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DALLUAY, Jovan Avery S.

FDGCOMM – ECE151
Date of Submission: April 2, 2019

Bandpass Signaling Principles and Circuits


Problem Set

1. A DOUBLE – SIDEBAND SUPPRESSED CARRIER ( DSB –


SC ) SIGNAL s( t ) WITH A CARRIER FREQUENCY OF
3.8 MHZ HAS A COMPLEX ENVELOPE
g( t ) = A C m( t ). A C = 50 V , AND THE MODULATION IS A
1 KHZ SINUSOIDAL TEST TONE DESCRIBED BY m ( t ) =
2 sin ( 2π 1,000t ) . EVALUATE THE VOLTAGE SPECTRUM
FOR THIS DSB - SC SIGNAL.
ANSWER:

USING ( 2-26 ) WITH THE HELP OF SEC. A-5,

G( f ) = A C m( f ) = 50 [ - j δ ( f – 1000 ) + j δ ( f + 1000 )
]
F

SUBSTITUTING THIS INTO ( 4-15 ) AND USING δ (- f ) =


δ ( f ), THE VOLTAGE SPECTRUM OF THIS DSB – SC
SIGNAL IS

S ( f ) = j 25 δ ( f – fc – 1000 ) + j 25 δ ( f – fc + 1000 )
– j 25 δ ( f + fc – 1000 ) + j 25 δ ( f + fc + 1000 )
2. LET A MODULATED SIGNAL,
s ( t ) = 100 sin ( ω c + ω a ) t + 500 cos ω c t - 100 sin ( ω c - ω a ) t
WHERE THE UNMODULATED CARRIER IS 500 ω c t .
(A) FIND THE COMPLEX ENVELOPE FOR THE
MODULATED SIGNAL. WHAT TYPE OF MODULATION
IS INVOLVED? WHAT IS THE MODULATING SIGNAL?
ANSWER:
S(t) [ 500 ejWct ] + Re [ - j100 ej(Wc + Wa )t +
= Re
j100 e j(Wc - W a )t ]
S ( t ) = Re { 500 [ 1 – j ( 2 j ) --- ( - e ---- -- - e ----- )]
e jWct }
S(t) = Re { 500 [ 1 + -- sin (ω at ) ] e jWct }
g( t ) = 500 + 200 sin ( ω at ) ,
m( t ) = 0.4 sin ( ω at )
(B) FIND THE QUADRATURE MODULATION
COMPONENTS x ( t ) AND y ( t ) FOR
THIS MODULATED SIGNAL.
ANSWER:
x
( t ) = Re [ g ( t )]
x ( t ) = 500 + 200 sin ( ω a ) ,
y(t) = 0

(C) FIND THE MAGNITUDE AND PM COMPONENTS R


( t ) AND Θ ( t ) FOR THIS
MODULATED SIGNAL.
ANSWER:
R ( t ) = | g ( t )|
R ( t ) = 500 + 200 sin ( ω at ) ,
θ ( t ) = | g ( t )|
θ(t) = 0
(D) FIND THE TOTAL AVERAGE POWER, WHERE S ( t
) IS A VOLTAGE WAVEFORM THAT IS APPLIED
ACROSS A 50 Ω LOAD.
ANSWER:
P = ½ [| g (t )| ]
50
= 1/100 [( 500 ) 2 + 2 x 10 5 sin ( ω at ) + ( 200 2 +
2 x 10 5 sin 2 ( ω at )]
P = 2,700 WATTS
3. FIND THE SPECTRUM OF THE MODULATED SIGNAL
GIVEN IN PROB. 4 – 14 BY TWO METHODS:
(A) BY DIRECT EVALUATION USING THE FOURIER
TRANSFORM OF S ( t ) .
ANSWER:

(B) BY THE USE OF EQ. ( 4 – 12 ) .


ANSWER:
4. ASSUME THAT AN AUDIO SINE - WAVE TESTING
SIGNAL IS PASSED THROUGH AN AUDIO HARD LIMITER
CIRCUIT. EVALUATE THE TOTAL HARMONIC
DISTORTION ( THD ) ON THE SIGNAL AT THE LIMITER
OUTPUT.
ANSWER:
THE OUTPUT IS A SQUARE WAVE:

WHERE, USING (2-96), b =0 AND

WE CAN SHIFT THE DC LEVEL OF THE


WAVEFORM TO MAKE THE INTEGRAL EASIER TO
EVALUATE AND YET THE V WILL REMAIN THE
SAME FOR n ≠ 0
5. ASSUME THAT AN AM RECEIVER WITH AN ENVELOPE
DETECTOR IS TUNED TO AN SSB - AM SIGNAL THAT
HAS A MODULATION WAVEFORM GIVEN BY m ( t ) .
FIND THE MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION FOR THE AUDIO
SIGNAL THAT
APPEARS AT THE RECEIVER OUTPUT IN TERMS OF m ( t ) .
IS THE AUDIO OUTPUT DISTORTED?
ANSWER:
S(t) = A C [ m( t )cos ω c t ∓ m( t )sin ω c t ]
{
= Re A C [ m( t ) ±j m( t ) ] e
jWc t }
g( t ) = A C [ m( t ) ±j m( t ) ] = R ( t ) = θ(t)
OUTPUT OF THE ENVELOPE DETECTOR IS
V (t) = KR ( t ) = K | g ( t )|
V (t) = KA C m 2 ( t ) + [m( t )] 2 ≠K m( t )
THE OUTPUT IS DISTORTED
6. USING THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM AND THE FINAL
VALUE THEOREM, FIND AN EXPRESSION FOR THE
STEADY – STATE PHASE ERROR, lim ∞ 𝜃 e ( t ) , FOR A
PLL AS DESCRIBED BY EQ. (4–100).
[ HINT: THE FINAL VALUE THEOREM IS lim ∞ f ( t ) = lim
0 s F ( t ).]
ANSWER:

