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# DALLUAY, Jovan Avery S.

FDGCOMM – ECE151
Date of Submission: April 2, 2019

Problem Set

## 1. A DOUBLE – SIDEBAND SUPPRESSED CARRIER ( DSB –

SC ) SIGNAL s( t ) WITH A CARRIER FREQUENCY OF
3.8 MHZ HAS A COMPLEX ENVELOPE
g( t ) = A C m( t ). A C = 50 V , AND THE MODULATION IS A
1 KHZ SINUSOIDAL TEST TONE DESCRIBED BY m ( t ) =
2 sin ( 2π 1,000t ) . EVALUATE THE VOLTAGE SPECTRUM
FOR THIS DSB - SC SIGNAL.

## USING ( 2-26 ) WITH THE HELP OF SEC. A-5,

G( f ) = A C m( f ) = 50 [ - j δ ( f – 1000 ) + j δ ( f + 1000 )
]
F

## SUBSTITUTING THIS INTO ( 4-15 ) AND USING δ (- f ) =

δ ( f ), THE VOLTAGE SPECTRUM OF THIS DSB – SC
SIGNAL IS

S ( f ) = j 25 δ ( f – fc – 1000 ) + j 25 δ ( f – fc + 1000 )
– j 25 δ ( f + fc – 1000 ) + j 25 δ ( f + fc + 1000 )
2. LET A MODULATED SIGNAL,
s ( t ) = 100 sin ( ω c + ω a ) t + 500 cos ω c t - 100 sin ( ω c - ω a ) t
WHERE THE UNMODULATED CARRIER IS 500 ω c t .
(A) FIND THE COMPLEX ENVELOPE FOR THE
MODULATED SIGNAL. WHAT TYPE OF MODULATION
IS INVOLVED? WHAT IS THE MODULATING SIGNAL?
S(t) [ 500 ejWct ] + Re [ - j100 ej(Wc + Wa )t +
= Re
j100 e j(Wc - W a )t ]
S ( t ) = Re { 500 [ 1 – j ( 2 j ) --- ( - e ---- -- - e ----- )]
e jWct }
S(t) = Re { 500 [ 1 + -- sin (ω at ) ] e jWct }
g( t ) = 500 + 200 sin ( ω at ) ,
m( t ) = 0.4 sin ( ω at )
COMPONENTS x ( t ) AND y ( t ) FOR
THIS MODULATED SIGNAL.
x
( t ) = Re [ g ( t )]
x ( t ) = 500 + 200 sin ( ω a ) ,
y(t) = 0

## (C) FIND THE MAGNITUDE AND PM COMPONENTS R

( t ) AND Θ ( t ) FOR THIS
MODULATED SIGNAL.
R ( t ) = | g ( t )|
R ( t ) = 500 + 200 sin ( ω at ) ,
θ ( t ) = | g ( t )|
θ(t) = 0
(D) FIND THE TOTAL AVERAGE POWER, WHERE S ( t
) IS A VOLTAGE WAVEFORM THAT IS APPLIED
P = ½ [| g (t )| ]
50
= 1/100 [( 500 ) 2 + 2 x 10 5 sin ( ω at ) + ( 200 2 +
2 x 10 5 sin 2 ( ω at )]
P = 2,700 WATTS
3. FIND THE SPECTRUM OF THE MODULATED SIGNAL
GIVEN IN PROB. 4 – 14 BY TWO METHODS:
(A) BY DIRECT EVALUATION USING THE FOURIER
TRANSFORM OF S ( t ) .

## (B) BY THE USE OF EQ. ( 4 – 12 ) .

4. ASSUME THAT AN AUDIO SINE - WAVE TESTING
SIGNAL IS PASSED THROUGH AN AUDIO HARD LIMITER
CIRCUIT. EVALUATE THE TOTAL HARMONIC
DISTORTION ( THD ) ON THE SIGNAL AT THE LIMITER
OUTPUT.
THE OUTPUT IS A SQUARE WAVE:

## WE CAN SHIFT THE DC LEVEL OF THE

WAVEFORM TO MAKE THE INTEGRAL EASIER TO
EVALUATE AND YET THE V WILL REMAIN THE
SAME FOR n ≠ 0
5. ASSUME THAT AN AM RECEIVER WITH AN ENVELOPE
DETECTOR IS TUNED TO AN SSB - AM SIGNAL THAT
HAS A MODULATION WAVEFORM GIVEN BY m ( t ) .
FIND THE MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION FOR THE AUDIO
SIGNAL THAT
APPEARS AT THE RECEIVER OUTPUT IN TERMS OF m ( t ) .
IS THE AUDIO OUTPUT DISTORTED?
S(t) = A C [ m( t )cos ω c t ∓ m( t )sin ω c t ]
{
= Re A C [ m( t ) ±j m( t ) ] e
jWc t }
g( t ) = A C [ m( t ) ±j m( t ) ] = R ( t ) = θ(t)
OUTPUT OF THE ENVELOPE DETECTOR IS
V (t) = KR ( t ) = K | g ( t )|
V (t) = KA C m 2 ( t ) + [m( t )] 2 ≠K m( t )
THE OUTPUT IS DISTORTED
6. USING THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM AND THE FINAL
VALUE THEOREM, FIND AN EXPRESSION FOR THE
STEADY – STATE PHASE ERROR, lim ∞ 𝜃 e ( t ) , FOR A
PLL AS DESCRIBED BY EQ. (4–100).
[ HINT: THE FINAL VALUE THEOREM IS lim ∞ f ( t ) = lim
0 s F ( t ).]

