in Section 6.

Section 7 draws conclusions and presents an outlook of this topic. This tutorial is aimed at readers who have knowledge of

vibration of continuous systems such as beams and plates, matrix theory and basic theory of the ﬁnite element method,

but otherwise unfamiliar with moving-load dynamic problems.

H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2041

To understand how to tackle a moving-load problem mathematically and appreciate the special effects of moving loads,

a simple moving-load problem is ﬁrst presented and solved in this section. An analytical solution is sought as it provides

an insight into the resonances in relation to the speed of the moving load. The practical background is a vehicle travelling

on a bridge at a constant speed u. The vehicle is represented by a mass with a constant preload (its own weight) and the

bridge by a simply supported Euler beam, illustrated in Fig. 1. The friction force between the mass and the beam is not

considered since it is very small in a vehicle–bridge interaction problem. It is assumed that the mass travels in a straight

line in the horizontal direction and this movement is known; and the beam only vibrates in the z direction. It is also

assumed that the mass does not lose contact with the beam during its travel and vibration. This latter assumption can be

removed though. Please note self-weight of a moving structure should normally be included in moving-load problems.

The equation of the transverse motion w(x,t) for this simple model is

!

2

@2 w @4 w d v

rA 2 þ EI 4 ¼ N þm 2 dðxutÞ ð1Þ

@t @x dt

where r is the density, A the cross-sectional area, E the Young’s modulus, I the second moment of area of the beam; N a

constant force, u the constant travelling speed and v the vertical displacement of the moving mass m. d is the Dirac delta

function. According to Euler beam theory, the right-hand side of Eq. (1) is a distributed force per unit length. The use of d

function is to accommodate a point-wise concentrated load in place of a distributed load. The mathematical complication

associated with moving loads is due to this seemingly innocuous term.

It must be realized that the force on the right-hand side of Eq. (1) is acting on a moving coordinate, that is, the

instantaneous spatial location of the moving mass, which is ut in this case. As a result

2

dv @w @w d v @2 w @w @w @2 w

vðtÞ ¼ wðut,tÞ, ¼ þu , 2

¼ 2

þ2u þ u2 2 ð2Þ

dt @t @x dt @t @t @x @x

when it is assumed that the mass does not separate from the beam during its horizontal travel and vertical vibration. It is

noted here that although this seems an intuitive assumption separation can occur, to be discussed latter in the tutorial.

Now the equation of motion becomes

!

@2 w @2 w @w @w 2

2@ w @4 w

rA 2 þ m þ 2u þu dðxutÞ þEI 4 ¼ NdðxutÞ ð3Þ

@t @t 2 @t @x @x2 @x

There is usually no close-form analytical (exact) solution to moving-load problems. However, a formal solution can be

assumed–the analytic solution of Eq. (1) can be expressed in a modal expansion as

X

1

wðx,tÞ ¼ cj ðxÞqj ðtÞ ð4Þ

j¼1

where qj(t) is the modal co-ordinate for the jth mass-normalized mode cj(x) of the undamped beam (without the mass),

which is

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 jpx

cj ðxÞ ¼ sin ðj ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ ð5Þ

rAl l

for a simply supported beam. This is obtained by solving the following eigenvalue problem:

@4 cj

EI rAo2j cj ¼ 0 ð6Þ

@x4

with the same boundary conditions as the beam, which satisﬁes the following orthogonality conditions:

Z l Z l

@4 cj ðxÞ

rA cn ðxÞcj ðxÞdx ¼ dnj , EI cn ðxÞ dx ¼ o2n dnj ðj,n ¼ 1,2,. . .Þ ð7Þ

0 0 @x4

z

u x

m

o

ut N

2042 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

where dnj is the Kronecker delta. The nth natural frequency of the simply supported beam is

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

EI np2

on ¼ ðn ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ ð8Þ

rA l

Incidentally, Stanišić [3] used the modes of the undamped beam carrying the moving mass and found that the solution

in the form of Eq. (4) converged very rapidly. However, his modes vary with the location of the moving mass and hence are

functions of time. As a result, his eigenvalue equation is incorrect.

Substituting Eq. (4) into (1), multiplying the resultant equation with cn(x) and integrating it over the beam length,

one can derive

2 X1 2 X1 dc

d qn d q dqj

2

þm cj ðutÞcn ðutÞ 2j þ2mu j

ðutÞcn ðutÞ

dt j¼1

dt j¼1

dx dt

3 s ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ﬃ

X1 d2 c

j 2

þ o2n qn þ mu2 ðutÞcn ðutÞqj 5 ¼ Nc ðutÞ ðn ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ ð9Þ

j¼1

dx2 rAl n

2 3

2 X 1 npu jpu d2 q X1 npu jpu dq

4 d qn

þ

2m

sin t sin t

j 5 þ 4mpu jsin t sin t

j

dt 2 rAl j ¼ 1 l l dt 2 2

rAl j ¼ 1 l l dt

2 3 sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2m X1 npu jpu jpu2 2 npu

þ 4on qn

2

sin t sin t qj 5 ¼ N sin t ðn ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ ð10Þ

rAl j ¼ 1 l l l rAl l

Please note that the orthogonality conditions of Eq. (7) have been used in the derivation of Eq. (9). In the above

integration, the following theorem concerning d function must be employed:

Z l

f ðxÞdðxx0 Þdx ¼ f ðx0 Þ

0

where f(x) is an arbitrary function with a certain degree of smoothness on ½0,l and 0 ox0 ol.

Three observations can be made by examining Eqs. (9) and (10). First, the coefﬁcients in the equations are functions of

time and hence they represent a nonstationary system. Second, if the beam is not simply supported (so that its modes are

not harmonic functions of space), these coefﬁcients are not periodic functions of time. Third, if the moving mass does not

travel at a constant speed, these coefﬁcients are not periodic functions of time either. The consequence is that the solution

is in general not periodic if a coefﬁcient is not periodic. Analysis and control of non-periodic systems are understandably

more challenging.

It is apparent from Eq. (10) that a moving constant mass introduces time-varying inertia, damping and stiffness to the

system, and a moving constant force introduces a harmonic excitation. That is why moving loads can excite a wide range of

frequencies and is more difﬁcult to study. On the other hand, if the moving load only includes a moving force, the vibration

problem thus caused is identical to a forced vibration problem and hence is not considered a proper moving-load problem.

In another word, proper moving-load problems involve at least a mass, or a damper or a spring that is moving relatively to

another structure. Dahlberg [4] showed through numerical simulation that the contact force between a moving mass and a

stationary beam could be as high as 2.5 times the static weight of the moving mass when the inertia of the mass was

ignored (that is, the moving mass was treated simply as a moving force).

It is apparent from Eq. (10) that when

npu

¼ on ðn ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ ð11Þ

l

the constant force term on the right-hand side of Eq. (10) behaves like a harmonic excitation with the frequency of

excitation equalling a natural frequency of the beam, and therefore even a constant moving force can excite the structure

into resonance under these conditions. This is one peculiar feature of moving-load problems.

The lowest resonant speed [2] is

lo1

ucr ¼ ð12Þ

p

and is called the critical speed.

Eq. (10) is a system of simultaneous differential equations with time-dependent (periodic) coefﬁcients. As such, there is

no exact solution. Therefore approximate analytical methods or more often numerical methods are used.

H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2043

If the parameter m is small, perturbation methods can be used to ﬁnd approximate analytic solutions. These solutions

can offer an insight into the dynamic behaviour of the beam subjected to a moving load.

One perturbation method, known as the method of multiple scales [5], is used to solve Eq. (10). First introduce a small

scaling parameter e so that

2m

eg ¼ ð13Þ

rAl

It follows that (by moving the mass-related terms to the right-hand side of the equation):

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ " 2 #

2 npu X1

d qj jpu 2jpu dqj jpu jpu 2 jpu npu

q€ n þ o2n qn ¼ N sin t eg sin t þ cos t qj sin t sin t

rAl l j¼1

dt 2 l l dt l l l l

ð14Þ

where the dot over a symbol denotes the derivative with respect to time t.

