Sei sulla pagina 1di 79

Approach for Non-Metallic Piping Analysis in AutoPIPE

Phil Senior – CAE Specialist


© 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
GRP/FRP vs Steel
• GRP/FRP
– Plastic pipe is much lighter
– Inert in nature and resistant to corrosion and scaling
– More flexible easy to form complex shapes
– Less joins required, less resistance more efficient
– Large diameters
– Unsuitable for high temperature but better at low
– Easy to repair
• Steel
– Fire Resistant
– Heavier but much stronger
– Suitable a very high temperatures and pressure
– More difficult to install
– Joint integrity methods available
2 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
How does FRP Compare with Steel?
Summary: FRP is 10 – 20x more flexible and 5 times weaker and lighter than steel
Carbon % FRP / Steel
Property FRP (Bends & Tees)1 FRP (Pipe)
Steel (Pipe)

Hoop Modulus (E6 Psi) 29.5 2.2 to 3.7 2.2 to 3.7 7% Measure of
Long Modulus (E6 Psi) 29.5 1.4 to 1.6 1.4 to 1.6 5% Flexibility
Density (lb/ft^3) 489 106 to 120 106 to 120 22%
Poissons Ratio 0.3 0.45 to 0.72 0.45 to 0.72
Thermal Expansion 0.61 0.84 0.84 138%
(in/100ft) @ 150F
Cold Allowable (Psi) 20,000 4100 4300 22% Strength
Temperature limit degF 1100 200 200 18%
Note:
1. FRP Bends and Tees are typically hand-lay and therefore type 1 or 2 laminates which has Isotropic properties like steel
2. Poissons Ratio varies by temperature and composition
3 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Common FRP Piping Applications

• The majority of large diameter (e.g. 4m or 13’4”) composite


pipe is used in six market segments: More than 60 000 km
(37280 miles) of composite large diameter pipe are in
operation worldwide
• Drinking water projects such as raw water supply lines for
potable water systems;
• Irrigation systems for agriculture;
• Feed lines and penstock for hydroelectric power plants;
• Circulation for cooling water systems,primarily for power
plants;
• Limestone slurry piping and low pH/ high chloride scrubbers
• Sanitary sewer projects for pressure as well as gravity sewer
systems, and pipeline rehabilitation as 'slip liners.
4 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Some FRP/GRP Design Codes

 ASME B31.3 – 2012 … Psuedo approach


For Reinforced Thermosetting Resin (Laminated), the design stress (DS) values for materials
listed in Table B-2 of B31.3 shall be one-tenth of the minimum tensile strengths specified in
Table 1 of ASTM C 582 or by the manufacturer See B31.3 para A302.3.2(b).
 AWWA C950 – 2007
 EN 1796 Plastics piping systems for water supply with or
without pressure – Glass-reinforced thermosetting plastics
(GRP) based on unsaturated polyester resin.
 BS 7159 – 1989 ….Type 1, 2, 3 laminates
 UKOOA – 1994… offshore industry
 ISO 14692 – 2005 …. Combined BS7159 + UKOOA
and is now accepted Global FRP piping design code

5 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Some Common FRP (Composite Material) Terms
 FRP – Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (NA) or GRP – Glass Reinforced Plastic
(Europe)… Same thing including other common names below
– RTRP – Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Pipe
– GRE – Glass Reinforced Epoxy, GRVE – Glass Reinforced Vinyl Ester
– Derakane and Hetron Epoxy Resins = abrasion resistance
– Vinyl Ester Resin = epoxy + polyester (Excellent corrosion
resistance, superior strength, and toughness )
 Isotropic vs Anisotropic vs Orthotropic – what does this mean?
– An isotropic material, has the same properties in every direction e.g. Metals
– An orthotropic material has different material properties or strength in 2 or
3 orthogonal directions and are a subset of anisotropic material being
directionally dependent. Orthotropic materials are thus anisotropic e.g. FRP or Wood
 Axial flexural is also termed bending
 Hoop flexural is also termed circumferential
6 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
FRP Pipe Fabrication
• Hand-Lay (Type 1 or 2) vs Multi-filament Spiral Wound (Type 3) vs Continuous Wound

Hand-Lay = Isotropic
(25-1600mm) (300-4000mm)
Spiral or Filament Wound
= Orthotropic

