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A MINI PROJECT REPORT

ON

“INVESTIGATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DISIMILAR


WELDS BY USING DISIMILAR MATERIAL OF MILD STEEL
AND STAINLESS STEEL”
Submitted in partial fulfilment for the award of degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

In

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Submitted by

PERVEZ ALAM KHAN (15A91A03F6)

B .SAIRAM (15A91A03A9)

A LAKSHMAN (15A91A03A5)

CH .GOPI (15A91A03B0)

M .AJAY (15A91A03D7)

Under the guidance of

RAJESH KUMAR sir

ADITYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SURAMPALEM

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ADITYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the mini project report entitled

“INVESTIGATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DISIMILAR


WELDS BY USING DISIMILAR MATERIAL OF MILD STEEL
AND STAINLESS STEEL
SUBMITTED BY

PERVEZ ALAM KHAN (15A91A03F6)

B .SAIRAM (15A91A03A9)

A LAXMAN (15A91A03A5)

CH .GOPI (15A91A03B0)

M .AJAY (15A91A03D7)

In partial fulfilment for the award of the BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN


MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. It is record of authentic work carried out him under
the supervision and esteemed guidance of RAJESH KUMAR SIR.

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT PROJECT GUIDE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The satisfaction that accompanies the successful completion of any task would
be incomplete without introducing the people who made it possible and whose
constant guidance and encouragement crown all efforts with success.

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We express my sincere gratitude to my guide Sir, RAJESH KUMAR M.Tech.
Department of mechanical engineering, Aditya engineering college.we are
highly indebted to him for his guidance, timely suggestions at every stage and
encouragement to complete this project work successfully.

We express our sincere gratitude to our Head of the Department Mr. A.


SARAVANAN, Department of mechanical engineering for providing all
necessary support for successful completion of our project.

We are thankful to all mighty for providing us with this opportunity.

SINCERELY

PERVEZ ALAM KHAN (15A91A03F6)

B .SAIRAM (15A91A03A9)

A LAXMAN (15A91A03A5)

CH .GOPI (15A91A03B0)

M .AJAY (15A91A03D7)

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Abstract

Joining of dissimilar metals has found its use extensively in power generation, electronic,
nuclear reactors, petrochemical and chemical industries mainly to get tailor-made properties
in a component and reduction in weight. However efficient welding of dissimilar metals has
posed a major challenge due to difference in thermo-mechanical and chemical properties of
the materials to be joined under a common welding condition.This causes a steep gradient of
the thermo-mechanical properties along the weld. A variety of problems come up in
dissimilar welding like cracking, large weld residual stresses, migration of atoms during
welding causing stress concentration on one side of the weld, compressive and tensile
thermal stresses, stress corrosion cracking, etc.

TIG welding is best suitable process used to control these problems occur during welding on
base metals joints.Joining of stainless steel type 304 L to mild steel was carried out using a
gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Samples were welded using stainless steel welding
electrode: (AWS: E304R) and mild steel welding electrode: (AWS: E6013). The mechanical
properties of welded joint were investigated by tension test. It was observed that, the yield
strength and tensile strength of welded samples using mild steel welding electrode were
slightly lower than welded samples using stainless steel welding electrode. All welded
samples fractured at mild steel base metal indicated that the regions of stainless steel base
metal, fusion zone and heat affected zone are stronger than mild steel base metal.

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LIST OF FIGURES

Fig no Name of figure Page no


1 Types of Welded Joints 10

2 Zones in a welding joint 12

3 Schematic Diagram of TIG Welding System. 16

4 Principle of TIG Welding. 16

5 Application of TIG welding 19

6 Comparision of figures welded by different 33


electrodes

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TABLES

Table no Name of Table Page no


1 Type 304 and 304L Stainless Steel Composition 27
2 Mechanical properties of stainless steel 304 L 27
3 Physical properties of Stainless Steel 304 L 27
4 Chemical composititon of the Mild Steel 28
5 Mechanical properties of mild steel 29
6 Physical properties of mild steel 29
7 Chemical composititon of the stainless steel filler 30
materials

8 Recommended Welding Parameter for SS filler metal for 30


GTAW Tig Process
9 Chemical composititon of 6013 electrode 31

10 Experimental Welding Parameter for SS filler metal for 31


GTAW Tig Process
11 Experimental Welding Parameter for SS filler metal for 32
GTAW Tig Process