The method of multiple scales [5] needs to introduce new time scales

T0 ¼ t, T1 ¼ et, T2 ¼ e2 t; . . . ð15Þ

With the new time scales

2

d d

¼ D0 þ eD1 þ e2 D2 þ . . ., ¼ D20 þ e2D0 D1 þ e2 D21 þ . . . ð16Þ

dt dt 2

where

d d

D0 ¼ , D1 ¼

dT0 dT1

Expand the unknown modal coordinates as

qn ðtÞ ¼ qð0Þ ð1Þ

n ðT0 Þ þ eqn ðT1 Þ þ . . . ð17Þ

Eqs. (15) to (17) are substituted into Eq. (14) and the resultant equation is grouped into sub-equations of like powers of

e. The following equations can be derived as (after omitting terms with powers of e higher than one)

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 npu

D20 qð0Þ

n þ o 2 ð0Þ

n qn¼ N sin T0 ð18Þ

rAl l

" 2 #

X 1

jpu 2jpu jpu ð0Þ jpu jpu npu

D21 qð1Þ 2 ð1Þ

n þ on qn ¼ 2D0 D1 qn g

ð0Þ

D20 qjð0Þ sin T0 þ D0 qð0Þ

j cos T0 qj sin T0 sin T0

j¼1

l l l l l l

ð19Þ

Eq. (18) looks like forced vibration of a single degree of freedom and can be solved fairly easily. This solution is in the form of

qnð0Þ ðT0 Þ ¼ An ðT1 Þsinðon T0 Þ þ Bn ðT1 Þcosðon T0 Þ þ ½terms due to N ðn ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ ð20Þ

where An and Bn can be determined from the initial conditions and the right-hand side forcing term in Eq. (18). Those

terms due to N are already dealt with in subsection 2.2 and hence are not discussed here.

When the above solution is substituted into Eq. (19), many terms arise. To demonstrate combination resonances, those

irrelevant terms are not explicitly shown. The resultant equation becomes

( " 2 ! #

X1

jpu jpu 2jpu jpu

D21 qð1Þ

n þ o 2 ð1Þ

q

n n ¼ irrelevant terms g Aj o 2

j þ sinð oj T 0 Þsin T 0 þ oj cosð oj T 0 Þcos T0

j¼1

l l l l

" 2 ! #) npu

jpu jpu 2jpu jpu

þ Bj o2j þ cosðoj T0 Þsin T0 oj sinðoj T0 Þcos T0 sin T0 ð21Þ

l l l l l

Through trigonometry, the products of sine and cosine functions on the right-hand side of Eq. (21) can be turned into

pure sine and cosine functions. As there are many terms involved, only the crucial mathematical parts of them are

explicitly shown. Then the equation becomes

X1

nj

D21 qð1Þ

n þ o 2 ð1Þ

q

n n ¼ irrelevant terms g Aju sin pu þ o j T0 þ jAj

j¼1

l

nj nþj nþj

þ Bju sin puoj T0 þ jBj þ Cju sin pu þ oj T0 þ jCj þ Dju sin puoj T0 þ jDj

l l l

ð22Þ

2044 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

where coefﬁcients Aju, Bju, Cju and Dju and phase angles jAj, jBj, jCj and jDj can be determined from the derivation of Eq. (21).

The mathematical expressions of these constants are not given here as they do not afford the useful information on

combination resonances.

Eq. (22) reveals a number of new resonances as follows:

nj nj

pu þ oj ¼ on , puoj ¼ on ,

l l

nþj n þj

pu þ oj ¼ on , puoj ¼ on

l l

These resonances can be classiﬁed as (when n =j)

npu

¼ on ðn ¼ 1,2,3,. . .Þ

l

which is identical to Eq. (11) and is called a single-mode resonance as the relationship involves only one mode, and

n7j

pu ¼ on þ oj ðj, n ¼ 1,2,3,. . .; n Z jÞ ðsummation typeÞ ð23Þ

l

n7j

pu ¼ on oj ðj,n ¼ 1,2,3,. . .; n ZjÞ ðdifference typeÞ ð24Þ

l

which are called combination resonances as either relationship involves more than one frequency/mode.

Eqs. (23) and (24) indicate that when the speed of the travelling mass happens to satisfy any of these equations, the

whole system will be in resonance, even if the magnitude of the mass is low. The speed causing resonance depends on the

system parameters and involves two natural frequencies of the basic structure (the beam in this case) in the case of

combination resonances. The time-domain response can be aperiodic if the two natural frequencies involved are not

commensurable. This is another peculiar feature of moving load dynamics. Incidentally, there is a possibility that at a

particular speed, more than two frequencies are excited.

One consequence of moving mass (load) is that there are much more opportunities for resonances to occur. In another

word, moving loads can excite many frequencies or a wide range of frequencies. Rao [6] gave a detailed analysis of the

vibration of a beam excited by a moving oscillator using a perturbation method. With combination resonances (called

internal resonances by the author) present, the maximum dynamic deﬂection can be nearly 4 times the maximum static

deﬂection. This is in contrast with 2.5 times the maximum static deﬂection in a single-mode resonance, as reported in

Ref. [4] and also in Ref. [6].

There are numerous papers on beam vibration excited by a moving mass. Interested readers may refer to Refs. [7–11].

Among them, Ting et al. [7] used the Green function in the central formulation of the mathematical model, which has been

adopted by some other researchers. Sniady and colleagues [12] were interested in vibration of beams excited by a series of

random moving forces. For a moving rigid body [13], the rotational inertia must be considered.

A natural extension to the moving mass problem is the so-called moving oscillator problem [14–17], in which the

moving structure is a point-wise system of a mass, a spring and a damper. It is interesting to use the relative displacement

as the unknown to be solved [17]. Beams with other boundary conditions were also studied [18]. Incidentally, the moving

structure modelled as a multi-degrees-of-freedom system [19] will be touched upon in the sections on vehicle–bridge

interaction and train–track interaction. On the other hand, the supporting structure may have multiple spans [20–25].

As the modes of a multi-span beam may present difﬁculties due to the hyperbolic functions, special consideration is often

needed, for example, by using a semi-analytical approach [25]. A special case of multi-span structures is an inﬁnite

periodic beam as a model of rails [26].

It must be said that although when any of Eqs. (11), (23) and (24) is satisﬁed, resonance is predicted to occur. In reality,

the moving load on a beam usually stays on it for a short duration (and then exits from it). As a result, the peak amplitude

of the beam will not be as high as the peak amplitude generated by a stationary excitation at resonance. Similarly, when a

perturbation method predicts unstable vibration, actually vibration will stay ﬁnite as the cause of the instability (the

moving load) leaves the beam after a ﬁnite (usually short) duration. The next section gives an example in which resonance

and instability can occur as the moving load keep energising and never leaves the stationary structure.

The study of vibration of circular plates (discs) subjected to moving loads was initiated in the 1970s. They were meant

to represent computer ﬂoppy discs or wood saws. Mote [27] ﬁrst studied the vibration of a disc modelled as a thin, ﬂat,

circular Kirchhoff plate subjected to a moving mass. Mote and his colleagues have published numerous papers on the

vibration of different disc models under various moving loads. Iwan and Moeller [28] ﬁrst studied the vibration of a

spinning disc subjected to a stationary load. In the latter, the gyroscopic and centripetal effects due to disc rotation have to

be considered in the equation of motion of the disc. Vibration of a circular plate excited by a moving oscillator is described

in this section.

H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2045

The equation of motion of a circular plate under a moving oscillator rotating at a constant angular speed O can be

written as

!

