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Problem Statement:

saturated liquid state to the saturated vapor state. Evaluate the

heat transfer per unit mass for:

(a) 0.05 MPa,

(b) 0.10 MPa,

(c) 0.5 MPa, and

(d) 20 MPa.

SOLUTION:

u2 - u1 = q12,in - w12,out

= h2 - h1 = hfg

Example 4-2

Problem Statement:

The piston is moved to a final position where the volume is twice the initial volume.

During the piston movement, there is heat transfer to the water in such a way that the

pressure in the cylinder remains constant.

(a) Sketch the process on a P-v diagram, indicating the relative position of the

saturation curve.

(b) Find the work done per kilogram of water during the expansion.

(c) Find the heat transfer per kilogram of water during the expansion.

(d) Find the value of the enthalpy of the water after expansion.

SOLUTION:

a) Checking Table 11s, we find that the initial state is in the superheat region.

Increasing the volume will move the state further into the superheat region. The P-v

diagram thus appears as below. From Table 12s, v1 = 0.1254 m3/kg, and h1 = 3022.7

kJ/kg. Also, since the mass in the system is constant,

c) The First Law for this case is

At state 2, we know P = 2000 kPa and v2 = 0.2508 m3/kg. By interpolation from the

Superheat Table 12s, h2 = 4192.6 kJ/kg, so

1 2000.0 300.0 (0.1254) (3022.7)

2 2000.0 (817.5) 0.2508 (4192.6)

Example 4-3

Problem Statement:

A cylinder-piston system contains 2 kg of H2O at 150 kPa and has a volume of 0.35

m3. The piston is moved so that the final volume of the inside the cylinder is 2.319 m3.

During the piston motion from the initial to the final state, there is heat transfer to the

cylinder in such a way as to hold the temperature constant.

(a) What is the final pressure in the cylinder?

(b) How much work was done by the steam?

(c) Evaluate the heat transfer during the process.

(d) Sketch the process on P-v and P-h diagrams, labeling the initial state as 1 and the

final state as 2.

SOLUTION:

a)

b)

c)

d)

1 (111.4) 150.0 0.175 (775.3) (0.152)

2 (111.4) 150.0 1.1595 (2519.4) 1.000

Example 4-4

Problem Statement:

Develop an equation for the heat transfer to an ideal gas during a constant-pressure

expansion in terms of the initial pressure P1, the initial and final volumes V1 and V2,

and cp (assumed temperature independent) and R for the gas.

SOLUTION:

Example 4-9

Problem Statement:

shown in the figure. The wall between the air and

the N2 is immovable. There is a heat transfer

between the chambers but there is no heat

transfer with the surroundings. Initially, the air is

at 500 kPa and 200°C, and the N2 is initially at

1500 kPa. The initial volumes are VN2 = 0.01

m3 and Vair = 0.01 m3. Determine the work

performed, final temperature and heat transfer

between chambers if the process ends when the

N2pressure is 1580 kPa.

SOLUTION:

1 500 200 0.01

Air

2

1 1500 200 0.01

N2

2 1580 V1,N2

The air and nitrogen are in thermal equilibrium, so throughout the process, T air = TN2.

Since the total heat transfer is zero, the heat transfer to the air is:

Example 4-21

Problem Statement:

Find the exit velocity in meters per second.

SOLUTION

Example 5-1

Problem Statement:

Indicate whether the process for the control mass is reversible or not when the

following processes are complete. Explain your answer.

cylinder.

(b) A frictionless piston slowly compresses an isothermal gas in a diabatic (permits

heat transfer) cylinder.

(c) A piston that fits tightly in a cylinder slowly compresses an isothermal gas in a

diabatic (allows heat transfer) cylinder.

(d) A cake of ice floating in water that is very near freezing increases in mass until all

the water is frozen. (Take the control mass as the ice plus the water.)

(e) One kilogram of putty is dropped onto a floor tile and sticks without bouncing.

(f) A bead with a hole through it slides down a slack wire hung between two hooks

that are at equal height, and it comes to rest at the lowest point on the wire. Take the

bead as the control mass.

SOLUTION:

a) Only work is done on the gas (no heat transfer), and if the work is done slowly and

without friction (no dissipation), then the process is reversible.

must occur to maintain T constant during the process. Again, as in case (a), no

dissipative effects are present, so this process is reversible.

c) This is similar to case (b) except that the piston/cylinder friction produces energy

dissipation, so this process is irreversible.

d) Heat transfer must occur from the control mass to the surroundings according to the

First Law, and this is very nearly a reversible (non-dissipative) process.

e) This is a highly dissipative process, in which directed energy (KE of the putty at the

time of impact) is converted into internal energy of the putty, increasing the putty

temperature and increasing the putty entropy. If we then wait, the putty will transfer

heat to the tile floor. This process is irreversible.

f) In this process, bead internal energy is gained by the bead-wire frictional work

being partially converted into bead internal energy during the sliding process, and

bead internal energy is decreased as the frictionally heated bead undergoes heat

transfer with the surroundings. The final result will be the same as for part (e), so this

process is irreversible.

In all of these processes, we considered only the dissipative losses of the control mass,

and not the effect on the surroundings.

Example 7-1

Problem Statement:

similar container encloses 3 kg of argon at TA < 1000 K. Both containers are isolated

from the surroundings. The containers are brought together, and there is heat transfer

until the containers are in thermal equilibrium. Plot a curve of Sgen, the entropy

generation during this process versus TA. (Here TA is in the range between 100 and

1000 K). Take constant specific heats for argon of cv,A = 0.3124 kJ/kg-K and nitrogen

of cv,N = 0.7434 kJ/kg-K.

