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Chapter 1.0

1.1 About Organisation

Karnataka State Habitat Centre (KSHC) was established by Rajiv Gandhi Rural Housing
Corporation Ltd., Bangalore and registered under Karnataka Societies Registration Act 1960.
It was conceived to provide a physical environment, which would serve as a catalyst for a
synergetic relationship between individuals and institutions working in diverse habitat related
areas and would therefore maximize their total effectiveness. To facilitate this interaction, the
Centre provides a superb range of facilities.

It is perhaps most successful as a work of urban design, a place that handles transportation and
an enormous variety of public and private activities, from housing to banking to entertainment
to food. A city within a city, it is an intellectual shopping centre that provides cheap green
curry, great theatre, cutting edge art, …., and wonderful outdoor spaces that are comfortable
even in summer. The KHC has made an extraordinary contribution to the city of Bangalore.

1.2 Mission

To bring a holistic approach to problem solving in areas of environmental and regional

planning, energy efficiency, appropriate technology options, transport and communication,
lifestyle choices, socio-cultural linkages and information technology.

The aim and objectives are :

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◼ To develop an integrated physical environment in which various professions and

institutions dealing with different facets of habitat and habitat related environmental
issues would function, interact and attempt to resolve habitat related problems in a
coordinated manner.

◼ To promote awareness in regard to habitat related environmental issues including

water, air, noise and waste pollution, energy and its conservation, water and human
waste management and other such matters.

◼ To promote better urban and rural settlements relevant of the Indian social, cultural
and economic context and related to the lifestyle of its people.

◼ To inculcate better awareness and sensitivity in regard to all aspects of creative

human activity including the significance of art in habitat.

◼ To document all relevant information pertaining to habitat, human settlements and

environmental issues.

◼ To advise and if needed, assist the Government in the formation and implementation
of policies relating to habitat, and human settlements.

◼ To promote education, research, training and professional development on habitat and

human settlement and environment related issues.

◼ To organise and promote conferences, seminars, lectures, public debates and

exhibitions in matters relating to habitat, human settlements and environment.

◼ To offer awards, prizes scholarships and stipends in furtherance of the objectives of

the Centre.

◼ To cooperate and collaborate with other national and international institutions in

furtherance of the objectives of the Centre.

◼ To acquire, hold, improve and develop lands and construct buildings and related
facilities on behalf of members of the Centre.

◼ To organise and maintain residential hostels , restaurants and other amenities for its
members, their guests and non-members invited by the Centre.

◼ To maintain and keep in good repair all buildings and common services.

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The Group has been socially responsible and has vastly contributed to society by redeveloping
the Kanakpura road side and the Sarjapur Road apartment construction. The redevelopment
and restablishment of the flood affected victims in Coorg, Karnataka. The latest initiative taken
by the organisation is the construction of low cost houses under the government supervision
for the replacement with a house to the homeless poor people. It has worked in the huge acres
of land for 1600+ flats to be constructed in the Kanakpura site. This responsible and social
welfare of the company has the path to a developed society all over the country.

1.3 Organisational Structure

Fig 1.1 Structural Flow Chart of Comapny

1.4 Products and Services Offered

◆ Construction : KSHC covers varied disciplines of construction, civil, mechanical,
electrical and instrumentation. It provides consultancy, design and total engineering
solutions to its customers. It carries out basic and detailed design for both residential
and commercial projects also.

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◆ Heavy equipment : They manufacture and supply custom designed and engineered
critical equipment and systems to the needs of core-sector industries and the defense
◆ Financial services : KSHC has a spectrum of financial products and services for
corporate, construction equipments etc.
◆ Engineering services : It also provides services in the embedded intelligence and
Engineering space. There are 10+ companies that have collaboratged with the KSHC
providing service nearly to 1000+ clients.