7 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


FRP Pipe Joints

8 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Water Hammer

In General Water Hammer Effects less in FRP than Steel Pipes… HOWEVER…
9 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Water Hammer

• Many FRP Manufacturers recommend designing the piping system to avoid water
hammer

• The ISO Code says…


– Pressure Transient < Hydrotest Pressure
– On long pipelines FRP/GRP is susceptible to longitudinal oscillations

10 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Expansion Joints

• Some Manufacturers suggest use expansion joints sparingly

• Typically used between tanks or pumps FRP piping particularly to isolation


vibration transmitted to the FRP piping

• The use of tie-rods or limiting rods should be avoided if possible as these


concentrate forces on the FRP flange and could result in damage to the FRP
flange. If tie-rods are necessary, the FRP flange may require a steel backing ring
to better distribute the pressure thrust load.

• Rubber expansion joints are a good option with low lateral stiffness values and
corrosion resistant

11 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Things To Remember

• Tee and Bend Fitting Thicknesses – From manufacturer catalog


• Check the pressure ratings for fittings

• Since FRP is a much lower modulus material than steel, it is often necessary to
design support spacing not only on stress, but also deflection. For deflection, the
allowable vertical deflection between supports is to be 12.5 mm (0.50 in.) or 0.5%
of the span, whichever is less.

12 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Things To Remember

• Heavy valves must be supported independently and not by FRP piping

• Add field joints at each change of direction.

• Avoid bolting full face FRP flanges to raised face flanges.

• For other than flange supports, avoid locating supports at or adjacent to fittings. Allow enough
room between the support and the fitting for the joint overlay.

• FRP requires closer support spacing than steel piping.

• FRP piping is flexible and undesirable longitudinal oscillations can occur at pump start-up. To
prevent this, anchor each straight leg once.

• Stress concentrations and point loads must be avoided.


13 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Things To Remember

• Control lateral oscillations and potential column buckling by replacing every forth
hanger with a guide

• All clamps, hangers and anchors should have an 1/8“ rubber lining to prevent
wearing between FRP and steel contact surface

• Do not rely on friction for support of risers and anchors, use FRP thrust collars

• Friction clamps should only be relied on to support or resist very small longitudinal
loads, when in doubt use FRP thrust collars.

14 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Designing FRP/GRP Piping to ISO14692

15 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ISO 14692 FRP Piping Code

Manufacturer GRP
Libraries

16 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


FRP Pipe Property Library – FRP Manufacturers

 ISO 14692
 FIBERBOND
 AMERON
 FIBERCAST
 SARPLAST
 CONLEY
 WAVISTRONG
 HARVEL
 REINFORCED PLASTIC
SYSTEMS

17 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ISOGRPM

18 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Designing Steel vs GRP
FRP Pressure + Bending
Steel vs GRP

19 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ISO14692 – Design Envelope Explained

Tensile Testing

1000h Pressure
Testing

20 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ISO14692 – Failure Envelope Explained
Fully Measured Failure Envelope

Factored Long Term Failure


Envelope

22 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ISO14692 – Failure Envelope Explained
Fully Measured Failure Envelope
Biaxial Stress Ratio, r

Component Qualified Stress = σhl(2:1) = σqs

23 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ISO 14692 - Component Failure Envelopes

Component Failure Stress Envelopes Supported


Fully Measured Simplified Rectangular

Fully Biaxial Stress Ratio


Component Typical R Simplified Rectangular
Measured
Axial & Hoop
Axial & Hoop 1:1 Biaxial ratio
Plain Pipe 1 to 2.0 1:1 Stress
Stress Ratio’s <=0.1 R => 1
Ratio’s > 0.1
Biaxial ratio Biaxial ratio
Bend 0.45 to 1.9 NA
R<1 R => 1
Biaxial ratio Biaxial ratio
Tee 1.0 to 1.9 NA
R<1 R => 1
24 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
ISO14692 – Factor f2, Code Combinations
ISO14692 Code Combinations

ISO14692 Factors f2,


F2 = Part Factor for Loading (table 3)

F2, (Editable)

Hoop / Long
Allowable, (Editable)

Automatic ISO14692 Code Combinations

Seismic, Wind, Transients, 0.89

Operating, 0.83

Sustained Gravity+Pressure, 0.67


25 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
ISO14692 – Result Options