12 Experimental Welding Parameter for MS filler metal for 32


GTAW Tig Process

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Table of Contents

Certificate 2

Acknowledgements 3

Abstract 4

List of figures 5

List of tables 6

1. Introduction 9

1.1. History 9

1.2. Weld Processes 10

1.2.1. Fusion Welding 10

1.2.2. Forge Welding 10

1.3. Welded Joints 10


1.4. Metallurgy of a Welded Joint 11
1.5. Basic Mechanism of TIG welding 15
1.6. Process Parameter Of TIG welding 19
1.7 Disimilar Welding 20
2. Literature review 21
2.1 Objective And Problem Statement 23
3 Experimental Logic Method 24
3.1 Methodology 24
4. Result 33
5. Conclusion 35
6 .Refrences 36

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Chapter 1
Introduction

Welding is a manufacturing process of creating a permanent joint obtained by the fusion


of the surface of the parts to be joined together, with or without the application of pressure
and a filler material. The materials to be joined may be similar or dissimilar to each other.
The heat required for the fusion of the material may be obtained by burning of gas or by an
electric arc. The latter method is more extensively used because of greater welding speed.

Welding is extensively used in fabrication as an alternative method for casting or


forging and as a replacement for bolted and riveted joints. It is also used as a repair medium
e.g. to reunite a metal at a crack or to build up a small part that has broken off such as a gear
tooth or to repair a worn surface such as a bearing surface.

1.1. History

Welding, a metal joining process can be traced back in history to the ancient times. In
the Bronze Age, nearly 2000 years ago, circular boxes made of gold were welded in lap joint
arrangement by applying pressure. Later on in the Iron Age, Egyptians started welding pieces
of iron together. But welding as we know nowadays came into existence only in the 19 th
century.

Sir Humphrey Davy produced an electric arc using two carbon electrodes powered by
a battery. This principle was subsequently applied to weld metals. Resistance welding finally
developed in the year 1885by Elihu Thomson. Acetylene gas was discovered in 1836 by
Edmund Davy, but it could not be used in welding application due to lack of a proper welding
torch. When the require welding torch was invented in 1900, oxy-acetylene welding became
one of the most popular type of welding mainly due to its relatively lower cost. However in
the 20th century it lost its place to arc welding in most of the industrial applications.

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1.2 Welding Processes

1.2.1. Fusion Welding

In case of fusion welding the parts to be joined are held in position while the
molten metal is supplied to the joint. The molten metal may come from the parts themselves
i.e. parent metal or filler metal which normally has the same or nearly similar composition as
that of the parent metal. Thus, when the molten metal solidifies or fuses, the joint is formed.
The fusion welding, according to the method of heat generated, may be classified as:

Thermite Welding

Gas Welding

Electric Arc Welding

1.2.2. Forge Welding

In forge welding, the parts to be joined are first heated to a proper temperature in a
furnace and then hammered. Electric Resistance Welding is an example of forge welding. The
principle of applying heat and pressure, either sequentially or simultaneously is widely used
in the processes known as Spot, Seam, Projection, Upset and Flash Welding.

1.3. Welded Joints

The welding joint geometry can be classified primarily into five types. This is
based on the orientation between the material surfaces to be joined. The various joints are
shown in the figure 1 below:

(ii) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

Fig 1: Types of Welded Joints

(i) Lap Joint

(ii) Butt Joint

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(iii) Corner Joint
(iv) Edge Joint
(v) T-Joint
The main considerations involved in the selection of a particular welded joint are
given below:

1. The shape of the welded component required,

2. The thickness of the plates to be welded, and

3. The direction of the forces to which the finished object will be subjected to in the
actual working conditions.

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1.4. Metallurgy of a Welded Joint

Metal is heated over the range of temperature up to fusion and followed by cooling
ambient temperature. Due to differential heating, the material away from the weld bead will
be hot but as the weld bead is approached progressively higher temperatures are obtained,
resulting in a complex micro structure. The subsequent heating and cooling results in setting
up internal stresses and plastic strain in the weld.

Depending upon the slope of temperature gradient three distinct zones as shown in
Fig. 2 can be identified in welded joint which are:

1. Base metal

2. Heat Affected Zone (HAZ)

3. Weld metal

Fig 2: Zones in a welding joint

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A joint produced without a filler metal is called autogenous and its weld zone is
composed of re-solidified base metal. A joint made with a filler metal is called weld metal.
Since central portion of the weld bead will be cooled slowly, long columnar grains will
developed and in the out ward direction grains will become finer and finer with distance.

So the ductility and toughness decreases away from the weld bead. However strength
increases with the distance from the weld bead. The original structure in steels consisting of
ferrite and pearlite is changed to alpha iron. The weld metal in the molten state has a good
tendency to dissolve gases which come into contact with it like oxygen, nitrogen and
hydrogen.

So during solidification, a portion of these gases get trapped into the bead called
porosity. Porosity is responsible for decrease in the strength of the weld joint. Cooling rates
can be controlled by preheating of the base metal welding interface before welding.

