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Example 4-1

Problem Statement:

Water is heated in a piston-cylinder arrangement from the

saturated liquid state to the saturated vapor state. Evaluate the
heat transfer per unit mass for:
(a) 0.05 MPa,
(b) 0.10 MPa,
(c) 0.5 MPa, and
(d) 20 MPa.


u2 - u1 = q12,in - w12,out

q12,in = u2 - u1 + w12,out = u2 - u1 + P(v2 - v1) (isobaric process)

= (u2 + P v2) - (u1 + Pv1)

= h2 - h1 = hfg

Read values for h directly from Table 11s:

Example 4-2

Problem Statement:

A piston-cylinder arrangement initially contains water at P = 2 MPa and T = 300°C.

The piston is moved to a final position where the volume is twice the initial volume.
During the piston movement, there is heat transfer to the water in such a way that the
pressure in the cylinder remains constant.
(a) Sketch the process on a P-v diagram, indicating the relative position of the
saturation curve.
(b) Find the work done per kilogram of water during the expansion.
(c) Find the heat transfer per kilogram of water during the expansion.
(d) Find the value of the enthalpy of the water after expansion.


a) Checking Table 11s, we find that the initial state is in the superheat region.
Increasing the volume will move the state further into the superheat region. The P-v
diagram thus appears as below. From Table 12s, v1 = 0.1254 m3/kg, and h1 = 3022.7
kJ/kg. Also, since the mass in the system is constant,

b) The work done by the steam is

c) The First Law for this case is

At state 2, we know P = 2000 kPa and v2 = 0.2508 m3/kg. By interpolation from the
Superheat Table 12s, h2 = 4192.6 kJ/kg, so

d) This part was answered as part of Part (c).

The state variables are summarized in the table below

State P (kPa) T (K) V (m3/kg) H (kJ/kg)

1 2000.0 300.0 (0.1254) (3022.7)
2 2000.0 (817.5) 0.2508 (4192.6)

Example 4-3

Problem Statement:

A cylinder-piston system contains 2 kg of H2O at 150 kPa and has a volume of 0.35
m3. The piston is moved so that the final volume of the inside the cylinder is 2.319 m3.
During the piston motion from the initial to the final state, there is heat transfer to the
cylinder in such a way as to hold the temperature constant.
(a) What is the final pressure in the cylinder?
(b) How much work was done by the steam?
(c) Evaluate the heat transfer during the process.
(d) Sketch the process on P-v and P-h diagrams, labeling the initial state as 1 and the
final state as 2.




The state variables are summarized in the table below

State T (°C) P (kPa) v (m3/kg) u (kJ/kg) x

1 (111.4) 150.0 0.175 (775.3) (0.152)
2 (111.4) 150.0 1.1595 (2519.4) 1.000

Example 4-4

Problem Statement:

Develop an equation for the heat transfer to an ideal gas during a constant-pressure
expansion in terms of the initial pressure P1, the initial and final volumes V1 and V2,
and cp (assumed temperature independent) and R for the gas.

Example 4-9

Problem Statement:

A piston performs work on air within the system

shown in the figure. The wall between the air and
the N2 is immovable. There is a heat transfer
between the chambers but there is no heat
transfer with the surroundings. Initially, the air is
at 500 kPa and 200°C, and the N2 is initially at
1500 kPa. The initial volumes are VN2 = 0.01
m3 and Vair = 0.01 m3. Determine the work
performed, final temperature and heat transfer
between chambers if the process ends when the
N2pressure is 1580 kPa.


Species State P (kPa) T (°C) V (m3)

1 500 200 0.01
1 1500 200 0.01
2 1580 V1,N2

The air and nitrogen are in thermal equilibrium, so throughout the process, T air = TN2.

From the 1st law for the diagrammed CV:

First Law on the N2:

From the ideal gas relation for nitrogen:

The work done by the air is then:

Since the total heat transfer is zero, the heat transfer to the air is:

Example 4-21

Problem Statement:

Steam (H2O) enters and exits the nozzle as shown.

Find the exit velocity in meters per second.


Example 5-1

Problem Statement:

Indicate whether the process for the control mass is reversible or not when the
following processes are complete. Explain your answer.