## dθ (t) dθ (t) - K K θ (t) f(t)

dt dt
Sθ (s) = Sθ (s) - K K θ (s) F(s)
OR
Sθ ( s)
θ (s) = s + K K F(s)

## lim θ (t) lim s

[ θ ( t )] lim Sθ (s)
s+ K K F(s)

IF R ( 0 ) ≠ 0
lim θ (t) = 0

## 7. ASSUME THAT THE PHASE NOISE CHARACTERISTIC

OF A PLL IS BEING EXAMINED. THE INTERNAL PHASE
NOISE OF THE VCO IS MODELED BY THE INPUT θ n ( t ) ,
AS SHOWN BELOW.

∑ K F1( f )
d

VCO

F2( f ) =

## (A) FIND AN EXPRESSION FOR THE CLOSED – LOOP

TRANSFER FUNCTION
θ 0 ( t ) / θ n ( t ), WHERE θ i ( t ) = 0 .

F2 F1 K
d
(B) IF F1( F ) IS THE LOW – PASS FILTER GIVEN IN
FIG. P4–34, SKETCH THE BODE PLOT [| θ 0 ( t ) / θ n ( t ) |] dB
FOR THE PHASE NOISE TRANSFER FUNCTION.

## 8. (A) REFER TO FIG. 4–25 FOR A PLL FREQUENCY

SYNTHESIZER. DESIGN A
SYNTHESIZER THAT WILL COVER A RANGE OF 144
TO 148 MHZ IN 5 – KHZ STEPS, STARTING AT
144.000 MHZ. ASSUME THAT THE FREQUENCY
STANDARD OPERATES AT 5 MHZ, THAT THE M
DIVIDER IS FIXED AT SOME VALUE, AND THAT THE
N DIVIDER IS PROGRAMMABLE SO THAT THE
SYNTHESIZER WILL COVER THE DESIRED RANGE.
SKETCH A DIAGRAM OF YOUR DESIGN, INDICATING
THE FREQUENCIES PRESENT AT VARIOUS POINTS
OF THE DIAGRAM.

f= f ÷m x LPF

÷N vco
V (t)
(B) MODIFY YOUR DESIGN SO THAT THE OUTPUT
SIGNAL CAN BE FREQUENCY MODULATED WITH AN
AUDIO FREQUENCY INPUT SUCH THAT THE PEAK
DEVIATION OF THE RF OUTPUT IS 5 KHZ.

f= f ÷m x LPF

x
ASSUME: ÷N vco
V (t)
AUDIO IN
V (t)

BROADCASTING STATION OF FREQUENCY 96.9 MHZ.
THE RADIO IS OF THE SUPERHETERODYNE TYPE
WITH THE LO OPERATING ON THE HIGH SIDE OF THE
96.9 MHZ INPUT AND
USING A 10.7 MHZ IF AMPLIFIER.
(A) DETERMINE THE LO FREQUENCY.
f = 96.9 + 10.7
f = 107.6 MHz
(B) IF THE FM SIGNAL HAS A BANDWIDTH OF 180 KHZ,
GIVE THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE RF AND IF FILTERS.
RF: FLAT BANDPASS OVER 96.81 MHZ TO 96.99
MHZ AND REJECT IMAGE
FREQUENCY OF 118.3 MHZ
IF: FLAT BANDPASS OOVER 10.61 MHZ TO 10.79
MHZ AND REJECT
ADJACENT CHANNEL SIGNALS ON EACH SIDE
OF THIS BANDPASS

## RF: AT LEAST 96.81 MHZ - 96.99 MHZ

IF: 10.61 MHZ - 10.79 MHZ

## (C) CALCULATE THE FREQUENCY OF THE IMAGE

RESPONSE.
f image = fc + 2f if
= 96.9 + 2(10.7)
f image = 118.3 MHZ

RECEIVE A 1,080 - KHZ AM SIGNAL AND USES HIGH –
SIDE LO INJECTION. THE IF IS 455 KHZ.
(A) SKETCH THE FREQUENCY RESPONSE FOR THE RF
AND IF FILTERS.

IF: 455 ± 5 KHZ