Use Nominal Thickness

Include Torsion

Default f2 Load factor


• Sustained, 0.67
• Sustained + Thermal, 0.83
• Occasional, 0.89

26 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


FRP Pipe Properties
Ameron 7000 antistatic
Ameron Properties

All properties recovered from


ISOGRPM Material library

Orthotropic FRP material behavior follows this relationship

Ea/Eh * (h/a) = (a/h)


where
Ea = Longitudinal tensile modulus
Eh = Hoop tensile modulus
(h/a) = Poisson’s ratio relating the strain in the axial (a) direction due to a stress in the hoop
(h) direction , Found in the Manufacturers product data sheet. Enter into AutoPIPE (h/a) =
0.56 (Ameron Catalog)
For orthotropic materials, the strain in the circumferential direction caused by stress in the
longitudinal direction is ignored.

27 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


FRP Pipe Properties
Ameron 7000 Antistatic
Poisson Ratio and Modulus Values vary by temperature

29 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ISO14692 – Factors A1, A2, A3

A1 K factor, 0.85 – liquids, 0.8


- gases

ISO14692 Factors k, A1, A2, A3


A1 = partial factor for temperature (Typ = 1, see
manufacturers data)
A2 A2 = partial factor for chemical resistance (e.g.
Water = 1.0… see manufacturers data)
A3 = partial factor for cyclic service (see Equation 3
A3 & 4 in section 7.4.4)
k = thermal conductivity factor (0.85 liquids 0.8 gas)

30 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


FRP Pipe Properties – Plain Pipe
Fully Measured Failure Envelope

Enter Idealized
Long Term Failure
Envelope

al(0:1) = long term axial stress at 0:1 stress ratio


al(2:1) = long term axial stress at 2:1 stress ratio
hl(2:1) = long term hoop stress at 2:1 stress ratio
31 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
FRP Pipe Properties – Bend
Rectangular Failure Envelope

Enter
Idealized Long
Term Failure
Envelope

al(0:1) = long term axial stress at 0:1 stress ratio


al(2:1) = long term axial stress at 2:1 stress ratio
hl(2:1) = long term hoop stress at 2:1 stress ratio
32 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
FRP Pipe Properties – Tee
Rectangular Failure Envelope

Enter
Idealized Long
Term Failure
Envelope

al(0:1) = long term axial stress at 0:1 stress ratio


al(2:1) = long term axial stress at 2:1 stress ratio
hl(2:1) = long term hoop stress at 2:1 stress ratio
33 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
FRP Pipe Properties – Qualified Bend
Bend Type: Smooth or Miter

FiberBond

ISO 14692 Stress Data


35 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
FRP Pipe Properties – Qualified Tee

Qualified Stress and if


qualified from
Manufacturer

R = 1.0 for filament wound or


hand-lay

If Qualified (Rarely Used), Pressure


Stress Multiplier,
PSM = 1.0 otherwise PSMs typically
=1.8 to 3.0 (Define Xtra Data > Joint
Type

36 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


FRP Pipe Properties – Laminated Joint
For FRP Joints Insert Xtra Data > Joint Type FiberBond

ISO 14692 Stress Data

37 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


FRP – Pressure Analysis is Important

Expansion due to Pressure


0.793 in/100ft

38 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ISO14692 – Short Term Biaxial Strength or Stress Ratio, r
Use Table 4 if Manufacturer Data not available

Typical
Bends &
Tees

39 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ISO14692 – FRP SIF’s and PSM or MPS

Elbows / Bends have both


Axial and Hoop in-plane and
out-plane SIF

Tees have Single SIF

PSM or MPS – Pressure Stress


Multiplier applied Hoop Stress
Bends : Smooth = 1.0,
Miter = 1 or 1.3
Tees: =1.0 (Qualified – rare),
Unqualified =1.8 to 3.0

40 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ISO14692 – Bend Stresses (Based on Qualified Stress)

Hoop & Longitudinal or Axial SIF’s

Max Ratio of Hoop and Axial Stress is


Checked and Maximum Ratio Results
reported

SUST OPE OCC


Bend QS 0.67 0.83 0.89
Sa(0:1) 4607.5 3087.0 3824.2 4100.7
Sa(2:1) 4607.5 3087.0 3824.2 4100.7
Sh 4850 3249.5 4025.5 4316.5

41 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ISO14692 – Bend Code Stresses (Based on Qualified Stress)

Long Term Failure Envelope (Operating)


4500
3824.2 3824.2
4000
3824.2
3500
3000
LONG. STRESS

2500
2000 4057, 2121
1500
1000
101%
500
Outside Envelope
0 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500
HOOP STRESS

42 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Designing FRP/GRP Piping using BS 7159

43 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


BS 7159

44 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


AUTOGRPM

45 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Properties

Laminate reference depends on the method for determining


design strain. Method A uses table 5.2-5.5 to determine the
required thickness from table 5.1. Method B requires the
calculation of the XLAM using method in Section 5.4 taking the
next highest available.