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Chapter 2.0

2.1 About Technology

MIVAN is basically an aluminium formwork system developed by one of the construction

company from Europe. In 1990, the MIVAN Company Ltd from Malaysia started the
manufacturing of such formwork systems. Now a day’s morethan 300,000 sq m of formwork
used in the world are under their operation. In Mumbai, India there are number of buildings
constructed with the help of the above system which has been proved to be very economical
and satisfactory for Indian Construction Environment. The technology has been used
extensively in other countries such as Europe, Gulf Countries, Asia and all other parts of the
world. MIVAN technology is suitable for constructing large number of houses within short
time using room size forms to construct walls and slabs in one continuous pour of concrete.
Early removal of forms can be achieved by hot air curing / curing compounds. This facilitates
fast construction, say two flats per day. All the activities are planned in assembly line manner
and hence results into more accurate, well – controlled and high quality production at optimum
cost and in shortest possible time. MIVAN is a new technology which has empowered and
motivated the mass construction projects throughout the world. In this project, we have
discussed about the pioneering This construction technique involves 3 unique steps:

1. Setting Up The Wall Reinforcing Steel – This is used to provide structure to the
building and support the concrete till they gain 50 percent of the essential strength. The
aluminium formwork is cast around the factory-made steel mesh which is directly
erected on the construction site.

2. Placement Of Aluminium Formwork – Along the wall reinforcing steel, prefabricated

floor slabs, and room-sized walls are erected. The aluminium alloy slabs are very easy
to handle and are also very precisely made. These are also pre-integrated with spaces for,
windows, doors and ducts, other features like chajjas, staircases and façade panels are
also integrated. The pin and wedge system is used to join these forms, these can be
quickly dismantled once the concrete structure is ready.

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3. Pouring Of Concrete – After the forms are cast, high-quality concrete is poured in
which takes the shape and form of the cast. The cast is later removed to make way for a
hard-concrete structure supported by wall reinforcing steel. These aluminium forms can
be reused for nearly 250 times, which means minimum wastage from the construction

MIVAN is perhaps one of the most useful modern construction technologies introduced in the
Indian markets. This technology is designed to permit rapid construction of several unit
projects and surge efficiency.

Fig 2.1 Diagrammatic Representation of MIVAN Technology

The above diagrammatic representation clearly depicts the steps to be followed and applied in2
the MIVAN Technology during the construction of residential and commercial building in any
site conditions. This chart also represents the duration and sequential performance of the the
activities that are to be done. With the help of this we can easily understand the technical as
well as practical applications of this technology.

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2.2 Merits And Demerits Of Mivan Technology

Shortage of construction manpower and mounting costs has forced the developers to try new
technologies. Considering Mivan, this technology is very well suited for high-rise buildings
with typical floors saving time as well as money as compared to the conventional column beam
construction methods. However, along with the advantages, this technology does scores on a
few negatives too.

2.2.1 Merits of the Mivan Technology

• Speed – Reduces the total turn around time by almost half when compared to
conventional construction techniques.
• Demands Less Labour – With a set procedure and checklists to follow, this
technology minimizes the need for skilled labour and also eliminates activities
like masonry and rendering activities which are labour intensive.
• Seismic Resistant & Durable – The buildings are more seismic resistant and
more durable.
• Less Maintenance – Primarily with no construction joints and with free flow
concrete used, this technology reduces the chances of seepage which further
results in negligible maintenance.
• Smooth Finish – Mivan construction ensures uniformity, hence all walls and
slabs have a smooth finish which means additional plastering is not needed.
• Higher Carpet Area – it gives the scope to take out more carpet area in
comparison to traditional construction techniques.
• Earthquake Resistant – More earthquake resistant structure and safer in case of
a strong earthquake. This is because structures built using Mivan is a
monolithic concrete structure which acts as a whole single strong unit.

2.2.2 Demerit of Mivan Technology

• Expensive – Aluminium formworks are much expensive than the conventional

• Visible Finishing Lines – Because of small-sized components, the finished
structure could have several finishing lines visible on the concrete surfaces.

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• Less Scope Of Alterations – Alterations or modifications are not possible as all

the members are cast in RCC.
• Demands Uniform Planning – This technology is comparatively expensive, to be
cost-effective uniform planning as well as elevations are needed.
• Can Have Contraction Cracks – Shrinkage could result in cracks on walls and
slabs. This can be prevented either by reducing the heat hydration by using fly
ash or by using control strips on the structure.