(a) A frictionless piston slowly compresses a gas in an adiabatic (perfectly insulated)

(b) A frictionless piston slowly compresses an isothermal gas in a diabatic (permits
heat transfer) cylinder.
(c) A piston that fits tightly in a cylinder slowly compresses an isothermal gas in a
diabatic (allows heat transfer) cylinder.
(d) A cake of ice floating in water that is very near freezing increases in mass until all
the water is frozen. (Take the control mass as the ice plus the water.)
(e) One kilogram of putty is dropped onto a floor tile and sticks without bouncing.
(f) A bead with a hole through it slides down a slack wire hung between two hooks
that are at equal height, and it comes to rest at the lowest point on the wire. Take the
bead as the control mass.


a) Only work is done on the gas (no heat transfer), and if the work is done slowly and
without friction (no dissipation), then the process is reversible.

b) In this case, the First Law gives

and, for an isothermal process involving an ideal gas, U= U2 - U1 = 0. Heat transfer

must occur to maintain T constant during the process. Again, as in case (a), no
dissipative effects are present, so this process is reversible.

c) This is similar to case (b) except that the piston/cylinder friction produces energy
dissipation, so this process is irreversible.

d) Heat transfer must occur from the control mass to the surroundings according to the
First Law, and this is very nearly a reversible (non-dissipative) process.

e) This is a highly dissipative process, in which directed energy (KE of the putty at the
time of impact) is converted into internal energy of the putty, increasing the putty
temperature and increasing the putty entropy. If we then wait, the putty will transfer
heat to the tile floor. This process is irreversible.

f) In this process, bead internal energy is gained by the bead-wire frictional work
being partially converted into bead internal energy during the sliding process, and
bead internal energy is decreased as the frictionally heated bead undergoes heat
transfer with the surroundings. The final result will be the same as for part (e), so this
process is irreversible.

In all of these processes, we considered only the dissipative losses of the control mass,
and not the effect on the surroundings.
Example 7-1

Problem Statement:

A massless container of fixed volume encloses 1 kg of nitrogen at 1000 K. A second

similar container encloses 3 kg of argon at TA < 1000 K. Both containers are isolated
from the surroundings. The containers are brought together, and there is heat transfer
until the containers are in thermal equilibrium. Plot a curve of Sgen, the entropy
generation during this process versus TA. (Here TA is in the range between 100 and
1000 K). Take constant specific heats for argon of cv,A = 0.3124 kJ/kg-K and nitrogen
of cv,N = 0.7434 kJ/kg-K.


Treating the two containers as the system, the diagram is shown above. Then the laws
can be written as:
T1A(K) sgen(kJ/kg·K)
100 0.989
200 0.517
400 0.174
600 0.055
800 0.010
1000 0
COMMENTS: As T1,A approaches T1,N, the value of Sgen approaches zero. Obviously,
if the two containers are at the same temperature when they are brought together, they
will transfer no heat between themselves, and no entropy will be generated.

Example 7-2

Problem Statement:

An ideal gas in a cylinder undergoes a process from a state P1, v1 to a final

temperature T2.

(a) Derive an expression for the ratio of the work done if the process is isentropic, w s,
to the work done if the process is isobaric (constant pressure), wP, in terms of k only.

(b) Sketch the two processes on P-v and T-s diagrams. Label all states.



COMMENT: Note that the final state and the path differ for the isobaric and
isentropic processes. Only the final temperature is prescribed as the same for both.

Example 7-3

Problem Statement:
A closed copper vessel has a volume of 2 m3. In the vessel is 4 kg of water (liquid
plus vapor) at a pressure of 200 kPa. The surroundings are at a temperature of 160°C.
There is a heat transfer to the vessel until the water is all just evaporated.

(a) What is the final pressure in the vessel?

(b) What is the entropy change of the water in the vessel during the heat transfer

(c) What is the entropy change of the surroundings due to the heat transfer process?

(d) What is the entropy generation for the water due to the heat transfer process?


Treat the water in the vessel as the system. At all states,

a) At state 2, v2 = v1 = 0.5 m3/kg and the water is in the form of saturated vapor. From
Table 10s,

b) At state 1 knowing P, v, and x,


The entropy change within the vessel is then


Example 7-4

Problem Statement:

Water is compressed in a reversible isothermal nonflow process from a pressure and

temperature of 4.0 MPa and 400°C respectively to a final pressure of 8.0 MPa.
Calculate the net heat transfer (kJ/kg) and net work (kJ/kg) for the process.