Minimum design strain from table 4.3 Class 4, Class 1 = 0.0018

Laminate Poisson’s Ration

Type 1 Use 0.3 (Isotropic)

Type 2 Use 0.3 (Isotropic)

Type 3 Refer to figure 4.2 dependent on winding


angle

46 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Properties Design Strain
Method A – Use of defined strain value
• Taken from Table 4.3 based on environment conditions from Table 4.4
• Table 4.4
• Normal Temperature > 40oC below the deflection temperature of the
resin
• High Temperature > 20oC but < 40oC below the deflection
temperature of the resin
• Mild Chemical Condition – where loss of flexural strength is < 20%
of original in accordance with BS 2782 Method 1005
• Severe Chemical Condition – where loss of flexural strength is >
20% but < 50% of original in accordance with BS 2782 Method
1005
Method B – Derivation of design strain from mechanical test data
• Derived from test data of stressed specimens exposed to process fluid at
design temperature
• Consideration of reduction factors necessary for fatigue, low fracture
resins and filament wound angle.
47 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Properties Design Stress

𝜎𝑑 = 𝜀𝑑 𝐸𝐿𝐴𝑀

𝜎𝑑 = Design Stress
𝜀𝑑 = Design Strain
𝑋𝐿𝐴𝑀
Where 𝐸𝐿𝐴𝑀 =
𝑡𝑑
𝑡𝑑 = Design thickness of laminate
𝑋𝐿𝐴𝑀 = 𝑛1 𝑊1 𝑋1 + 𝑛2 𝑊2 𝑋2 + ⋯ 𝑛𝑥 𝑊𝑥 𝑋𝑥

𝑛𝑥 = Number of layers of glass reinforcement of type x


𝑊𝑥 = Unit modulus of glass reinforcement of type x
𝑋𝑥 = Mass of glass reinforcement per unit area in one layer of type x
48 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Reference Laminates
Method A Method B

𝐷𝑖 𝑃𝑑 𝐸𝐿𝐴𝑀
𝑋𝐿𝐴𝑀 =
20𝐸𝐿𝐴𝑀 𝜖𝑑 − 𝑃𝑑

𝐷𝑖 = Internal Diameter
𝑃𝑑 = Design Pressure
𝐸𝐿𝐴𝑀 = Laminate modulus
𝜖𝑑 = Design strain

49 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Reference Laminates

50 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Reference Laminates

Method B

𝐷𝑖 𝑃𝑑 𝐸𝐿𝐴𝑀
𝑋𝐿𝐴𝑀 =
20𝐸𝐿𝐴𝑀 𝜖𝑑 − 𝑃𝑑

𝐷𝑖 = Internal Diameter
𝑃𝑑 = Design Pressure
𝐸𝐿𝐴𝑀 = Laminate modulus
𝜖𝑑 = Design strain

51 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Comparison

52 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Designing FRP/GRP Piping using B31.3

54 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


B31.3 Chapter VII

55 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ASME B31.3

56 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


AutoFRP.lib

57 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Poisson’s Ratio

Orthotropic FRP material behavior


follows this relationship

Ea/Eh * (h/a) = (a/h)


where
Ea = Longitudinal tensile modulus
Eh = Hoop tensile modulus
(h/a) = Poisson’s ratio relating the
strain in the axial (a) direction due to
a stress in the hoop (h) direction ,
Found in the Manufacturers product
data sheet.
For orthotropic materials, the strain
in the circumferential direction
caused by stress in the longitudinal
direction is ignored.