2.3 The New Age Construction Technology - Mivan

Increasing number of builders have been already using this technology and many are following
their footsteps. Change is foreseeable in the real estate industry. The new generation developers
are giving the required thrust to these new construction technologies which in turn is providing
the much-needed global shape to the construction industry. Today, more and more emphasis
given to quality consciousness and timely delivery of projects giving motivation to the switch
from conventional to innovative methods like Mivan. But again, such construction methods
mean huge investments and are not feasible for small construction projects.

Some of the popular Indian developers using MIVAN technology are Shapoorjii Group,
Oberoi, Lodha group, Golden Gate Bangalore, Marathon Group etc. The technology is
generally used due to the advantages of the technology regarding the construction cost and
estimation of the building in shear wall technology so as to get the greater strength and
reliability at the low cost. It is also the low cost technology so can be used in the field of
economical development of the society.

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Chapter 3.0
Constructional Procedures

3.1 Introduction
A tender is allotted for the various companies and they put the bid on the site construction with
certain procedure. With the tender being given to any of the company the constructional
procedure starts.Then construction begins starting from site clearance, mobilization of
materials, construction equipment and labours. The consulting work includes so many tasks
such as inspecting of the site, quality control and safety of workers. In the site works executed
based on the agreement between the client and the contractor. This document is called contract
document so the consultant checks every trade of work is executed based on the contract
document and the working methodology. Drawings and design also from the consultant side.

3.2 Flow in the Section

The working flow of the organisation is that consultant and the contractor has many advantages
in order to work every task closely and to solve problems arise between them. In every work
there is a work flow whatever small is the section, in my working site the work flow was look
like the chart below. As shown in the chart every work was executed based on this flow.


Design and Resident Engineer
Supervision Team Manager


Fig 3.1 Work Flow of Organization

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1. Design and supervision team

The team includes structural engineer, architectural engineers, sanitary engineers, electrical
engineers and other experienced engineers in other professions. The design and supervision
team is a team from the consultant side which guide every work executed in that site and gives
supervision for the contractor based on the drawing and the specification (bill of quantity).

This team mostly comes to the site when there is amiss understanding on drawings, working
techniques, drawing detailing error, and for meeting between the three parties. The team
provides continuous service to the project from start to finish, establishing and maintaining the
quality and integrity of each design.

2. Resident engineer

Position is responsible for multiple construction projects or a single project of a large scale
requiring multiple disciplines. This includes reviewing design; supervising construction
progress and scheduling; starting up process systems/equipment or facilities for turning over
to the owner's personnel. Supervise field staff and contractors on the site with responsibility
for quality construction in accordance with plans and specifications. He/she also responsible
for approval of change orders, invoices, and payment applications which may include final
payment. So, the resident engineer mostly control every work as much as possible in terms of
their quality, cost and time. Testing of materials delivered at site and safety of workers starting
from managers to daily labours also the duty of the resident engineer.

3. Project manager

The project manager has so many responsibilities at the site and in our site these positions is
accountable for the contractor or the owner and are appointed by the owner of the construction
company. The main duty of the manager is Manages the whole site work execution, Makes
payment to sub contract workers, Approves material request, Analyses the work processes,
Executes sub-contracting agreements, Reviews and checks the reports made by the office

4. Site engineer

Site engineer is accountable for the following tasks and responsibilities:

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Studying the work plan submitted by the contactor and suggests any modifications.
To watch and inspect the construction work and assure that it is done in full accordance with
the drawings, technical specifications and bills of quantities.
Supervising the works on site in accordance with the contract documents and using the
template and procedure established by the consultant.
Inspecting and testing materials prior to their use at site as per sample approved by the
consultant and ensuring removal of rejected material out from site.
Ensuring the correct implementation of the works according to technical specifications,
to designs and quality of materials
Checking of layout and setting out of buildings with respect to existing structures and
site levels.
Checking and testing of completed works before they are covered by the contractor,
taking photos on a regular basis and also on account of defective work.
Ensuring that health and safety measures are adopted and followed to the full extent.
Prepare weekly report and suggest and instruct additional safety measures if needed

3.2 Scope of Work

Scope of work includes the following attributes:

Obtaining permits

Labor and furnishing



Other services to finish the house

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3.3 Tasks Performed

3.3.1 Excavation and bed concrete

Fig3.2 Excavation and PCC bed

First the site clearance is done and center line is marked on the site to the given plan. And with
help of back hoe the soil is exacavated. After the exacavation according to the plan and the bed
concrete is layed over the soil by use of M20 grade(2:4:6) of dimensions of 0.65m depth and
0.75m wide.