4

@2 w @w @r w @4 w @2 w @w

rh 2 þ c1 þc2 þ Dr4 w 4 ¼ N þm 2 þ c þ kw dðrr0 ÞdðyOtÞ ð25Þ

@t @t @t @x @t @t

where h is the plate thickness, c1 and c2, are respectively, external and internal damping coefﬁcients of the plate

!2

@2 @ @2

r4 ¼ þ þ

@r 2 r@r r 2 @y2

is biharmonic differential operator in the polar coordinate system, D the ﬂexural rigidity of the plate; m, c and k are,

respectively, the mass, damping and spring constant of the rotating oscillator, N a constant force and r0 the radial location

of the oscillator.

The solution of Eq. (25) can be expressed as below

X

1 X

1

wðr, y,tÞ ¼ cij ðrÞexpðijyÞqij ðtÞ ð26Þ

i ¼ 0 j ¼ 1

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

where i ¼ 1 is the imaginary unit; cij(r) the modes of the unloaded, undamped disc in the r direction, and are a

combination of Bessel functions of the ﬁrst and second kinds and satisfy the following orthogonality conditions:

Z Z b

rh b D

cln ðrÞcij ðrÞrdr ¼ dli dnj , cln ðrÞr4r cij ðrÞrdr ¼ o2ln dli dnj ð27Þ

2p a 2p a

where a and b are the inner and outer radii of the plate, oln the natural frequency corresponding to mode cln in which l and

n are, respectively, the number of nodal circle(s) and number of nodal diameter(s)

!2

@2 @ j2

r4r ¼ þ

@r 2 r@r r 2

When Eq. (26) is substituted into Eq. (25) and the resultant equation is multiplied by cln(r)exp( iny) and then integrated

over the radial interval ½a,b and the circumferential interval of ½0,2p, one can derive

2 X 1 X1

d qln c1 c2 2 dqln

þ in þ o ln þ o2ln qln ¼ Ncln ðr0 ÞexpðinOtÞcln ðr0 Þ cij ðr0 Þexp½iðjnÞOt

dt 2 rh D dt i ¼ 0 j ¼ 1

( ! )

2

d d 2 2 d

m þ 2ij O j O þ c þ ijO þ k qij ðl ¼ 0,1,2,. . .; n ¼ 1,. . .,0,1,2,. . .Þ ð28Þ

dt 2 dt dt

8 9 8

<d2 q

d qij = <

X 1 X1 2

ln c1 c2 2 dqln

þ c ln ðr0 Þ c ij ðr0 Þexp ½iðjnÞ O t m þ in þ o ln

: dt 2

i ¼ 0 j ¼ 1

dt 2 ; : rh D dt

9

X1 X 1

dq =

þ cln ðr0 Þ cij ðr0 Þexp½ðiðjnÞOtði2mjO þ cÞ ij

i ¼ 0 j ¼ 1

dt ;

8 9

< X1 X1 =

2

þ o2nl qln þ cln ðr0 Þ cij ðr0 Þexp½iðjnÞOtðmj2 O þijcO þ kÞqij

: ;

i ¼ 0 j ¼ 1

A strong similarity in Eq. (29) to Eq. (10) can be observed by comparing them. Like the vibration of a beam excited by a

moving mass, the vibration of a circular plate excited by a rotating oscillator is also governed by a system of simultaneous

differential equations with time-varying coefﬁcients. Again there is no closed-form solution.

Eq. (29) indicates that single-mode resonance occurs whenever

nO ¼ oln ð30Þ

This allows the critical disc speed to be deﬁned as

o

Ocr ¼ min ln ðl, ¼ 0,1,2,. . .; n ¼ 1,2,. . .Þ ð31Þ

n n

Similarly, combination resonances take place when (assuming n Zj)

2046 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

Papers published on disc vibration caused by a rotating oscillator or on vibration of rotating discs subjected to a

stationary oscillator are numerous. Just a few of them are commented upon here. Yu and Mote [29] studied vibration of

asymmetric discs due to imperfection. Shen and Mote [30] found that damping of the rotating system (without friction)

could be destabilising in the supercritical speed range to the stationary disc. Huang and Mote [31] investigated the effect of

a large damping force on a spinning disc. Chung et al. [32] included in-plane vibration and geometric nonlinearity in their

accelerating disc. Discs subjected to loads moving in both circumferential and radial directions were studied by Weisenel

and Schlack [33]. Mottershead [34] reviewed papers on vibration of stationary discs excited by moving systems and the

dual problem of discs spinning past stationary systems, particularly in relation to computer discs and brake discs.

Sections 2 and 3 present an analytical treatment of a beam and a circular plate exited by a moving mass and a moving

oscillator, respectively. The analytical formulation affords some mathematical insight into the dynamics of these problems.

However, general moving-load problems must be solved by numerical methods, as exempliﬁed in this section.

Consider a simply supported cylindrical beam of radius r subjected to a concentrated load which has three normal

components and travels in the axial direction x on the surface of the beam, as shown in Fig. 2. Its instantaneous location at

arbitrary time t measured from the left end is s(t). The beam spins about its longitudinal axis x at a constant rotational

speed O. For the sake of completeness, some material presented in Ref. [35] is adapted here.

As the equilibrium of a beam is established on the neutral axis, the loads acting on the beam surface have to be

translated to the neutral axis (also the longitudinal spinning axis in this example). When Px is translated to the neutral axis

x, a bending moment Mz must be added, as shown in Fig. 3. When Pz is translated to the neutral axis x, a torque T must be

added, also shown in Fig. 3. Py can be translated to the neutral axis x without adding anything.

Obviously

Mz ¼ Px r, T ¼ Pz r ð34Þ

Using Timoshenko beam theory, there are four unknown displacements to be determined: v and w are the

displacements of the neutral axis of the beam in the y and z directions, j and y the rotations of the cross-section about

the y and z axes. If Newtonian approach is followed, there will be four coupled partial differential equations in these

unknowns. However, Lagrangian approach seems more convenient and hence has been used by more researchers.

The kinetic energy and potential energy of a spinning Timoshenko beam are [35] (adapted from Ref. [36])

Z ( " 2 2 # " 2 2 #)

r l @v @w @j @y @y @j

K¼ A þ þI þ 2O j y þ 2O2 dx ð35Þ

2 0 @t @t @t @t @t @t

1 @j @y @v @w 1 @v @w

U¼ EI þ þ ks GA y þ þj dx Px þ dx ð36Þ

2 0 @x @x @x @x 2 sðtÞ @x @x

y

y

s(t) Py

Py

Pz

Px z

z

Pz x

Ω

Fig. 2. A beam spinning about its longitudinal axis subjected to axially moving loads (re-used with permission from Journal of Sound and Vibration).

(a) spinning beam and its loads and (b) cross-section of the beam.

Py

Pz

Mz

T

Fig. 3. Loads, torque and moment when the surface loads are transferred to the neural axis (re-used with permission from Journal of Sound and

Vibration).

H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2047

where the torsional angle of the beam is assumed small and thus is neglected, ks and G are the Timoshenko shear

coefﬁcient and shear modulus, and other symbols retain their usual meanings. A= pr2 and I= pr4/4.

The virtual work done on the virtual displacements dv, dw, dj and dy is [35]

dW ¼ Py dvðs,tÞ þPz dvðs,tÞ þ Mz dyðs,tÞ ð37Þ

where the forces are linear functions of the local displacements

Py ¼ P y ky vðs,tÞ, Pz ¼ P z kz wðs,tÞ ð38Þ

and P y and P z , and ky and kz are constant. Forces in the form of Eq. (38) behave like a (moving) force and spring each.