The heat affected zone is within the base metal itself. It has a microstructure different
from that of the base metal after welding, because it is subjected to elevated temperature for a
substantial period of time during welding. In the heat affected zone, the heat applied during
welding recrystallizes the elongated grains of the base metal, grains that are away from the
weld metal will recrystallizes into fine equiaxed grains.

1.4 Different type of welding processes

Based on the heat source used welding processes can be categorized as follows:

1.4.1 Arc Welding: In arc welding process an electric power supply is used to produce an arc
between electrode and the work-piece material to joint, so that work-piece metals melt at the
interface and welding could be done. Power supply for arc welding process could be AC or
DC type. The electrode used for arc welding could be consumable or non-consumable. For
non-consumable electrode an external filler material could be used.

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1.4.2 Gas Welding: In gas welding process a focused high temperature flame produced by
combustion of gas or gas mixture is used to melt the work pieces to be joined. An external
filler material is used for proper welding. Most common type gas welding process is Oxy-
acetylene gas welding where acetylene and oxygen react and producing some heat.

1.4.3 Resistance Welding: In resistance welding heat is generated due to passing of high
amount current (1000–100,000 A) through the resistance caused by the contact between two
metal surfaces. Most common types resistance welding is Spot-welding, where a pointed
electrode is used. Continuous type spot resistance welding can be used for seam-welding
where a wheel-shaped electrode is used.

1.4.4 High Energy Beam Welding: In this type of welding a focused energy beam with high
intensity such as Laser beam or electron beam is used to melt the work pieces and join them

together. These types of welding mainly used for precision welding or welding of advanced
material or sometimes welding of dissimilar materials, which is not possible by conventional
welding process.

1.4.5 Solid-State Welding: Solid-state welding processes do not involve melting of the work
piece materials to be joined. Common types of solid-state welding are ultrasonic welding,
explosion welding, electromagnetic pulse welding, friction welding, friction-stir-welding etc.

Arc Welding:

Among all these types of welding processes arc welding is widely used for different types of
materials. Common types of arc welding process are:

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(a) Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) or Manual Metal Arc Welding: This is most
common type arc welding process, where a flux coated consumable electrode is used. As the
electrode melts, the flux disintegrates and produces shielding gas that protect the weld area
from atmospheric oxygen and other gases and produces slag which covers the molten filler
metal as it transfer from the electrode to the weld pool. The slag floats to the surface of weld
pool and protects the weld from atmosphere as it solidifies.

(b) Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) or Metal inert or active gas welding
(MIG/MAG): In this type of welding process a continuous and consumable wire electrode is
used. A shielding gas generally argon or sometimes mixture of argon and carbon dioxide are
blown through a welding gun to the weld zone.

(c) Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) or Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG): GTAW or TIG
welding process is an arc welding process uses a non consumable tungsten electrode to
produce the weld. The weld area is protected from atmosphere with a shielding gas generally
Argon or Helium or sometimes mixture of Argon and Helium. A filler metal may also feed
manually for proper welding. GTAW most commonly called TIG welding process was
developed during Second World War. With the development of TIG welding process, welding
of difficult to weld materials e.g. Aluminium and Magnesium become possible. The use of
TIG today has spread to a variety of metals like stainless steel, mild steel and high tensile
steels, Al alloy, Titanium alloy. Like other welding system, TIG welding power sources have
also improved from basic transformer types to the highly electronic controlled power source
today.

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1.5 Basic mechanism of TIG welding:

TIG welding is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode
to produce the weld. The weld area is protected from atmosphere by an inert shielding gas
(argon or helium), and a filler metal is normally used. The power is supplied from the power
source (rectifier), through a hand-piece or welding torch and is delivered to a tungsten
electrode which is fitted into the hand piece. An electric arc is then created between the
tungsten electrode and the work piece using a constant-current welding power supply that
produces energy and conducted across the arc through a column of highly ionized gas and
metal vapours [1]. The tungsten electrode and the welding zone are protected from the
surrounding air by inert gas. The electric arc can produce temperatures of up to 20,000 oC and
this heat can be focused to melt and join two different part of material. The weld pool can be
used to join the base metal with or without filler material. Schematic diagram of TIG welding
and mechanism of TIG welding are shown in fig. 1 & fig. 2 respectively.

Fig 3: Schematic Diagram of TIG Welding System.

Fig 4. : Principle of TIG Welding.

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Tungsten electrodes are commonly available from 0.5 mm to 6.4 mm diameter and 150 -
200 mm length. The current carrying capacity of each size of electrode depends on whether it
is connected to negative or positive terminal of DC power source.