Naturally this activity follows the bulk excavation. Accordingly, before going into the direct
excavation work, the site was organized in a manner that necessary profiles are put in position.
Appropriate site lay out was made and all the positions of the pit excavation in their exact and
right place was located. The settings out of these essential structural bases seek the approval of
the Resident Engineer. The pit excavation works was started from the center and proceed in
either direction, along the length of the specific site. It avoids the unnecessary obstacles which
will prohibit access to the pit under excavation and give additional access by either of the sides.

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3.3.2 Laying and casting Plinth beam

Fig 3.3 Plinth Beam Reinforcement

A Reinforced concrete beam which is constructed between the foundation and the wall is
known as Plinth Beam. It is the level where the substructure ends and superstructure begins. It
distributes loads of wall over the foundation. It prevents cracks from foundation to the wall. It
also prevents the moisture from foundation to the walls. The minimum depth of the plinth is

Fig 3.4 Casting of Plinth Beam

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3.3.3 Reinforcement of single mat wall

Fig 3.5 Reinforcement Wall of Single Unit

By design of reinforcement horizontal and vertical steels and placing on the plinth beam of
required dimension and cross bars are provided in the opening due to deflection.

3.3.4 Complete framework of the single unit shell

Fig 3.5 Formwork of Single Unit

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3.3.5 Slab Reinforcement and Concreting

Fig 3.6 Slab and Wall Concreting after Reinforcement

After the shutter work and slab reinforcement are placed according to the design as well as the
electrical works is done. And concreteing is done.

3.3.6 Curing

The final method of the construction process is the curing of the unit for at least 3 days for
the proper binding of the concrete and gain the desirable strength. The curing is not done for
long if the multistoreyed building is to be constructed since the slab is cured during the other
floors construction. all of this procedure doesnot take a long time so it is very time saving

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3.4 Samples of G & G+2 Buildings

Fig 3.7 Kanakpura Site With Single unit

Fig 3.9 Sarjapur Site G+2 Buildings

This is almost to the finshing stage and flats are more 500+ and in one building there is a 12
flats this is given to the poor and middle class people.

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Fig 3.8 Bidadi Site G+2 Buildings

This is done by the different design reinforcement compared to the single unit shell this is given
to the ex-militarty officer and flats are above 500+ in one building there is 12 flats.

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3.5 Mix Design Specifications

Fig 3.10 Mix Design Report M20 concrete

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Fig 3.11 Mix Design Report of M25 SDC

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Fig 3.12 Mix Design Report of M20 SDC

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3.6 Estimation And Costing

Fig 3.12 Single Unit Estimate

Fig 3.13 Estimation of each Component

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Fig 3.14 Full Estimation

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3.7 Floor Plan Details

Fig 3.15 Ground Floor Plan

Fig 3.16 First Floor Plan

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Chapter 4.0
To provide an environment for the students in communication with different workers or
employees and clients, to improve skills of working in a site, upgrading the theoretical
knowledge, improve their leadership skill, team playing skill and etc.

4.1 Improving practical skill

The aim of the internship is to address more practical knowledge for student. So,acquirement
of practical knowledge at the site is helpful to get those practical or real work in the site and
totally different from the actual knowledge gained from the class. Thus some knowledge in
the site which helped to work with the site environment or site peoples.
Some of the practical knowledge gained from the internship were:
Construction of formwork and false work for some reinforced concrete structure were
understood and use of such formwork was noticed.
Bar bending, positioning, splicing and tying, according the specified drawing was also
carried out at site which helped in understanding the application of such tasks.
Casting and pouring of reinforced concrete structure and equipment used for casting were
also observed.
. The practical knowledge in terms of those listed aspects of concrete.
Different construction equipment (machines) and their use in construction site gave a clear
picture to know how equipment‘s are used in the site including their specific purpose..