As there is no closed-form solution to this problem, an approximate solution will be sought. The solution can be

expressed as

X

n

vðx,tÞ ¼ fi ðxÞai ðtÞ ¼ /T ðxÞaðtÞ ð39Þ

i¼1

X

n

wðx,tÞ ¼ fi ðxÞbi ðtÞ ¼ /T ðxÞbðtÞ ð40Þ

i¼1

X

n

jðx,tÞ ¼ ci ðxÞci ðtÞ ¼ wT ðxÞcðtÞ ð41Þ

i¼1

X

n

yðx,tÞ ¼ ci ðxÞdi ðtÞ ¼ wT ðxÞdðtÞ ð42Þ

i¼1

where /T ={f1 f2 f3y} and wT ={c1 c2 c3y} with fi(x) and ci(x) ði ¼ 1,2,. . .,nÞ being complete and orthogonal sets of functions

(bases) that satisfy the displacement and slope boundary conditions of the beam, respectively, and preferably the mode shape

function of the stationary beam; and aT ={a1 a2 a3y}, bT ={b1 b2 b3y}, cT ={c1 c2 c3y} and dT ={d1 d2 d3 y} with ai (t), bi (t), ci (t)

and di (t) ði ¼ 1,2,. . .,nÞ being ‘modal coordinates’. When n approaches inﬁnity, Eqs. (39)–(42) are supposed to represent the ‘exact’

solution, though its closed-form cannot be obtained. A sufﬁciently accurate solution can be found with a ﬁnite n.

Lagrange’s equation can be written in general as

d @L @L

¼f ð43Þ

dt @q_ @q

where the Lagrangian

L ¼ KU ð44Þ

T T

q is the generalised coordinate vector (qT ¼ f aT b cT d g in this case) and f the generalised force vector

corresponding to the virtual generalised coordinate dq through the virtual work

dW ¼ f T dq ð45Þ

Substituting Eqs. (39)–(42) into (44) and then (43), making use of Eq. (45) yields

h i

rAAa€ þ ks GACPx Cp ðtÞ þky /ðsðtÞÞ/T ðsðtÞÞ aks GAEd ¼ Py /ðsðtÞÞ ð46Þ

h i

rAAb€ þ ks GACPx Cp ðtÞ þkz /ðsðtÞÞ/T ðsðtÞÞ b þks GAEc ¼ Pz /ðsðtÞÞ ð47Þ

€

rIBd2rIOBc_ þ ðEID þks GABÞdks GAET a ¼ rPx wðsðtÞÞ ð49Þ

where

Z l Z l

A¼ /ðxÞ/T ðxÞdx, B ¼ wðxÞwT ðxÞdx,

0 0

Z l Z l

C¼ /uðxÞ/uT ðxÞdx, Cp ðtÞ ¼ /uðxÞ/uT ðxÞdx,

0 sðtÞ

Z l Z l

D¼ wuðxÞwuT ðxÞdx, E ¼ /uðxÞwT ðxÞdx,

0 0

2048 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

Eqs. (46)–(49) are a system of simultaneous ordinary differential equations in the unknown ‘modal coordinates’. They

are solved by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta algorithm.

Consider a simply supported beam subjected to a load travelling from left to right at a constant speed u. The parameters

used in this simulated example are as follows: l= 1 m, r= 0.03 m; E= 2.1 1011 Pa, G = 7.8 1010 Pa, ks = 0.9; Px = 200 N,

P y ¼ 300 N, P z ¼ 1000 N; r ¼ 7700 kg m3 ; O ¼ 1933rad=s. The fundamental frequency of the stationary beam is

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

o1 ¼ ðp=lÞ2 EI=rA ¼ 773:135 rad=s. The critical speed of the stationary beam is ucr =246 m/s. For simplicity, ky and kz

are taken to be the same. Five speeds of u= 1 m/s, u =10 m/s, u= 123 m/s, u = 246 m/s and u = 369 m/s are used. These

correspond to speed ratios (deﬁned as b = u/ucr) of 0.004, 0.04, 0.5, 1 and 1.5. Numerical results of the ratios of the dynamic

deﬂections at the moving load location to the mid-span deﬂections, a = v(ut,t)/v0, are shown below; where v0 is the static

mid-span deﬂection of the stationary beam when the load is acting at mid-span. w(ut,t) displays the same pattern and so

its numerical results are not presented. Two cases are simulated below.

(1) ky = kz =0. This is a moving force problem. The results are illustrated in Fig. 4.

At the very low speed of u= 1m/s, the deﬂection is like an inﬂuence line as the dynamic effect of the moving load is

negligible at very load speeds. However, due to the moving bending couple Mz, there is a small-amplitude, high-

frequency oscillation on top of the nearly static deﬂection curve. This small-amplitude oscillation could mean

unacceptable surface roughness if this is a turning operation.

At the low speed of u = 10 m/s, the deﬂection is similar to that of u =1 m/s, again close to the static deﬂection curve,

with small-amplitude, high-frequency oscillation (even though the amplitude become greater and the frequency

becomes lower, in comparison with the small-amplitude oscillation at u =1 m/s).

At high speeds of b =0.5 and b =1, there are considerable dynamic effects in that the maximum deﬂection ratios are greater

than 1. However, when the speed is very high, say at b =1.5, the dynamic deﬂection is smaller than the static deﬂection.

(2) ky ¼ kz ¼ 0:3rAlo21 . The numerical results are illustrated in Fig. 5.

1 1

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6

0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

ut/l ut/l

1.6

1

1.2 0.8

0.8 0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

ut/l

ut/l

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

ut/l

Fig. 4. Numerical results of a at various speeds u. (a) u= 1 m/s (b¼0.004), (b) u= 10 m/s (b¼0.04), (c) u= 123 m/s (b¼0.5), (d) u =246 m/s (b¼1) and

(e) u= 369 m/s (b¼1.5).

H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2049

2.7 2.7

1.8 1.8

0.9 0.9

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

ut/l ut/l

3

2.5 1.2

2

0.8

1.5

1 0.4

0.5

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

ut/l ut/l

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

ut/l

Fig. 5. Numerical results of a at various speeds u. (a) u= 1 m/s (b¼0.004), (b) u= 10 m/s (b¼0.04), (c) u= 123 m/s (b¼0.5), (d) u= 246 m/s (b¼1) and

(e) u= 269 m/s (b¼1.5).

It can be seen that the dynamic deﬂections at the same speeds in case (2) are greater than those of case (1). This is due

to the decreased stiffness provided by the moving spring. The patterns of the deﬂections remain the same. If, on the other

hand, ky ¼ kz ¼ 0:3rAlo21 , then the dynamic deﬂections would be smaller than those of ky = kz = 0 due to the increased

stiffness in the moving spring at respective speeds and again the patterns of the dynamic deﬂections remain the same.

These results are not shown here.

To help new researchers of moving-load problems to get into their problem areas quickly, various moving-load

problems are brieﬂy discussed and supplemented with a number of papers and sometimes books on each of these

problems. If an engineering application involves substantial moving loads but is not treated as such or the moving-load

excited vibration is not the subject matter of the work, then this work is usually not mentioned in this tutorial (if such a

work is mentioned below, the fact that it is not treated as a moving-load problem will be pointed out). This excludes many

works on vibration control of cranes, and vehicle and bridge/track/guide-way interaction. Some specialised topics, such as

dynamic ﬂuid-structure interaction, are not covered in this review either.

This is arguably the most extensively studied type of moving-load problems. Fryba’s monograph [2] is a good starting

point. Yang et al. [37] presented a comprehensive treatment and their book is highly recommended.

2050 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

The many different kinds of bridges make this study very fascinating. Chatterjee et al. [38] studied vibration of

suspension bridges. The bridge was allowed to undergo ﬂexural-torsional vibration. The dynamic analysis included the

nonlinear bridge–vehicle interactive force, eccentricity of vehicle path, surface irregularity (a stationary random process

from Monte Carlo simulation) of the bridge pavement, cable–tower connection and end conditions for the stiffening girder.

The responses from three types of vehicle models, namely, 3-D, 2-D, and a single sprung mass system were compared.

Humar and Kashif [39] simulated vibration of an orthotropic plate for a slab bridge under a moving sprung mass for a

vehicle to identify inﬂuential parameters. Heavy vehicles were found likely to be detrimental to road bridges [40].