58 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Analysis Approach

59 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Analysis Approach

60 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Design Stress

• HDS Hydrostatic Design Stress – Hoop stress that causes failure


when applied continuously for 100000hrs multiplied by design factor
(usually 0.5)

• DS Design Stress is taken as 1/10 of the minimum tensile stress

61 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Allowable Stress

62 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Designing HDPE to ASME Code Case N-755-1

64 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ASME Code Case N-755-1

65 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ASME Code Case N-755-1

• HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) piping can be used in


accordance with ASME Code Case N-755-1

• HDPE pipe material and stress checks is now available for


the piping codes below:
– ASME B31.4 Liquid Transportation system (2006 and later editions)
– B31.8 Gas Distribution & Transmission (2003 and later editions)
– ASME B31.1 Power Piping (existing)
– ASME III NC and ND Class 2 & 3 Nuclear Piping (existing)

• Straight Pipe, 3 or 5 segment Mitre Bends, fusion butt joints,


and metal/HDPE flange adaptors permitted
66 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Applying ASME N-755-1

• Option for HDPE pipe material


“Include ASME CC N-755-1
(HDPE”) is now available in
General Model option

• Any points in model defined


with HDPE pipe material shall
comply with design criteria
defined in the Nuclear Code
Case N-755-1 (Rev. 1, 2011)

67 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


HDPE Properties

New HDPE Material Option


Dimension Ratio

HDPE Library Materials

68 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Operating P/T

69 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


HDPE Components

Steel size flange OD>24”

Bend thickness increases so separate


material property required

70 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ASME N-755 Stress Categories

9 Different Stress Categories

71 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Code Combinations

72 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Report

73 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Special Case: Designing PVC Pipe to ASME
B31.8

74 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Define B31.8 Design Code and Material Library

ASME B31.8 Code

Select AUTOFRP library which


contains FRP and Plastic Pipes
75 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
Long Term Hydrostatic Strength

ASME B31.8 Table D-1


Enter LTHS for Sy and Su
76 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated
ASME B31.8 Plastic Pipe
When using plastic pipe with B31.8, the design
factor should be set to 0.32. The allowable is
basically 0.32 x Hydrostatic design stress.
This can be used with hoop stress check but
there is no such criteria for other stresses.
For steel pipes, design factor for hoop is usually
0.72 but depends on class of service. Also for
restrained steel pipes, the longitudinal stress
limit is 0.9Sy and combined stress 1.0*Sy

Factor of 0.32 can be assumed for all


stresses but could be conservative

77 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Restrained vs Unrestrained ASME B31.8 2012
Code Category Restrained Unrestrained

• Restrained: AutoPIPE will use


Combination Code Stress Allowable Code Stress Allowable
Max P Hoop1 𝑃∙𝐷 𝑆y ∙ 𝐹 ∙ 𝐸 𝑃∙𝐷 𝑆y ∙ 𝐹 ∙ 𝐸 ∙ 𝑇

allowable as 0.9*Sy*T for longitudinal GR + Max P Sustain2


2∙𝑡
N/A
∙𝑇
N/A
2∙𝑡
0.75 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇

stress and 1.0*Sy*T (Combined tresca


𝐹𝑎
0.5𝑆𝐻 +
𝐴𝑛𝑜𝑚

stress)
+ 𝑀/𝑍𝑛𝑜𝑚
Sus. + EXX Occasional4 N/A N/A 𝑀𝑅𝑂 𝐹𝑂 0.75 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇
𝑆𝑈𝑆 + +
𝑍 𝐴
Amb + TXX Expansion N/A N/A 𝑓ሾ1.25 𝑆𝑐 + 𝑆ℎ

• Unrestrained
𝑀𝐸
𝑍
Hydrotest Func+Env N/A N/A 𝑃 ∙ 𝐷 𝑀𝑅 𝐹 0.9 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇
– Sc=0.33*SuT, (T is assumed 1.0 for cold 4∙𝑡
+
𝑍
+
𝐴

installed conditions Steel pipe) GRPTXX


Long
Rest-Fun5 0.3𝑆𝐻 + 𝑆𝑇 + 𝑆𝑋 + 𝑆𝐵 0.9 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇 N/A N/A

– Sh=0.33*Su*T (T <=1.0 for hot, Steel GRPTXX


Combined
Rest-Fun5
𝑆𝐻 − 𝑆𝐿
2
0.9 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇 N/A N/A

pipe) 2∙
2
+ 𝑆𝑡 2

Amb + TXX Rest-Exp 𝐸𝛼 𝑇1 − 𝑇2 0.9 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇 N/A N/A