The power source required to maintain the TIG arc has a drooping or constant current
characteristic which provides an essentially constant current output when the arc length is
varied over several millimetres. Hence, the natural variations in the arc length which occur in
manual welding have little effect on welding current. The capacity to limit the current to the
set value is equally crucial when the electrode is short circuited to the work piece, otherwise
excessively high current will flow, damaging the electrode. Open circuit voltage of power
source ranges from 60 to 80 V.

1.5.1 Types of welding current used in TIG welding

(a) DCSP (Direct Current Straight Polarity): In this type of TIG welding direct current is
used. Tungsten electrode is connected to the negative terminal of power supply. This type of
connection is the most common and widely used DC welding process. With the tungsten
being connected to the negative terminal it will only receive 30% of the welding energy
(heat). The resulting weld shows good penetration and a narrow profile.

(b) DCRP (Direct Current Reverse Polarity): In this type of TIG welding setting tungsten
electrode is connected to the positive terminal of power supply. This type of connection is
used very rarely because most heat is on the tungsten, thus the tungsten can easily overheat
and burn away. DCRP produces a shallow, wide profile and is mainly used on very light
material at low Amp.

(i) AC (Alternating Current): It is the preferred welding current for most white metals,
e.g. aluminium and magnesium. The heat input to the tungsten is averaged out as the

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AC wave passes from one side of the wave to the other. On the half cycle, where the
tungsten electrode is positive, electrons will flow from base material to the tungsten.
This will result in the lifting of any oxide skin on the base material. This side of the
wave form is called the cleaning half. As the wave moves to the point where the
tungsten electrode becomes negative the electrons will flow from the welding
tungsten electrode to the base material. This side of the cycle is called the penetration
half of the AC wave forms.

(ii) Alternating Current with Square Wave: With the advent of modern electricity AC
welding machines can now be produced with a wave form called Square Wave. The
square wave has better control and each side of the wave can give a more cleaning
half of the welding cycle and more penetration .
1.5.2 Advantages of TIG welding

TIG welding process has specific advantages over other arc welding process as follows -

I .Narrow concentrated arc


II. Able to weld ferrous and non-ferrous metals

III .Does not use flux or leave any slag (shielding gas is used to protect the weld-pool and
tungsten electrode)

IV :No spatter and fumes during TIG welding

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1.5.3 Applications of TIG Welding

Fig 5: Application of TIG welding

The TIG welding process is best suited for metal plate of thickness around 5- 6 mm. Thicker
material plate can also be welded by TIG using multi passes which results in high heat inputs,
and leading to distortion and reduction in mechanical properties of the base metal. In TIG
welding high quality welds can be achieved due to high degree of control in heat input and
filler additions separately. TIG welding can be performed in all positions and the process is
useful for tube and pipe joint. The TIG welding is a highly controllable and clean process
needs very little finishing or sometimes no finishing. This welding process can be used for
both manual and automatic operations. The TIG welding process is extensively used in the
so-called high-tech industry applications such as:

 Nuclear industry
 Air craft
 Food processing
 Maintinence repair
 Automotive industry

1.6 Process parameters of TIG welding

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The parameters that affect the quality and outcome of the TIG welding process are
given below.

a) Welding Current

Higher current in TIG welding can lead to splatter and work piece become damage.
Again lower current setting in TIG welding lead to sticking of the filler wire. Sometimes
larger heat affected area can be found for lower welding current, as high temperatures need to
applied for longer periods of time to deposit the same amount of filling materials. Fixed
current mode will vary the voltage in order to maintain a constant arc current.

b) Welding Voltage

Welding Voltage can be fixed or adjustable depending on the TIG welding


equipment. A high initial voltage allows for easy arc initiation and a greater range of working
tip distance. Too high voltage, can lead to large variable in welding quality.

c) Inert Gases:

The choice of shielding gas is depends on the working metals and effects on the welding
cost, weld temperature, arc stability, weld speed, splatter, electrode life etc. it also affects the
finished weld penetration depth and surface profile, porosity, corrosion resistance, strength,
hardness and brittleness of the weld material. Argon or Helium may be used successfully for
TIG welding applications. For welding of extremely thin material pure argon is used.

Argon generally provides an arc which operates more smoothly and quietly. Penetration of
arc is less when Argon is used than the arc obtained by the use of Helium. For these reasons
argon is preferred for most of the applications, except where higher heat and penetration is
required for welding metals of high heat conductivity in larger thicknesses. Aluminium and
copper are metals of high heat conductivity and are examples of the type of material for
which helium is advantageous in welding relatively thick sections. Pure argon can be used for
welding of structural steels, low alloyed steels, stainless steels, aluminium, copper, titanium
and magnesium. Argon hydrogen mixture is used for welding of some grades of stainless
steels and nickel alloys. Pure helium may be used for aluminium and copper. Helium argon
mixtures may be used for low alloy steels, aluminium and copper.

