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# IS 456:2000

4.1.1straps footing ; it is one of type of along they y direction, then it is not a curved
combined footing .it consists of an isolated beam, as this loading will cause a bending as
footing to two columns connected by a beam
called strap beam assumption 1.the are well as twisting of the section.thus, a curved
provided by the two footing and the straps beam does not have a curvature in the plan .
beam are such that the pressure distribution on
the footing and straps becomes uniform 2.the 4.1.9Signification in retaining wall
straps does not remain in contact with the soil The lateral force ph due to earth pressure tends
and thus does not transfer any load to the soil to overturn the retaining wall about the toe of
the retaining wall movement Mo=(ph.h\3)
4.1. wt circumstance ,trapezoidal footing Mo=(1\2kah.r.h squaee .h\3) Mo = (kah.r.h
preferred in rcc const squaee .h\6).
Trapezoid footing is a types of combined 4.1.10Design of water tank
footing which is provided to the two columns True the design of water tank can be carried
tpz ft is provided when projections parallel to out by one of the following three method
the length of the ft is restricted on both sides 1) Mr.H carpenters method
2) Approximate method
4.1.3Uniaxial and biaxial bending bending 3) Is method
comes in one direction that may be along 4.1.11Types Reinforcement provided to
strong axis or weak we called uniaxial .while counter hoop stress in domes
when bending comes in both strong as well as Provisional of ring beam =If the dome is not
along weak axis we cld biaxial hemy spherical the meridional thrust at the
4.1.4 Reason torsion beam supporting circle of latitude will not be vertical .
On several situation beams and slab are The inclind meridional thrust at the support
subjected to torsion in addition to bending will have horizontal component which will
moment and shear force load acting normal to cause the supporting walls to burst outwards
the plane of bending will cause bending causing its failure. In order to bear this
moment and force horizontal component of meridional thrust a
4.1.5 intermediate and end moment in ring beam is provided at the base of the dome .
continuous beam The reinforcement provided in the ring beam
The reaction at the intermediate support cause text this hoop tension and transfer only vertical
moment at a section of the continuous beam this reaction to the supporting walls.
moment is liner btw the supports and is in
addition to the moment due to eccentricity of 4.1.12What propose a temporary open joints is
the prestressing force. provided in water tank
4.1.6Function of equivalent shear A gap temporarily left between the concreate of
The equivalent shear, a function of the actual adjoining parts of structure which after a
shear and torsional moment determined from suitable interval and before the structure is put
the following empirical relation into use if field with mortar or concrete either
;Ve=Vu+1.6(Tu\b)(6.22) where ve=Equivalent completion that we will be provided a
shear, Vu=actual shear, Tu=actual torsional temporary open joint water tank.
4.1.7 Circular beam the center of gravity does 4.1.13Slenderness ration effect the design of
not coincide with the longitudinal axis of the column
beam A slenderness ratio of the length of a column
Beam whose axis is not straight and is curved in and the list radius of gyration of it cross section
the elevation is said to be curved beam .If the it is use extensively for finding out the design
applied loads are long they y direction and the load as well as in classifying various column in
span of the beam is along the x direction, the short \intermediat\long.the slenderness ratio of
axis of the beam should have a curvature in a column gives and indication buckling failure
they xy plane .On the hand, if the member is in the column .The slenderness ratio is taken in

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defferent direction but the direction in which have a tendency to fall downward which will be
the moment of inertia is minimum gives prevented from doing so why its wedge safe .
IS 456:2000
maximum slenderness ratio as gyrartion will be 4.1.17Surchage on Retaining wall
minimum in such case. A retaining 2all which retain earth level of to
4.1.14Counter forts provided retaining wall. the top of the retaining wall is a wall without
The cantilever retaining wall is economical of to surcharge if earth on the earth retained side is
about 6m height of retaining as the height not level or the earth carries load the earth is
said to have surcharge( a) positive surcharge
increase the moment in the stream .heel and toe sloping earth (b) negative surcharge of the
increase rapidly and thus, the wall becomes sloping earth (c)positive surcharge per unit run.
uneconomical .The deflection of wall also 4.1.18Differented between Isolated Footing and
increase rapidly. The counter forts are nothing Combined Footing
but vertical wall connecting the stem and the .It is usually used two column of unequal load
heel and act as beams supporting the stem and .there are two interior column which are closed
the heel. counter forts are usually provided at to each other them footing are overlap
3m to 4m spacing . .combined footing may either rectangular and
4.1.15 shear key is provided in a reinforcement trapezoidal.
retaining wall Isolated footing -.independent footing are also
A shear key is provided in retaining wall to known as isolated footing . The bearing capacity
provide stability against sliding of a retaining of the soil is minimum that individual column
wall the lateral earth pressure tries to slide the footing work to be economical size .isolated
R.W way from back fill then there is need to footing may either rectangular square circle
calculate the F.O.S against sliding as per IS and slop footing and the also uniform depth.
456:2000 a minimum FOS of 1.4 is to be insured 4.desine the rectangular water tank on the
against sliding and only 0.9 times ground having size 10*4*5m use m30 concrete
restoring force . If FOS a shear very gainst Sol :L=10m,b=4m,H=5m check l/b=10/4=2.5 so
sliding comes out less than 1.4 then a shear l/b =10/4=2.5, H=portion design as cantilever H-
very may be provided this shear key increased h portion design as .therefore design constant
the resistance against sliding as the passive Q=1/2 *qabc ,k=Macbc/Qcbc+Ast,m=280/3
earth pressure developed an the shear key 4.1.20 what is water cement ratio
provides additional resistance against sliding . The water–cement ratio is the ratio of the
weight of water to the weight of cement used in
4.1.16Failure of footing aconcrete mix. A lower ratio leads to higher
1.Unequal settlement of the sub-soil .2 .lateral strength and durability, but may make the mix
moment of the soil close the structure .3 difficult to work with and form. Workability
Lateral pressure causing overturning of the can be resolved with the use of plasticizers or
structure max pressure bellow the foundation super-plasticizers.
exceeding the safe bearing capacity of the soil .4
resultant force on the base acting outside the 4.1.21 what is meant by m20 grade concrete
middle third of the base . In this designation the letter M refers to the mix
and the number to the specified 28 day cube
4.1.17Meridional thrust and Hoop stress strength of mix in N/mm2. The mixes of grades
Meridional-A dome consist of a number of M10, M15, M20 and M25 correspond
horizontal ring of uniform depth and approximately to the mix proportions (1:3:6),
decreasing diameters, placed on above other . (1:2:4), (1:1.5:3) and (1:1:2) respectively.
Every horizontal ring supports the load of all
the ring above it and transfer same to the slice 4.1.22 what is the codal recommendation of
emmediately bellow it. torsion steel in two way slab.
Hoop stress-A dome is divided in to vertical After all when we read about torsion we see
slice through the top and by horizontal ring pictures something like this, We see a ... When a
along circumference any part so cut out will

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