Vibration of highway steel bridges was the focus of Huang and Wang’s work [41]. Their vehicle was a tractor with a trailer,

together modelled with 11 degrees-of-freedom. The multi-girder bridge was modelled as a grillage of beams. They were

particularly interested in the longitudinal gradient of the road bridge, which was largely ignored by other researchers. Yau

and Yang [42] were interested in reducing vibration of cable-stayed bridges using tuned mass damper. They used a

‘vehicle–bridge interaction element’ they developed before. Lee and Yhim [43] carried out numerical and experimental

studies of dynamic behaviour of long-span box-girder bridges. González et al. [44] looked at the inﬂuence of the speed and

distance between vehicles travelling on a bridge and validated their simple model against ﬁeld measured vibration data.

Au et al. [45] reviewed vibration analysis work on bridges under moving loads, in particular, trains.

The experimental work by Xia et al. [46] deserves a special mention. A bridge located on the high-speed railway line

between Paris and Brussels was tested. It consists of multi-span simply supported prestressed concrete girders. The moving

loads were from high-speed Thalys articulated trains. The project was a collaboration among several international institutions.

Incidentally, foot bridges are excited by walkers. The vibration in turn affects how walkers walk and thus modiﬁes the

forces they apply to the bridge. As a part of a feedback loop, the walking force is actually difﬁcult to characterise as a

moving load. Often walking forces are treated as random loads. This topic is not covered in this review.

This topic is similar to vehicle–bridge interaction. What is special here is that the road or ground may be modelled as an

elastic or viscoelastic foundation or a semi-inﬁnite body, which can even be nonlinear. Rough roads cause random excitations

to travelling vehicles and in return travelling vehicles produce dynamic loads to roads. Simplistic models can be found in

Ref. [47]. On the other hand, Ju et al. [48] investigated ground vibration induced by moving vehicles, including mass transit

systems, high-speed train railway and general railway on bridges, embankments, and in tunnels, by means of ﬁeld experiments

and theoretical studies. It seems that the closeness of the frequencies of the moving structure and the stationary structures had

a subtle inﬂuence on the magnitude of resulting vibration. Koziol and Mares [49] used a wavelet approach for the vibration of a

semi-inﬁnite elastic body traversed by a fast moving load. An interesting idea is the ‘road-friendliness’ of a vehicle [50].

Lombaert et al. [51] built a numerical model of free ﬁeld vibration induced by a travelling vehicle on an uneven road.

The road unevenness excited the vehicle into vertical vibration that in turn produced dynamic axle load. The dynamic

interaction between the road and the soil was used to calculate the free ﬁeld vibration based on a dynamic substructure

method, using a boundary element method for the soil and an analytical beam model for the road.

For road vehicles and roads, interested readers should refer to the comprehensive handbook by Cebon [52]. As for trains,

because of the track, vehicle–ground interaction usually involves models of the track and hence will be looked upon in the next

section.

This is another extensively studied topic. Although it is in many ways similar to vehicle–bridge interaction in theory,

track presents some special characteristics. There are two rails resting on sleepers or concrete slabs. Sleepers are supported

by ballast. Various models are possible, ranging from ﬁnite-length beam to inﬁnite beam for rails, and from elastic or

viscoelastic foundation to semi-inﬁnite space for the ballast, subballast, subgrade and earth.

Due to the geometric proﬁle of the train wheel and that of the rail head, a complicated contact mechanics problem with

a stick-slip (creep) patch results. The Handbook [53] compiled by Iwnicki covers various relevant topics (including many

issues other than moving-load vibration). Another book on railway vehicle dynamics by Shabana [54] is also well regarded.

Verichev and Metrikine [55] modelled a rigid body travelling on a Timoshenko beam (the rail) supported by an elastic

foundation. Vibration of an embedded railway subjected to a moving load was studied in Ref. [56]. The rail was modelled

as a periodically supported beam in Ref. [57]. Popp et al. [58] considered a more realistic vehicle model. Lou [59] and

Auersch [60] both studied vehicle–track–bridge interaction in the context of rail trafﬁc. Dynamic interaction between a

train and a monorail [61] looks very interesting.

Dinh et al. [62] recently published a paper on the wheel-rail contact for a high-speed train crossing a bridge. There was

a three-dimensional contact at the wheel-rail interface based on Kalker’s theory. Each carriage consisted of one car body

(ﬁve degrees-of-freedom), two bogies (each having ﬁve degrees-of-freedom) and four wheelsets (each having four

degrees-of-freedom). A ballast-less concrete slab and a girder bridge were modelled. A case study of a ten-car train passing

over a two-span continuous bridge at various speeds and rail irregularity wavelength ranges was made. This seems to be

the most realistic and sophisticated model of vehicle–track–bridge interaction, to the author’s knowledge.

H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2051

Sheng et al. (and Thompson’s team) studied ground vibration excited by trains running in tunnels [63] and dynamic

interaction between train wheels and the track [64]. Thompson’s monograph [65] is dedicated to vibration and noise

problems in railway engineering and covers both theory and applications.

Hunt and his co-workers [66,67] developed the so-called Pipe-in-Pipe model for ground vibration excited by trains

travelling through underground tunnels. Its advantage is the low computational effort and hence efﬁciency.

In mass storage media such as CD systems, the disc spins at a very high speed past a reader/writer head. The air gap

between them must be right; if they are too close, the head may run into the disc and cause damage; on the other hand, if

they are too far away, data would be lost or misread. The spinning disc interacts with the surrounding air and presents a

challenging ﬂuid–structure interaction problem. The structural part of the system is also complicated. Iwan and Stahal,

Mote, and Bogy are the pioneers of this research topic. In the early days, the reader/writer system was modelled only as an

oscillator [30,68,69]. Later on, the dynamic interaction between the disc and the surrounding air was studied [70–76] and

the ﬂuid was modelled with increasingly more sophisticated ﬂuid dynamics theories. Flutter instability has always been a

major interest. Nonlinear vibration of rotating discs [77,78] has also been a popular topic.

Stakhiev [79] showed that discs could ﬂutter at large amplitude at high enough rotating speeds in air and would cease

to do so when rotating in vacuum, which is clear evidence that ﬂuid–structure interaction is responsible for unstable disc

vibration. D’Angelo and Mote [70] carried out extensive experiments on discs rotating in open air and in enclosed nitrogen

atmosphere. They found that ﬂutter was due to instability of a reﬂected travelling wave and ﬂutter speeds would increase

with decreasing air density in the enclosed atmosphere. Renshaw et al. [71] studied ﬂutter of rotating discs and modelled

the air as compressible potential ﬂow. Kim et al. [72] extended the experimental approach to a hard-disc system in

enclosed atmosphere. The method put forward by Hansen et al. [73] took advantage of the differential damping of the

forward and backward travelling waves of the disc.

Kang and Raman [74] made a detailed study of different aeroelastic instability mechanisms of a disc rotating in an

enclosed compressible ﬂuid. Jana and Raman [75] examined rotating discs in unbounded compressible irrotational inviscid

ﬂuid and the competing effect of the material damping and aerodynamic damping on ﬂutter speeds. Eguchi [76] found

through experiments on rotating discs surrounded by a shroud that aerodynamic damping was dominant and the disc-to-

shroud gap was an important factor.

Disc brakes are such a common component of an automobile that people tend to take them for granted. Yet, they can

emanate all sorts of noise, among which the most irritant one is squeal at about 1 kHz up to 20 KHz (sometime said to be

16 kHz). Many hundreds of papers have been written about brake squeal and a variety of squeal mechanisms have been

put forward. For automotive disc brake squeal, please refer to the review paper by Kinkaid et al. [80].

Research into this fascinating subject can be roughly divided into two categories: that on a simple circular place loaded

with one or few simple oscillators or under a simple distributed elastic medium with friction, and that of a realistic disc

brake. The former will be discussed at ﬁrst.

Chan et al. [81] treated friction as a follower force rotating around a stationary circular plate as a simplistic model of a

disc brake, similar to the work on a circular plate spinning past a follower force as a model of a computer disc by Ono et al.