dθ (t) dθ (t) - K K θ (t) f(t)


dt dt
Sθ (s) = Sθ (s) - K K θ (s) F(s)
OR
Sθ ( s)
θ (s) = s + K K F(s)

lim θ (t) lim s


[ θ ( t )] lim Sθ (s)
s+ K K F(s)

IF R ( 0 ) ≠ 0
lim θ (t) = 0

7. ASSUME THAT THE PHASE NOISE CHARACTERISTIC


OF A PLL IS BEING EXAMINED. THE INTERNAL PHASE
NOISE OF THE VCO IS MODELED BY THE INPUT θ n ( t ) ,
AS SHOWN BELOW.

∑ K F1( f )
d

VCO

F2( f ) =

(A) FIND AN EXPRESSION FOR THE CLOSED – LOOP


TRANSFER FUNCTION
θ 0 ( t ) / θ n ( t ), WHERE θ i ( t ) = 0 .
ANSWER:

F2 F1 K
d
(B) IF F1( F ) IS THE LOW – PASS FILTER GIVEN IN
FIG. P4–34, SKETCH THE BODE PLOT [| θ 0 ( t ) / θ n ( t ) |] dB
FOR THE PHASE NOISE TRANSFER FUNCTION.
ANSWER:

8. (A) REFER TO FIG. 4–25 FOR A PLL FREQUENCY


SYNTHESIZER. DESIGN A
SYNTHESIZER THAT WILL COVER A RANGE OF 144
TO 148 MHZ IN 5 – KHZ STEPS, STARTING AT
144.000 MHZ. ASSUME THAT THE FREQUENCY
STANDARD OPERATES AT 5 MHZ, THAT THE M
DIVIDER IS FIXED AT SOME VALUE, AND THAT THE
N DIVIDER IS PROGRAMMABLE SO THAT THE
SYNTHESIZER WILL COVER THE DESIRED RANGE.
SKETCH A DIAGRAM OF YOUR DESIGN, INDICATING
THE FREQUENCIES PRESENT AT VARIOUS POINTS
OF THE DIAGRAM.
ANSWER:

f= f ÷m x LPF

÷N vco
V (t)
(B) MODIFY YOUR DESIGN SO THAT THE OUTPUT
SIGNAL CAN BE FREQUENCY MODULATED WITH AN
AUDIO FREQUENCY INPUT SUCH THAT THE PEAK
DEVIATION OF THE RF OUTPUT IS 5 KHZ.
ANSWER:

f= f ÷m x LPF

x
ASSUME: ÷N vco
V (t)
AUDIO IN
V (t)

9. AN FM RADIO IS TUNED TO RECEIVE AN FM


BROADCASTING STATION OF FREQUENCY 96.9 MHZ.
THE RADIO IS OF THE SUPERHETERODYNE TYPE
WITH THE LO OPERATING ON THE HIGH SIDE OF THE
96.9 MHZ INPUT AND
USING A 10.7 MHZ IF AMPLIFIER.
(A) DETERMINE THE LO FREQUENCY.
ANSWER:
f = 96.9 + 10.7
f = 107.6 MHz
(B) IF THE FM SIGNAL HAS A BANDWIDTH OF 180 KHZ,
GIVE THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE RF AND IF FILTERS.
ANSWER:
RF: FLAT BANDPASS OVER 96.81 MHZ TO 96.99
MHZ AND REJECT IMAGE
FREQUENCY OF 118.3 MHZ
IF: FLAT BANDPASS OOVER 10.61 MHZ TO 10.79
MHZ AND REJECT
ADJACENT CHANNEL SIGNALS ON EACH SIDE
OF THIS BANDPASS

RF: AT LEAST 96.81 MHZ - 96.99 MHZ


IF: 10.61 MHZ - 10.79 MHZ

(C) CALCULATE THE FREQUENCY OF THE IMAGE


RESPONSE.
ANSWER:
f image = fc + 2f if
= 96.9 + 2(10.7)
f image = 118.3 MHZ

10. AN AM BROADCAST – BAND RADIO IS TUNED TO


RECEIVE A 1,080 - KHZ AM SIGNAL AND USES HIGH –
SIDE LO INJECTION. THE IF IS 455 KHZ.
(A) SKETCH THE FREQUENCY RESPONSE FOR THE RF
AND IF FILTERS.
ANSWER:

RF: 1080 ± 5 KHZ


IF: 455 ± 5 KHZ

(B) WHAT IS THE IMAGE FREQUENCY?


ANSWER:

f image = fc + 2f if
= 1080 KHz + 2(455)
f image = 1990 KHZ