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d) Welding speed:

Welding speed is an important parameter for TIG welding. If the welding speed is
increased, power or heat input per unit length of weld is decreases, therefore less weld
reinforcement results and penetration of welding decreases. Welding speed or travel speed is
primarily control the bead size and penetration of weld. It is interdependent with current.
Excessive high welding speed decreases wetting action, increases tendency of undercut,
porosity and uneven bead shapes while slower welding speed reduces the tendency to
porosity.

1.7 Dissimilar Welding

Joining of dissimilar metals has found its use extensively in power generation,
electronic, nuclear reactors, petrochemical and chemical industries mainly to get tailor-made
properties in a component and reduction in weight. However efficient welding of dissimilar
metals has posed a major challenge due to difference in thermo-mechanical and chemical
properties of the materials to be joined under a common welding condition. This causes a
steep gradient of the thermo-mechanical properties along the weld.

A variety of problems come up in dissimilar welding like cracking, large weld


residual stresses, migration of atoms during welding causing stress concentration on one side
of the weld, compressive and tensile thermal stresses, stress corrosion cracking, etc. Now
before discussing these problems coming up during dissimilar welding, the passages coming
below throw some light on some of the causes of these problems.

In dissimilar welds, weldability is determined by crystal structure, atomic diameter


and compositional solubility of the parent metals in the solid and liquid states. Diffusion in
the weld pool often results in the formation of intermetallic phases, the majority of which are
hard and brittle and are thus detrimental to the mechanical strength and ductility of the joint.

The thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of the materials being
joined are different, which causes large misfit strains and consequently the residual stresses
results in cracking during solidification.

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Chapter 2

2. Literature Review

Over the years a lot of research has been done in the area of dissimilar welding and
many interesting results have been brought up with regards to the problems encountered in
dissimilar welding. With dissimilar welding finding its use in nuclear, petrochemical,
electronics and several other industrial domains, this section brings into account the work of
the predecessors in this field.

Pattee et al. [1]


in 1968 have discussed the joining of dissimilar metalo has progressed
significantly during the past two decades because of the increasing use of dissimilar-metal
combinations in the aerospace, nuclear, chemical, and electronics industries. The selection
and application of dissimilar metals in structural applications arc dictated by the service
requirements of the structure, as well as the economic« of material cost and the ease of
fabrication. Requirements of a structure for hightemperature strength, lightness, oxidation
resistance, corrosion resistance, or other desirable properties may lead to the use of
dissimilar-metal combinations in its design, with au attendant need for a method of joining
the dissimilar metals, Dissimilar-metal-Joining procedures can be applied in two ways. The
dissimilair-metal joint can be an integral part of a structure; in such cases, the effects of
joining on the properties of the joint members must be carefully considered. In other
instances, the dissimilar-metal joint is incorporated in a relatively short transition section that
is inserted between various structural members and welded or brazed in place; joining occurs
between similar or identical metals when a transition section is used, and few problems are
oncountered with a well-designed section of this nature. The dissimilar-metal joint in the
transition section can often be made with processes that would be impractical for joining
structural parts themselves, e. g., friction welding, explosive welding, etc. In this report, the
dissimilar-metal joining between the following metais and alloys is emphasized: (1)
aluminum, titanium, and beryllium, and their alloys, (2) refractory metals and alloys, and (3)
high-strength steels and other high-strength, heat-resistant alloys. Dissimilar-metal joints in
structures having aerospace applications are emphasized. Joining technology is discussed in
the following major sections: (1) Joining dissimilar ferrous metals (2) Joining nonferrous to
ferrous metals (3) Joining dissimilar nonferrous metals.

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Schaeffle et al . in 1949 [2] studied the increase the scope and accuracy of Ferrite Number
(FN) prediction in stainless steel weld metal and related dissimilar metal joints, a
modification of the Welding Research Council 1988 diagram (WRC-1 988 diagram) is
proposed. The proposed VVRC1992 diagram includes a coefficient for Cu in the Ni
equivalent, thereby removing a tendency for the WRC-1 988 diagram to overestimate the FN
of weld metals when the Cu content is high. Also, the axes of the WRC-1 992 diagram can be
extended (as in the Schaeffler diagram) to predict dilution effects in dissimilar metal joints

[3]
Odegard et al. has studied in the year of 2014 about the metallurgical characteristics,
toughness and corrosion resistance of dissimilar welds between duplex stainless steel Alloy
2205 and carbon steel A36 have been evaluated. Both duplex stainless steel ER2209 and Ni-
based Alloy 625 filler metals were used to join this combination using a multipass, gas
tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Defect-free welds were made with each filler metal.
The tough hess of both the 625 and 2209 deposits were acceptable, regardless of heat input. A
narrow martensitic region with high hardness was observed along the A36/2209 fusion
boundary. A similar region was not observed in welds made with the 625 filler metal. The
corrosion resistance of the welds made with 2209 filler metal improved with increasing heat
input, probably due to higher levels of austenite and reduced chromium nitride precipitation.
Welds made with 625 exhibited severe attack in the root pass, while the bulk of the weld was
resistant. This investigation has shown that both filler metals can be used to join carbon steel
to duplex stainless steels, but that special precautions may be necessary in corrosive
environments