[69]. Lee and Waas [82] considered a multi-layered plate spinning past a follower friction force. Ouyang et al. [83]

introduced the negative gradient of the friction–velocity relationship and found some new combination resonances due to

this negative gradient. They also computed the nonlinear vibration of a stationary disc excited by a rotating elastic slider

that underwent stick-slip oscillation [84]. Ouyang and Mottershead [85] explored on what conditions forward or backward

travelling waves dominated the vibration of a disc excited by a rotating oscillator with a follower friction force. They also

introduced a moving couple to a circular plate as a result of the surface friction forces [86]. Hochlenert et al. [87] derived

more complete equations of motion of rotating discs under friction through vector algebra. Spelsberg-Korspeter et al. [88]

went on to study both in-plane and out-of-plane vibration of a rotating disc. Kang et al. [89] included gyroscopic, negative

friction gradient and mode-coupling mechanism in their model of a rotating plate under friction loading.

Ouyang et al. [90] ﬁrst formally introduced the moving-load model for disc brake squeal. Ouyang et al. [91] and Cao

et al. [92] carried out complex eigenvalue analysis of a vented and a solid disc brakes with the contact and friction forces at

the disc and pads interface treated as moving loads and compared numerical results of unstable frequencies with

experimental squeal frequencies of the same brakes.

Discs are a fundamental component in mechanical engineering. Beside data storage discs and brake discs discussed in

the previous sections, there are also other applications, such as circular wood saws, clutches, gears and atomising discs.

2052 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

Hutton et al. [93] are early researchers of vibration of circular wood saws. Tian and Hutton [94] conducted a dynamic

stability analysis of wood saws. The instability mechanism was regenerative vibration that is also responsible for chatter in

machining, to be discussed later in this tutorial.

Another interesting but seemingly obscure application is atomising discs used in centrifugal atomisation for producing

powders. Molten metal (melt) descends on to the centre of a fast-spinning disc (atomising disc) and spreads out on the disc

surface due to gravity and the centrifugal force, the latter of which breaks down the melt into droplets that ﬂy off the disc.

They become powders when cooling down in air. Due to the very high rotating speed and possible asymmetric solid

deposit of the melt because of premature solidiﬁcation, large-amplitude vibration and loud noise can be excited. Ouyang

[95] studied vibration of atomising disc excited by the melt modelled as moving distributed mass. Deng and Ouyang [96]

considered melt ﬁlm as a growing wave and predicted powder size.

Like discs, shafts are also a fundamental component in mechanical engineering. Due to the gyroscopic coupling as a

result of rotation around the longitudinal axis, a shaft subjected to a traverse load in one direction produces not only

deﬂection in that direction but also deﬂection in the direction normal to the loading direction and the longitudinal axis.

Vibration of turning operation in machining can be modelled as a shaft under a moving load (from the cutter).

Lee et al. [97] and Katz et al. [98] initiated research into vibration of a rotating beam under a moving load (force).

Argento and Scott [99] considered an accelerating surface force. Zu and Han [100] studied a rotating Timoshenko beam

with general boundary conditions. Lee [101] added the axial force. Huang and Lee’s shaft was a Rayleigh beam [102].

Zibdeh and Juma’s moving load was a random quantity [103]. El-Saeidy [104] used the ﬁnite element method and

considered nonlinear boundary conditions. Ouyang and Wang [35] included a moving couple due to the surface feed force

in a turning operation. Moving forces as a linear function of local deﬂection were considered in [105,106].

Many of the above-mentioned works on rotating shafts were meant to address vibration and chatter in turning

(machining) operations. Huang and Yang [107] simulated repeated cutting of a workpiece as a moving-load problem.

Chen and Wang [108] investigated vibration of high-speed spindles. There was a coupling between the rotating shaft

and the nonlinear bearings.

5.8. Cranes

Cranes take a number of forms. They all involve moving components. A gantry crane and bridge crane travel along

tracks. The trolley moves along the main girder beams and carries a payload which can swing about and excite the

structure into vibration. A tower crane has a jib that carries a payload moving along it and rotates around the tower. A

lufﬁng crane turns around its base while carrying a payload.

Park et al. [109] studied the frequencies and response of a bridge crane modelled as a moving-cart-on-beam system. It

should be noted the model in Ref. [109] was actually for a moving-boundary problem. Oguamanam et al. [110] worked on

the three-dimensional dynamics of a bridge crane. Fung and Yau [111] derived equations of motion for a cantilever beam

rotating in the horizontal plane and carrying a moving mass using Stanisic’s approach [3]. Yang et al. [112] extended their

work to include the payload as a swinging pendulum and derived the equations of motion. Both works were about tower

cranes. Wu et al. [113] suggested a ﬁnite element and analytical combined method to compute the dynamics response of a

gantry crane. They also carried out laboratory experiments.

5.9. Strings

Strings are also widely used as engineering components. Examples include electrical power lines and waveguides

(they could also be modelled as beams).

The dynamics of an inﬁnite string on an elastic foundation subjected to a moving force was investigated by Gavrilov

[114]. The nonstationary wave generated at supersonic speeds was the author’s main interest. The engineering background

of this problem is waveguides. Wu and Brennan [115] modelled a railway overhead wire as an inﬁnite periodically

supported string. The steady-state response of a long string on a nonlinear, viscoelastic foundation to uniformly moving

constant point loads was studied by Metrikine [116] in the context of overhead power lines. Strings that move will be

discussed in the section on moving structures and materials later.

5.10. Shells

As the only difference in the vibration of shells excited by moving loads from that of other structures is the governing

differential equations, there is no need to detail the works published on this topic. Only one paper is commented on here.

De Faria and Oguamanam [117] used an adaptive ﬁnite element mesh in their work on the vibration of spherical caps

under a moving force or a moving mass. This work will be reviewed in further detail in the Numerical Method section.

H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2053

In some engineering applications, the main structure moves relatively to a stationary load or a stationary minor

structure, for example, cables for elevators and conveyor belts, band saw blades, paper and magnetic tapes and thread

lines in the textile industry. The mathematics of moving structures or materials is very similar to that of stationary

structures subjected to moving-loads when certain assumptions are made. To demonstrate the mathematics of this

category of problems, the equation of an axially moving slender (Euler) beam is used below.

Tabarrok et al. [118] established four nonlinear differential equations and one algebraic equation of a moving Euler

beam whose length can vary with time. When the displacement gradients are assumed to be small and the neutral axis of

the beam is assumed inextensible, the equation of motion of the beam when measured from an inertia (space-ﬁxed)

coordinate frame is (adapted from Ref. [118])

! " #

@2 w @w @w 2

2@ w du @w @4 w du @w @2 w

rA þ 2u þu þ þEI 4 rA ðlxÞ 2 ¼ N dðx0 Þ ð50Þ

@t 2 @t @x @x2 dt @x @x dt @x @x

where x0 is the ﬁxed location of the traverse concentrated force N. Other symbols are the same as those for the beam

shown in Fig. 1.

When the travelling speed of the beam is constant, Eq. (50) reduces to

!

@2 w @w @w 2

2@ w @4 w

rA 2

þ 2u þu 2

þ EI 4 ¼ N dðx0 Þ ð51Þ

@t @t @x @x @x

Comparing the left-hand sides of Eqs. (3) and (50), one can see that the equation of a beam subjected to a moving mass

is very similar to the equation of motion of a moving beam. When the velocity is constant, the latter is simpler in that there

is no d function and hence no time-dependent coefﬁcients for the unknown.

Vibration and dynamics instability of moving structures is a subject in its own right. Here a very limited number of

typical papers are brieﬂy reviewed.

Wickert and Mote [119] modelled a monocable ropeway (such as a tramway or ski lift) as an axially moving string that

transports an attached discrete mass between two supports. A Volterra integral equation was derived with delay that

governed the interaction force in the coupled system. There was good agreement between responses measured in the

laboratory and those predicted by the method.

Hwang and Perkins [120] studied the supercritical stability of an axially moving beam, which may represent a belt.