SOLUTION:

Treating the two containers as the system, the diagram is shown above. Then the laws

can be written as:

T1A(K) sgen(kJ/kg·K)

100 0.989

200 0.517

400 0.174

600 0.055

800 0.010

1000 0

COMMENTS: As T1,A approaches T1,N, the value of Sgen approaches zero. Obviously,

if the two containers are at the same temperature when they are brought together, they

will transfer no heat between themselves, and no entropy will be generated.

Example 7-2

Problem Statement:

temperature T2.

(a) Derive an expression for the ratio of the work done if the process is isentropic, w s,

to the work done if the process is isobaric (constant pressure), wP, in terms of k only.

(b) Sketch the two processes on P-v and T-s diagrams. Label all states.

SOLUTION:

a)

b)

COMMENT: Note that the final state and the path differ for the isobaric and

isentropic processes. Only the final temperature is prescribed as the same for both.

Example 7-3

Problem Statement:

A closed copper vessel has a volume of 2 m3. In the vessel is 4 kg of water (liquid

plus vapor) at a pressure of 200 kPa. The surroundings are at a temperature of 160°C.

There is a heat transfer to the vessel until the water is all just evaporated.

(b) What is the entropy change of the water in the vessel during the heat transfer

process?

(c) What is the entropy change of the surroundings due to the heat transfer process?

(d) What is the entropy generation for the water due to the heat transfer process?

SOLUTION:

a) At state 2, v2 = v1 = 0.5 m3/kg and the water is in the form of saturated vapor. From

Table 10s,

and

c)

d)

Example 7-4

Problem Statement:

temperature of 4.0 MPa and 400°C respectively to a final pressure of 8.0 MPa.

Calculate the net heat transfer (kJ/kg) and net work (kJ/kg) for the process.

SOLUTION:

Example 7-5

Problem Statement:

an initial pressure and temperature of 400 kPa and 300°C to a final pressure of 4 MPa.

If a heat transfer of 233.8 kJ/kg is released during the process, is the process

impossible, reversible, or irreversible?

SOLUTION:

1st Law:

2nd Law

Example 7-7

Problem Statement:

A reversible process for a piston-cylinder control mass is shown on the P-v and T-s

diagrams. Evaluate the change in internal energy per unit mass for the process.

SOLUTION:

1st Law

Thus

Example 7-9

Problem Statement:

SOLUTION:

Two carnot engines work in series b/w source & sink

temp. 550K & 350K.If both engines develop equal

power.....?

Two carnot engines work in series b/w source & sink temp. 550K & 350K.If both engines

develop equal power , determine the intermediate temp.

Ans:450K

If we let T' denote the intermediate temperature, and let Q' denote the heat pertaining to 1st

engine;

η = 1 - Tc/T'

Since, the heat rejected from the 1st engine is the heat input to the other engine:

Cascaded Carnot Cycle Heat Engines

Q. I need your help with a question as follows:

Two reversible heat engines operate in series between a source at 527°C and sink at 17°C.

Assuming that each engine operates on the Carnot cycle, if the engines have equal efficiencies

and the first rejects 400 kJ to the second what is:

1. the temperature at which the heat is supplied to the second engine?

2. the heat taken from the source?

3. the work done by each engine?

I would welcome any pointers you can offer.

R. In thermodynamics the concept of reversible heat engines being cascaded (such that the heat

sink of one engine is the source of the next engine) in the way you have described is a very

important one: it is closely connected with the definition of temperature scales. If you really

want to have a good grasp of this problem you should look up a thermodynamics textbook

about how the absolute temperature scale is defined in terms of the heat transfer amounts of a

reversible heat engine.

The figure below shows two engines where the heat sink of engine 1 is the heat source of

engine 2. In fact, the two reversible heat engines taken together are fully equivalent to one

single reversible heat engine that accepts heat transfer at temperature and rejects heat

transfer at at temperature while providing a net work output of .

where and are the absolute temperatures of the heat source and heat sink respectively and

where and are the amounts of heat transfer to and from the engine. The equivalence

between the heat transfer ratio and the ratio of absolute temperatures comes from

the way the absolute temperature scale is defined. It always applies for a reversible heat engine

operating between two fixed-temperature reservoirs.

Hence

(1)

Coming back to your problem, the two reversible engines have equal efficiencies, so

and hence

, but and so

, or and so

(2)

Equation 2, which only applies when the thermal efficiencies of the two heat engines are equal,

can be used to find the temperature of the common, intermediate, thermal reservoir.

Applying equation 1 to engine 1

(3)

Equation 3 can be used to find the heat input when the heat rejection and the temperatures of

the thermal reservoirs are known.

There are various ways in which you could go about calculating the net work

outputs and using the expressions already mentioned above. Once you have found the

temperature of the intermediate thermal reservoir, and as the temperatures of the other two

reservoirs are given, you can calculate ther thermal efficiency, which is the same for both heat

engines. Once you have found the heat transfer to the first heat engine and as the heat transfer

to the second heat engine is given, you can multiply each heat input amount by the thermal

efficiency to find the work output of the engine.

Alternatively you could find the work quantities as the difference between the heat input and

the heat rejection of each engine. For the second engine the heat rejection could be calculated

from the heat input using equation 1, applied to that heat engine.

The temperatures in the expressions are all absolute temperatures, so don't forget to convert the

Celsius values to Kelvin (0°C corresponds to 273.15 K).

From equation 2

From equation 3

https://www.slideshare.net/shashiranjankumarpandey9/thermodynamics-by-s-k-mondal-copy

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