[4]
Kacar et al. in 2004reported on the microstructure property relationship in dissimilar
welds between martensitic and austenitic stainless steel. Both austenitic and duplex stainless
steel electrodes were used to join this combination, using multipass manual metal arc welding
process. They concluded that both filler metals can be used to join austenitic stainless steel to
the martensitic stainless steel. This paper presents the effect of different metal filler on the
properties of the welded stainless steel type 304 to mild steel.

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2.1OBJECTIVE AND PROBLEM STATEMENT

From the study of the above research papers it can be said that the main obbstacle
hindering the welding between satinlesssteel and mildsteel are as listed below :

 Difficulty.
 Hot Cracking of the Stainless Steel
 Thermal Expansion in High Temperature Service Conditions
 Increased Bimetallic Corrosion.
 Reduced Weld Strength.

Among these weld strength is given most importance in the objective of our project since
we are comparing the strength of the welds based on the filler material used there by
selecting the best filler material among the two taken in the project .
The aim of the present work is to create a welding joint between 3014 L stainless steel and
mild steel using ER 304 L stainless steel and mild steel as the weld metal and compare
the strength using tensile test .

After the results are obtained the aim is to suggest the best filler material for
welding between stainless steel 304 L and mild steel among ER304L stainless steel
filler material and mild steel filler material .

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Chapter 3

3.Experimental logic method

The aim of the project has been to weld the stasinless steel 304L and mild steel and
compare the strength using tensile test .

Inorder to perform the experiment the spercimens are cut in AS PER STANDARD OF
AWS dimension the are welded by TIG welding thereafter tested by Universal Testing
Machine.

3.1 Methodology

a).Selection of base material

b) Selection of filler material

b).Process Parameter Selection (Welding Current, Arc Voltage, & Gas Flow) for the
experiment

c).Sample design and Preparation ( Cutting, Welding etc.)

.d).Specimen for Tensile Test

3.1.1 Selection of base material

The base materials selected for the project are Stainless steeel and Mild steel

Stainless Steel 304 L

Stainless steel takes its name from its ability to resist rusting thanks to the interaction
between its alloying components and the environment to which they're exposed. Numerous
types of stainless steel serve a variety of purposes and many overlaps. All stainless steels are
comprised of at least 10 percent chromium.

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(i)Type 304 Stainless Steel

Type 304 is the most widely used austenitic stainless steel, and it's also known as "18-8"
stainless steel because of its composition – it includes 18 percent chromium and 8
percent nickel.

Type 304 stainless steel has good forming and welding properties, as well as
strong corrosion resistance and strength.

It also has good drawability. It can be formed into a variety of shapes and, in contrast to type
302 stainless, can be used without annealing. Common uses for type 304 stainless steel are
found in the food industry. It's ideal for brewing, milk processing, and wine-making, as well
as in pipelines, yeast pans, fermentation vats and storage tanks.

Type 304 grade stainless steel is also found in sinks, tabletops, coffee pots, refrigerators,
stoves and various utensils and other cooking appliances. It can withstand corrosion that can
be caused by various chemicals found in fruits, meats, and milk. Other areas of use include
architecture, chemical containers, heat exchangers, mining equipment, and marine nuts, bolts
and screws. Type 304 is also used in mining and water filtration systems and in the dyeing
industry.

(ii)Type 304 L Stainless Steel

Type 304L stainless steel is an extra-low carbon version of the 304 steel alloy. The lower
carbon content in 304L minimizes deleterious carbide precipitation as a result of welding.
304L can, therefore, be used "as welded" in severe corrosion environments and it eliminates
the need for annealing.

This grade has slightly lower mechanical properties than the standard 304 grade, but it's
nonetheless widely used thanks to its versatility. Like Type 304 stainless steel, it's commonly
used in beer-brewing and wine-making, but also for purposes beyond the food industry such
as in chemical containers, mining, and construction. It's ideal for use in metal parts such as
nuts and bolts that will be exposed to salt water.