Zhu and Ni [121] investigated the energetics and stability of translating media of varying length. Elevator cables or wire

ropes of cranes may be modelled by these media. Chen and Yang [122] studied nonlinear free vibration of an axially

moving beam and compare models when the tension in the beam is assumed constant or otherwise. Michon et al. [123]

looked at parametric instability of moving belts under multiple excitations and carried out experimental validation. Brake

and Wickert [124] included a friction force to an axially moving beam as a model for tapes. Huang and Hsu [125] studied

the resonant phenomena of a rotating shell under a moving force. Vangipuram-Canchi and Parker [126] examined the

parametric instability of a rotating ring with moving springs.

Needless to say, those papers on rotating/spinning discs and beams mentioned before also belong to this category.

When the travelling speed of the moving structure is high enough, it is possible that the moving structure may leave

the supporting structure (separation) brieﬂy. It is also possible for it to land onto (reattachment) the supporting structure

afterwards. If the vertical velocity at the reattachment is not small, an impact takes place and hence excites higher modes

of the supporting structure. The investigation of separation and reattachment may be useful for applications such as high-

speed trains.

Fryba is perhaps the ﬁrst researcher to study separation of the moving structure from the supporting structure (and the

following impact when the former descends on the latter) [127]. He considered irregularity of the roadway on a bridge

(a beam) and used a linearised Hertzian law for the contact forces between two wheels (rigid masses) and the beam.

However, how impact was dealt with was not presented. H P Lee [9] showed separation of a moving mass from a beam in

simulated examples. U Lee [10] made a more detailed study of separation between a moving mass and a beam. However,

neither considered the reattachment of the moving mass to the supporting structure after separation. Cheng et al. [128]

seemed to be the ﬁrst researchers to study both separation and reattachment. They put forward a method to determine the

vibration after the impact at reattachment. Stancioiu [129] put forward a simpliﬁed method for computing the dynamic

response after the impact at reattachment. They also showed some interesting separation maps (graphs of zero moving

contact force in terms of some parameters). Baeza and Ouyang [130] studied separation and reattachment of a truss-like

bridge structure traversed by an oscillator. They [131] also looked at a jumping oscillator crossing a simply supported

beam.

2054 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

Identiﬁcation of structural damage (including cracks) relies on decent experimental data that contains the information

about the damage. Sometimes it is difﬁcult to excite a real structure into vibration of sufﬁcient magnitude to enable good-

quality experimental data to be measured. As moving loads are capable of exciting large-amplitude vibration, they have

been used intentionally for the purpose of structural identiﬁcation. As vibration has been a major means in structural

health monitoring, it is also reviewed brieﬂy in this section.

Parhi and Behera [132] made an analytical and experimental study of a cracked beam traversed by a moving mass. The

cracked section is represented by a reduced local stiffness matrix. Incidentally, using a reduced stiffness at the crack

location has been a popular way of representing the role of a crack [133]. Majumder and Manohar [134] used a moving

oscillator to generate data to detect local or distributed loss of stiffness in beam structures undergoing vibration. A time

domain structural damage detection scheme was developed, within a ﬁnite element modelling framework, taking into

account time varying structural matrices, structural nonlinearities and spatial incompleteness of measured data. Yang

et al. [135] determined the modal behaviour and forced response of a beam of functionally graded material with an open

edge crack subjected to an axial force and a concentrated transverse force.

Piombo et al. [136] made the more challenging investigation into modelling and identiﬁcation of a real bridge of three

spans. The bridge, modelled as a simply supported orthotropic plate, was excited by moving vehicles, modelled as multi-body

systems of seven degrees-of-freedom each, with linear suspensions and tyre ﬂexibility. The dynamic response was measured

by seven capacitance accelerometers and processed by a wavelet approach. Bilello and Bergman [137] built an analytical

model for a damaged beam under a moving mass and carried out laboratory experiments. The damage was represented by a

rotational spring in the model. They observed an increase in structural damage sensitivity under the moving load.

Identiﬁcation of the moving force and damage has been a major interest to Law and Zhu, and their co-workers. Zhu and Law

[138] developed a method based on modal superposition and regularisation technique to identify moving loads on an elastically

supported multi-span continuous bridge deck and examined the effects of different parameters, such as measurement noise,

sampling rate, vertical and rotational stiffness and the travelling velocity of the moving loads. Numerical simulations showed that

the method could identify accurately the moving loads on the bridge. They also found that measured acceleration gave better

results than those from strains, and the number of vibration modes used in the identiﬁcation should exceed the highest frequency

of the excitation forces for an accurate identiﬁcation. They presented a time-domain method for detecting damage of a simply

supported concrete bridge structure subjected to moving vehicles as excitation [139]. A damage function was used to simulate the

crack damage in a reinforced concrete beam. Prior knowledge of the moving loads was not required, which is a strength of the

method. Simulation results showed that the method was effective and noise-insensitive. Yu and Chan [140] reviewed the current

knowledge on those factors affecting the performance of identiﬁcation methods of moving forces.

Paultre et al. [141] tested a number of highway bridges under normal and controlled trafﬁc loads. They wanted to

evaluate the dynamic ampliﬁcation factor for different highway bridges and develop standard testing procedures;

evaluated the dynamic properties of bridges and in particular the effect of structural reinforcement on the dynamic

ampliﬁcation factor and the dynamic properties by testing prior to and after reinforcing; calibrated ﬁnite-element models

of the bridges being tested; and studied the effects of changes in the stiffness of structural elements and the inﬂuence of

secondary structural elements on the dynamic response.

Marchesiello et al. [142] studied structural identiﬁcation of a bridge-like structure crossed by trafﬁc loads. The task is

very challenging because the system input was unknown (output-only measures). They built a scaled train-bridge model

excited by a crossing train with realistic conditions. Accelerations were measured along the beam bridge at different

locations. They evaluated two identiﬁcation methods.

Spiridonakos and Fassois [143] presented a study of a similar problem to the above and again used output-only data.

They also tested a laboratory bridge-like structure. Like Ref. [142], Fassois’ group has been interested in time-domain

identiﬁcation methods. A functional series vector time-dependent autoregressive moving average method was used in this

particular investigation.

Structural health monitoring of structures subjected to moving loads such as bridges has also been an attractive research

topic. Lee et al. [144] studied damage estimation of a bridge structure using ambient vibration data caused by trafﬁc loads.

The method consisted of identifying the operational modal properties. They reported that the identiﬁed damage locations

and severities agreed reasonably well with the real damages on the laboratory structure. Ou and his group have worked on

structural health monitoring and vibration control of bridges, oil platforms and high-rise buildings for a number of years. The

work done by them and other researchers and practitioners in mainland China was reviewed by Ou and Li [145].

On the other hand, Deng and Cai [146] identiﬁed vehicle parameters from vibration data collected during the period

when the vehicles were running on bridges. They tested a real truck on a real bridge. Nguyen and Tran [147] identiﬁed

cracks in a beam from vibration data of a vehicle crossing the beam. The numerical simulations showed the possibility of

using an instrumented vehicle to identify damages in bridges.

It should now be clear that moving-load problems are very common and large-amplitude vibration and/or a wide

range of frequencies are often excited. As the vibration is unavoidable, it is sensible to study how to reduce it by passive or

H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060 2055

active means. All the afore-mentioned moving-load problems can be controlled. So this topic naturally involves many

papers.

Most published papers in this category seem to be passive control of moving-mass/oscillator-on-beam problems using

dampers [148–152]. Take the work in Ref. [150] as an example. Younesian et al. used an optimal tuned mass damper

(TMD) system to suppress the undesirable vibration of a Timoshenko beam using a Galerkin’s method. Additionally, they

simulated the dynamic response of an actual railway bridge traversed by a high-speed train and compared the dynamic

performance of the bridge before and after the installation of the TMD system. On the other hand, active vibration control

has also been used. Sung [153] simulated the vibration of a beam traversed by a moving mass with two piezoelectric

actuators at different locations determined by the minimisation of an optimal cost functional. Nikkhoo et al. [154] used a

linear classical optimal control algorithm with a time varying gain matrix (the solution of Riccati matrix equation) with

displacement–velocity feedback. Abdel-Rohman [155] studied nonlinear vibration of long span bridges suspended by

cables subjected to wind and moving loads. A simple controller was designed based on the feedback of the velocity

measurements taken at the control force location.