4.2 Upgrading the theoretical knowledge

It also helped to upgrade or increase knowledge that are already known.Trying to integrate
the practical knowledge with that of the theory learned in the class in different place in order
to get more knowledge than the theory learned on the class. The internship class also played
an interesting role in terms of upgrading a theoretical knowledge and learning from the site.
Some of this were known better:
Quantity surveying
Structural design of shear wall and its advantage
Construction equipment
Report writing

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4.3 Upgrading communication skill

In the site communication with other workers like engineers, skilled and non-skilled
workers, Forman etc. helped in upgrading interpersonal skills among the clients,employees
etc. Understood the basic way of dealing with workers, clients etc. and also understood the
way to do it.

4.4 Improving team playing skill

Team works, team playing skill for ffective completion of tasks and increasing productivity
was really enhanced. This also gave the really good environment to improve and consult the
personnels related to skill development and team work.

4.5 Improving leadership skill

Internship also gave a opportunity to understand the personal values like confidence,
effective communication and devotion. Various tasks performed like guiding the labours,
giving the total estimate of the single unit home, managing the manpower at site etc really
improved the leadership skill. Monitoring the specifics tasks and materials quantity gave the
confidence to deal with practical scenario.

4.6 Work ethics and related issues

It also played an important role in enhancing and upgrading the work ethics like the
committment towards the job, the responsibilities to be handled, appreciation of the work
flow, honesty, accountabilityetc.During internship program, managed to do handling of the
job description with a high spirit and enthusiasm. Punctuality was also heavily improved as
the tasks to be performed were on time and the responibility was to be there.

4.7 Entrepreneurship skill

Entrepreneurship skill was highly improved due to the observance to senior engineers,
supervisors, directors etc dealing with each and every aspect of the site and management. It
also gave a boost regarding the entrepreneurship skill motivation to persue the the job and a
career in a better and smoother way. It was also very helpful in knowing th values of time,
money, responsibility etc. So, it was a really a wonderful time being in this internship in
every way.

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4.8 Conclusions

The internship is a bridge between the theoretical knowledge and the practical or the reality
work at the field of construction or civil engineering work. All who take the internship class
go to companies that already working either as a consultant or a contractor. The responsibilities
of the hosting company are to teach student and shape them in the four week as a real site
workers. The hosting company is a consultant team and they help students who took the
internship session in this company in acquiring different knowledge in different positions. They
collaborate with the contractors to teach that section and they believe that the civil engineering
work is more important for us than the consulting office.This program played an important role
to break the conventional thought that field works can be only implemented by students who
hold a degree or people who have an experience in building construction. Ability to acquire a
high level of confidence to deal with problems that arise in a building construction.
Internship session in KARANATAKA STATE HABITAT CENTER gave an
opportunity to work in the different party of the construction work which helps me to gain more
knowledge by seeing what they work in their own office and what is their main responsibilities
to the client and also each other. Working with a consultant team gets me more knowledge than
that of the contractor in case that the consultation work includes the duty of the site engineers
and in the consultant office there are different office that are more important for me to upgrade
my knowledge in different aspects of work. The consultant team by its nature includes designer
team including structural engineers, architects, sanitary, electrical and mechanical engineers,
the contract administration and supervision team includes site coordinators, supervisors and
quantity workers and the financial office. This helps to get more knowledge than the

From the design team especially from the structural designers got some clues about how to
design and the phases and different procedure in the designing of any structure starting from
the roof to the footing. The architects also helped to know every symbols used in any drawing
and room orientations, how each room of the specified space can be together without being
disturbed by one another. in the sanitary and electrical engineers also help by teaching about
the riser diagram and installation of each junction in place for a building. They helped to
understand what is going to be done while working in the consultant office. The contractors
also avail practical knowledge to improve the practical knowledge.

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• Frederick S., Merritt Jonathan & T. Ricketts - Building

Design and Construction Hand Book McGraw Hill, Six Edition,
• Kulkarni, D. V. (2001), First Rate Forms, “Times Journal
Construction and Design”, 2001
• Madan Mehta, Walter Scarborough and Diane Armpriest “Building Construction
Principle, Materials and System, Second Edition, 2013
• W.F. Chen, J.Y Richard, Lie W ―The Civil Engineering Hand Book, Second Edition,
• Census of India, 2001
• Code Books IS 800, SP 16:2000

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