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Element Type 304 (%) Type 304L (%)
Carbon 0.08 max. 0.03 max.
Manganese 2.00 max. 2.00 max.
Phosphorus 0.045 max. 0.045 max.
Sulfur 0.03 max. 0.03 max.
Silicon 0.75 max. 0.75 max.
Chromium 18.00-20.00 18.00-20.00
Nickel 8.00-12.00 8.00-12.00
Nitrogen 0.10 max. 0.10 max.
Iron Balance Balance

Table 1:Type 304 and 304L Stainless Steel Composition

(a)Properties of Stainless Steel 304 L

GRADE 304 L
TENSILE STRENGTH 520 (MPa)
PROOF STRESS 220 (Mpa)
ELONGATION(mm) 45%
HARDNESS BRINELL 215 Max HB

Table:2 Mechanical properties of stainless steel 304 L

GRADE 304L

DENSITY 8.00 gm/cm^3


MELTING POINT
1450 °C
MODULOUS OF ELASTICITY
139 Gpa
ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY 0.72 *10^6Ω.m
Table THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 16.2 W/m-K 3:
THERMAL EXPANSION
17.2*10^-6 /K
Physical properties of Stainless Steel 304 L

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(b) Mild Steel

Mild steel is a type of carbon steel with low carbon content, and it’s also called low carbon
steel. Ranges will vary based on the source, but will generally be between 0.05 percent to
0.25 percent by weight. Higher carbon steel, on the other hand, will range between 0.30
percent and 2.0 percent .Mild steel is not an alloy steel, and therefore does not contain large
amounts of other elements besides iron.

Chemical Constituent Composition (wt%)

Carbon 0.14-0.20

Chromium 0.1

Nickel 0.01

Silicon 0.24

Manganese 0.5

Phosphorous 0.05

Sulphur 0.05

Iron Rest

Table 4 : Chemical composititon of the Mild Steel

Basic properties of Mild Steel

(i) More ductile, machinable and weldable than high carbon and other steels

(ii) Nearly impossible to harden and strengthen during heating and quenching
(iii)Very little carbon and other alloying elements to block dislocations in crystal structure,
which means less tensile strength
(iv) High amounts of iron and ferrite, making it magnetic

(v)Subject to oxidation if not properly coated

Thus these properties make it applicable for the use of making

 Wires

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 Nails

 Fencing ,decoration and furniture

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(b) Properties of Mild Steel

TENSILE STRENGTH 400 Mpa

PROOF STRESS 250 min

ELONGATION 23%

HARDNESS BRIENELL 210 MAX Hb

Table 5: Mechanical properties of mild steel

7.7 gm/cm^3
DENSITY

1350-1530 °C
MELTING POINT

MODULOUS OF 45 Gpa
ELASTICITY

ELECTRICAL
RESISTIVITY
46 W/mK AT 25 °C
THERMAL
CONDUCTIVITY

7.2*10^-6/K
THERMAL EXPANSION

Table 6: Physical properties of mild steel

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3.1.2 Selection Of Filler Material

(i) Stainless steel ER304 L Filler Material


Various stainless steel filler material were available but ER 304 L was selected for the
project the primary reason being the avaibiltiy of it .

AWS Wire Chemical Composition (%)


Brand
Classificatio
Name C Mn Si P S Ni Cr Mo Cuê
n
ER 304 L 0.03 1.27 0.51 - - 9.40 18.30 - -
ER 308L 0.03 1.0- 0.30- 0.03 0.03 9.0- 19.5- 0.75 0.75
2.5 0.65 11.0 22.0
STRONG ER 309L 0.03 1.0- 0.30- 0.03 0.03 12.0- 23.0- 0.75 0.75
TIG SS 2.5 0.65 14.0 25.0
ER 310 0.089 2.01 0.40 - - 21.80 27.40 - -
ER 316L 0.03 1.0- 0.30- 0.03 0.03 11.0- 18.0- 2.0- 0.75
2.5 0.65 14.0 20.0 3.0

Table 7: Chemical composititon of the stainless steel filler materials

Wire Diameter Amps DCSP Volts Sheilding Gas

0.35 60-90 12-15 Argon 100%

0.45 80-110 13-16 Argon 100%

1/16 90-130 14-16 Argon 100%

1/35 120-175 15-20 Argon 100%

Table 8: Recommended Welding Parameter for SS filler metal for GTAW Tig Process

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(ii) 6013 Mild Steel Electrodes

Description: Mild Steel Electrodes

A versatile, deep penetrating steel electrode with smooth, stable arc characteristics. It’s used
for the welding of mild steels, galvanized and some low alloy steels. The coating produces a
forceful, spray-type arc, resulting in deep penetrating welds. The slag is thin and easily
removable.

Typical Application: Vehicles, ship building and repair, sheet metal, build-up of over
machined and worn mild steel surfaces, general light fabrication.