GRPTXX + EXX Rest-Env5 𝑆𝑃 + 𝑆𝑇 + 𝑆𝑋 + 𝑆𝐵 0.9 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇 N/A N/A

– SE <= SA GRPTXX - EXX


Long
GRPTXX + EXX Rest-Env5 1.0 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇 N/A N/A
2
GRPTXX - EXX 𝑆𝐻 − 𝑆𝐿
2∙ + 𝑆𝑡 2
2
78 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated Combined
Restrained vs Unrestrained ASME B31.8 2012
Code Category Restrained Unrestrained

• Restrained: AutoPIPE will use


Combination Code Stress Allowable Code Stress Allowable
Max P Hoop1 𝑆y ∙ 𝐹 ∙ 𝐸 𝑆y ∙ 𝐹 ∙ 𝐸 ∙ 𝑇
HoopforAllowable
𝑃∙𝐷 𝑃∙𝐷

allowable as 0.9*Sy*T longitudinal GR + Max P Sustain2


2∙𝑡
N/A
∙𝑇
N/A
2∙𝑡
0.75 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇

stress and 1.0*Sy*T𝑆y(Combined


∙ 𝐹 ∙ 𝐸 ∙ 𝑇 tresca
𝐹𝑎
0.5𝑆𝐻 +
𝐴𝑛𝑜𝑚

stress)
+ 𝑀/𝑍𝑛𝑜𝑚
Sus. + EXX Occasional4 N/A N/A 𝑀𝑅𝑂 𝐹𝑂 0.75 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇
𝑆𝑈𝑆 + +
𝑍 𝐴
Amb + TXX Expansion N/A N/A 𝑓ሾ1.25 𝑆𝑐 + 𝑆ℎ

• Unrestrained
𝑀𝐸
𝑍
Hydrotest Func+Env N/A N/A 𝑃 ∙ 𝐷 𝑀𝑅 𝐹 0.9 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇
– Sc=0.33*SuT, (T is assumed 1.0 for cold 4∙𝑡
+
𝑍
+
𝐴

installed conditions Steel pipe)


Longitudinal Allowable
GRPTXX
Long
Rest-Fun5 0.3𝑆𝐻 + 𝑆𝑇 + 𝑆𝑋 + 𝑆𝐵 0.9 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇 N/A N/A

– Sh=0.33*Su*T (T <=1.0 for hot, Steel GRPTXX Rest-Fun5 0.9 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇 N/A N/A

pipe) 0.9∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇 Combined


2∙
𝑆𝐻 − 𝑆𝐿
2
2
+ 𝑆𝑡 2

Amb + TXX Rest-Exp 𝐸𝛼 𝑇1 − 𝑇2 0.9 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇 N/A N/A


GRPTXX + EXX Rest-Env5 𝑆𝑃 + 𝑆𝑇 + 𝑆𝑋 + 𝑆𝐵 0.9 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇 N/A N/A

– SE <= SA Combined Allowable GRPTXX - EXX


Long
GRPTXX + EXX Rest-Env5 1.0 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇 N/A N/A
1.0 ∙ 𝑆y ∙ 𝑇 GRPTXX - EXX
2∙
𝑆𝐻 − 𝑆𝐿
2
2
+ 𝑆𝑡 2
79 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated Combined
Derating Factors – Change for PVC

• Result Options, set the design factor, F = 0.32 is used for hoop stress allowable
and temperature derating factor (T) = 0.32 for other stress allowables.

Note: Since the Hoop


allowable = Sy.F. E. T, then
0.32 is applied twice so we
will use a User defined
allowable = 4000x0.32
=1280 psi

80 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Allowable Stresses…

Define Unrestrained Allowables


for PVC pipe, 0.75 Sy T =
0.75x4000x0.32 = 960psi

Restrained Allowables
Calculated Automatically

81 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


Thermal Expansion

The expansion data should be entered in units of in/100ft and is calculated as follows:
Assume ambient =70F and T1=100F, so DT=30F and alpha=3.0E-5 in/in/F
Expansion = Alpha*DT=3E-5*30*1200 in/100ft = 1.08

Alpha

82 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


PVC SIF factors
• Similar to FRP pipes and absence of other data, will assume the bend flexibility is
1.0 and bend and tee fittings have an SIF of 2.3.

Bends

Tees

83 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated


ASME B31.8 + PVC Results

84 | WWW.BENTLEY.COM | © 2014 Bentley Systems, Incorporated