Lin and Cao [156] looked at motion and its control of a beam ﬁxed on a moving cart and developed a neuro-fuzzy

controller with two separate feedback loops for positioning and damping. This is a moving-boundary problem.

Yau [157] investigated the dynamic response of a maglev vehicle travelling over a series of guideway girders

undergoing ground support settlement. The vehicle is represented as a rigid car body supported by a rigid levitation frame

using a uniformly distributed spring–dashpot system and the guideway as a series of simple beams with identical span.

A PI controller tuned with Ziegler–Nicholas (Z–N) method was used to regulate the electromagnetic forces between the

magnetic-wheels and guide-rail. The dynamic response of the system was solved by a Galerkin’s method and computed by

a Newmark algorithm.

On the dynamic interaction in machining, Alter and Tsao [158] made a detained stability analysis and used an actively

controlled motor for stable turning operation. They also conducted experimental work and showed the effectiveness of their

approach. Yang and Mote [159] modelled a band saw as a moving string and studied active vibration control in theory and with

experiments. Ouyang and Mottershead [160] simulated placing different numbers of oscillators at various locations of a stationary

disc to suppress its vibration caused by a rotating oscillator with frictional follower force and found the optimal solution.

There are numerous published papers on control of various cranes. However, among the limited number of papers read

by the author none modelled the moving-load effects. So only one typical paper is commented upon in this review.

Terashima et al. [161] presented an open-loop control strategy for sway-free, point-to-point motion of a load mass in the

three-dimensional motion of a rotary crane. The minimum time-control problem that considered the change of the rope

length was compared with the pre-shaping control. The proposed control method using the straight transfer transforma-

tion model was shown to be effective in eliminating the inﬂuence of centrifugal force from simulation and experiments.

However, the moving loads that occurred during crane operations were not considered.

There are also numerous papers of semi-active and active suspensions of vehicles for vibration reduction. These are related

to moving-load problems but often do not involve the necessary mathematics of moving loads, and so they are not covered in

this tutorial. One work worthy of note is that of Sun [162] on the optimal design of ‘road-friendly’ suspension systems.

Many published works (for example, [38,41,51]) on vehicle–bridge/road/track interaction considered the roughness of

the road/track surface. Chatterjee et al. [38] modelled the pavement surface irregularity as a stationary random process

characterised by a power spectral density function (PSDF) and it was generated from Monte Carlo simulation in their study

of vehicle–bridge interaction. Huang and Wang [41] also considered road surface roughness. On the other hand, Dinh et al.

[62] considered surface irregularity of the track.

Sniady and his co-workers have studied various moving-load problems with random parameters, for example, the source

of excitation was a series of random moving forces in Ref. [12]. On the other hand, the moving oscillator in Ref. [163] had

random mass, velocity and acceleration.

6. Numerical methods

Moving-load problems involve two structures and hence are understandably difﬁcult to study. There are two issues to

be grappled with: (1) there are now multiple contact points or even a continuous contact patch between the moving

structure and the supporting structure; (2) both the moving structure and supporting structure can be complicated. These

present a challenging computational problem and need efﬁcient algorithms. Various numerical methods have been put

forward. Some of these are brieﬂy reviewed below. It must be stressed that the limited space in this tutorial does not allow

the sufﬁcient details of the speciﬁc methods to be presented and the original papers must be consulted to have a good

understanding of the speciﬁc methods.

Olsson discussed some computational issues [164]. Messac’s approach [165] was to model both ﬂexible structures with

ﬁnite elements. However, the mathematics is difﬁcult to follow. Henchi et al. [166] used a modal expansion technique for

bridge components discretised with the ﬁnite elements and central difference scheme for time integration. Both modal

and physical coordinates were used. Yang et al. [16] cast a moving-oscillator problem in an integral equation that was

2056 H. Ouyang / Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2039–2060

amenable to numerical solutions. Koh et al. [167] put forward a ‘moving element’ method speciﬁcally for moving-load

problems. A shortcoming is that the structure modelled by this type of elements must have the same cross-section along

the moving direction. De Faria and Oguamanam [117] used an adaptive ﬁnite element mesh to accommodate the travel of

the moving force/mass that traversed a spherical cap. It is observed that the tracking of the moving location and

subsequent dealing with the force equilibrium and displacement continuity at this location can easily be achieved by the

method reported in Ref. [130].

Ouyang et al. [90] put forward an analytical–numerical combined method and applied it to a small ﬁnite element model

for a disc brake without the disc (which was modelled as a Kirchhoff plate). There is a big advantage of using an analytical

formulation for a moving-load problem because when a load moves in the spatial domain its location always corresponds

to a degree-of-freedom (a continuous coordinate) in an analytical formulation. This allows easy enforcement of

displacement continuity and force equilibrium of the moving and stationary bodies at the moving coordinate. In contrast,

in a ﬁnite element formulation, the moving load is located in different element domains at different time, hence it is

difﬁcult to track its location constantly and in particular relate its motion to that of the FE nodal displacement vector as it

traverses different element domains. Apparently, the numerical procedure for a moving-load problem using the ﬁnite

element method is more complicated and less accurate than using an analytical method, if the latter afford an analytical

expression of modes. This approach was then extended to proper models of real brakes [91,92] and a beam subjected to a

moving ﬂexible body [168]. When neither of the two structures is amenable to analytical methods, the analytical modes

can be obtained by converting the ﬁnite element modes through element shape functions. This idea was implemented in

Ref. [130], in which a truss was excited by a moving oscillator, to accommodate both complicated structures while

retaining the advantage of the analytical approach in moving-load problems and versatility of the ﬁnite element method.

Many investigations of moving-load problems entail complicated mathematical equations. Symbolic computation can

derive approximate analytical solutions or reduce the equations to forms that are amenable to numerical computation.

Cartmell et al. [169] reviewed application of the method of multiple scales in solving dynamics of weakly nonlinear

mechanical systems, including those involving some moving-load problems.

7. Conclusions

This paper presents an easy-to-follow tutorial of some typical moving-load dynamic problems. Through a simple

example of a simply supported beam excited by a moving mass, the important concepts of the critical speed, single-mode

resonance and combination resonances, which are peculiar to moving-load problems, are explained. A popular

perturbation method, the method of multiple scales, is applied to demonstrate its application to the above problem

when a system parameter is small. A circular plate subjected to a relatively moving oscillator serves to provide another

useful example for understanding more complicated problems. Following the analytical approach, numerical simulation of

a rotating shaft subjected to a moving surface load is carried out.

To aid understanding and provide a short cut to acquisition of knowledge of moving load problems to new researchers,

various kinds of moving load problems are brieﬂy reviewed with useful references for each kind of problems. Some

computational issues associated with moving-load problems and some numerical methods for dealing with these issues

are discussed, before concluding this tutorial.

Acknowledgments

The author wishes to acknowledge the Royal Academy of Engineering and Leverhulme Trust Senior Fellowship and

ﬁnancial support from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Grant reference number: EP/H022287/1).

The following former and current colleagues have contributed to the author’s research work on moving-load problems:

Professor John E Mottershead, Dr Danut Stancioiu and Dr Simon James of University of Liverpool, Professor Matthew P

Cartmell of University of Glasgow, Professor Michael I Friswell of University of Swansea, Professor Qingjie Cao of Harbin

Institute of Technology, Dr Wei Li of General Motors Company, Professor Minjie Wang of Dalian University of Technology,

Professor Luis Baeza of Polytechnic University of Valencia, Mr Huaxia Deng of University of Liverpool. Professor Chin An

Tan of Wayne State University provided several useful reference papers.

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