Example 7-5

Problem Statement:

A piston-cylinder device is said to require 154.3 kJ/kg of work to compress H 2O from

an initial pressure and temperature of 400 kPa and 300°C to a final pressure of 4 MPa.
If a heat transfer of 233.8 kJ/kg is released during the process, is the process
impossible, reversible, or irreversible?


1st Law:

2nd Law

Example 7-7

Problem Statement:

A reversible process for a piston-cylinder control mass is shown on the P-v and T-s
diagrams. Evaluate the change in internal energy per unit mass for the process.

1st Law

For the reversible process,

Example 7-9

Problem Statement:

Is the adiabatic device in the figure possible? The fluid is steam.

Two carnot engines work in series b/w source & sink
temp. 550K & 350K.If both engines develop equal
Two carnot engines work in series b/w source & sink temp. 550K & 350K.If both engines
develop equal power , determine the intermediate temp.

Please show the soln.

If we let T' denote the intermediate temperature, and let Q' denote the heat pertaining to 1st

then, the Carnot efficiency for the first Carnot engine:

η' = 1 - T'/Th = 1 - Q'(out)/Q'(in), .... => Q'(out) = (1 - η')Q'(in)

Let Q denote the heat values pertaining to the 2nd engine:

η = 1 - Tc/T'

For the two-cycles W1 = W2, ...=> η'Q'(in) = ηQ(in), ........[1]

Since, the heat rejected from the 1st engine is the heat input to the other engine:

Q(in) = Q'(out) = (1 - η')Q'(in)

Applying above equation to [1]:

ηQ(in) = (1 - Tc/T')Q'in = (1 - T'/Th)[1 - T'/Th)Q'(in)

(1 - Tc/T') = (1 - T'/Th)[1 - T'/Th)

Now, with Tc = 350 K and with Th = 550 K

Solve for T'

Cascaded Carnot Cycle Heat Engines
Q. I need your help with a question as follows:
Two reversible heat engines operate in series between a source at 527°C and sink at 17°C.
Assuming that each engine operates on the Carnot cycle, if the engines have equal efficiencies
and the first rejects 400 kJ to the second what is:
1. the temperature at which the heat is supplied to the second engine?
2. the heat taken from the source?
3. the work done by each engine?
I would welcome any pointers you can offer.
R. In thermodynamics the concept of reversible heat engines being cascaded (such that the heat
sink of one engine is the source of the next engine) in the way you have described is a very
important one: it is closely connected with the definition of temperature scales. If you really
want to have a good grasp of this problem you should look up a thermodynamics textbook
about how the absolute temperature scale is defined in terms of the heat transfer amounts of a
reversible heat engine.
The figure below shows two engines where the heat sink of engine 1 is the heat source of
engine 2. In fact, the two reversible heat engines taken together are fully equivalent to one
single reversible heat engine that accepts heat transfer at temperature and rejects heat
transfer at at temperature while providing a net work output of .

The thermal efficiency of a Carnot cycle engine is given by

where and are the absolute temperatures of the heat source and heat sink respectively and
where and are the amounts of heat transfer to and from the engine. The equivalence
between the heat transfer ratio and the ratio of absolute temperatures comes from
the way the absolute temperature scale is defined. It always applies for a reversible heat engine
operating between two fixed-temperature reservoirs.

Coming back to your problem, the two reversible engines have equal efficiencies, so

and hence

, but and so

, or and so

Equation 2, which only applies when the thermal efficiencies of the two heat engines are equal,
can be used to find the temperature of the common, intermediate, thermal reservoir.
Applying equation 1 to engine 1

Equation 3 can be used to find the heat input when the heat rejection and the temperatures of
the thermal reservoirs are known.
There are various ways in which you could go about calculating the net work
outputs and using the expressions already mentioned above. Once you have found the
temperature of the intermediate thermal reservoir, and as the temperatures of the other two
reservoirs are given, you can calculate ther thermal efficiency, which is the same for both heat
engines. Once you have found the heat transfer to the first heat engine and as the heat transfer
to the second heat engine is given, you can multiply each heat input amount by the thermal
efficiency to find the work output of the engine.
Alternatively you could find the work quantities as the difference between the heat input and
the heat rejection of each engine. For the second engine the heat rejection could be calculated
from the heat input using equation 1, applied to that heat engine.
The temperatures in the expressions are all absolute temperatures, so don't forget to convert the
Celsius values to Kelvin (0°C corresponds to 273.15 K).

From equation 2

From equation 3