Element Composition

Si 0.18%
Fe Rem%
Mn 0.45%
P 0.014%
C 0.08%
S 0.012%
Si 0.18%
Fe Rem%
Table 9: Chemical composititon of 6013 electrode

Welding Parameter

Amps 3/32 1/8*14 5/32*14

Flat 60-90 100-120 110-160

Vertical 50-80 80-100 100-120


/Overhead

Table 10: Recommended Welding Parameter for MS filler metal for GTAW Tig Process

3.1.3 Selected Process Parameter


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Since the diameter of the project was selected as 1.5 mm therefore the
required parameters are listed as below :

Wire Diameter 1/16

Amps DCSP 90-130

Volts 14-16

Sheilding Gas Argon 100%


Welding speed 2.5 mm/s

Table 11: Experimental Welding Parameter for SS filler metal for GTAW Tig Process

Factor Unit Level 1

Welding Current A 90

Voltage V 10

Welding Speed mm/s 1.2

Table 12: Experimental Welding Parameter for MS filler metal for GTAW Tig Process

3.1.5 Experimental Procedure: Welding experiment was designed to investigate the


joining of austenitic stainless steel (304L ) to mild steel plates (4 mm thickness). All welding
process was performed using arc welding and the welding current used was 100 ampere. The
electrodes used were stainless steel welding electrode (AWS: E304L) and mild steel welding
electrode (AWS: E6013). The work pieces were cut according to dimensions given below:

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For tensile test, the welded parts were machined to a tensile specimen shape as illustrated in
Figure 2. The specimen was pull using a Universal Testing Machine (UTM) to obtain
information on yield strength and tensile strength.

(a) TT using SS Electrode (b) TT using MS Electrode

4.RESULT AND DISCUSSION:

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 Figures and show the tensile test samples using stainless steel and mild steel
electrodes respectively. Figure shows all welded samples were fractured at the mild
steel base metal because of stainless steel type 304 L had higher mechanical strength
than mild steel .
 Similarly, as shown in Figure , welded samples using mild steel electrode also
fractured at the mild steel base metal. Table 2 and Table 3 show the value of
mechanical properties of welded samples using stainless steel and mild steel
electrodes respectively. The highest value of mechanical properties in terms of yield
strength (598) and tensile strength (760) is given by the welded samples using
stainless steel electrodes.
 On the other hand the lowest value of yield strength (542) and tensile strength (668) is
given by the welded samples using mild steel electrode. During the tensile test, all
samples start cracking from mild steel base metal when the stress reaches the yield
point and continue with necking process. After a while, the stress imposed on the test
sample reaches the maximum strength and all samples fracture at the mild steel base
metal side
 . None of the welded samples fractured either at stainless steel type 304 base metal,
fusion metal or heat affected zone (HAZ). However, the mechanical properties of the
joint strength are acceptable for both welded samples using stainless steel electrode+
 or mild steel electrode. The joint strength improved because of the HAZ region had
gained heat treatment (cooling and heating) during welding process. It was reported
that the variation in mechanical properties across the weld can be attributed to several
factors such as residual stresses, grain size, phase composition .

4.1 Stainless steel as filler material

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Sample No. Yield Point (Mpa) Tensile Strength(Mpa)

1 590 730

2 598 760

AVERAGE 594 745

4.2 :Mild steel as filler material

Sample No. Yield Point (Mpa) Tensile Strength(Mpa)

1 535 645

2 542 668

AVERAGE 539 656.5

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Conclusion

1.The results of this investigation have shown that stainless steel 304 can be welded to mild

steel using either stainless steel welding electrode: AWS/ASME: E304 L or mild steel

welding electrode: AWS: E6013.

2. The yield strength and tensile strength of welded samples using mild steel welding

electrode were slightly lower than welded samples using stainless steel welding electrode,

however, both types of welded samples exhibited optimum strength of the welded joint.

3. All welded samples fractured at mild steel base metal indicated the regions of stainless

steel base metal, fusion zone and heat affected zone are stronger than mild steel base metal.

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References

[1] H. E. Pattee, R. M. Evans, R. E. Monroe, The joining of dissimilar metals. Defense

Metals Information Center, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, 1968

[2] A. L. Schaeffler, Constitution diagram for stainless steel weld metal. Metal Progress,

(1949) 680 - 680.

[3] L. Odegard, C. O. Pettersson, S. A. Fager, The selection of welding consumables and

properties of dissimilar welded joints in the superduplex stainless steel Sandvik 2507 to

carbon steel and highly alloyed austenitic and duplex stainless steels. Proceedings of the 4th

International Conference of Duplex Stainless Steels, Glasgow, Scotland, (1994) Paper No. 94

[4] R. Kaçar, O. Baylan, An investigation of microstructure/property relationships in

dissimilar welds between martensitic and austenitic stainless steels, Materials and Design,

(2004) 317 - 329

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