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A Project Report

Submitted by


A partial fulfilment for the award of the degree







May 2019

Session 2015 – 2019



Reference …………………. Date …………………….

To whom it may concern
This is to certify that the following students Raja babu, Rohit Kumar Maurya and Sandeep Singh

Rajput have successfully completed the project entitled “Smart Blind Stick” in the academic year

2018-2019 in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of

Technology in Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Engineering and Technology Bundelkhand

University, Jhansi (U.P.).

External Examiner Internal Examiner

Dr. Laxmi Upadhyaya

Assistant Professor,
I.E.T, B.U, Jhansi (U.P.)


It gives us immense pleasure to present this project report. We, the students of Biomedical

Engineering, were given, as a part of our curriculum, to make a ‘PROJECT’ on any topic of our

choice. I and my group chosen ‘Smart Blind Stick’ as our project. We express our sincere and

profound sense of gratitude to our learned and respected Dean & Director of IET BU Jhansi and

Head of Department Prof. S.K Katiyar for sharing his experience and constant inspiration

throughout work that paved the way for the successful completion of this endeavour.

We take this privilege to express our gracious thanks and regards to Dr Laxmi Upadhyaya, for her

encouragement, co-operation and moral support during the entire project activities.

Lastly, I thank almighty, my parents, brother, sisters and friends for their constant encouragement

and invaluable support from the conceptualization and culmination of the project, without which

this assignment would not be possible.


We hereby declare that this project report on “ SMART BLIND STICK” is undertaken at

department of Biomedical engineering, Institute of Engineering & Technology Bundelkhand

University, Jhansi. And that to best of my knowledge and belief, I also hereby declare that during

this period we worked as per university norms. This project is for partial fulfilment of requirement

of degree of Bachelor of Technology in Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Engineering &

Technology Bundelkhand University, Jhansi. We have submitted the matter embodied here for the

partial fulfilment of award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Bio Medical Engineering.

Date Student Name/ Signature

Raja babu
(Roll No. 151371028012)

Rohit Kumar Maurya

(Roll No. 151371028013)

Sandeep Singh Rajput

(Roll No. 151371028014)


God gifted sense of vision to the human being is an important aspect of our life. But there are
some unfortunate people who lack the ability of visualizing things. The visually impaired have to
face many challenges in their daily life. The problem gets worse when there is an obstacle in
front of them. Blind stick is an innovative stick designed for visually disabled people for
improved navigation. The paper presents a theoretical system concept to provide a smart
ultrasonic aid for blind people. The system is intended to provide overall measures – Artificial
vision and object detection. The aim of the overall system is to provide a low cost and efficient
navigation aid for a visually impaired person who gets a sense of artificial vision by providing
information about the environmental scenario of static and dynamic objects around them.
Ultrasonic sensors are used to calculate distance of the obstacles around the blind person to guide
the user towards the available path. Output is in the form of sequence of beep sound which the
blind person can hear.


Front page i
Certificate ii
Acknowledgment iii
Declaration iv
Abstract v
3.1 Brief Review 6
3.2 Objective 6
4.1 Major Hardware Components Used 8
4.2 Ultrasonic Sensor 9-11
4.2.1 Ultrasonic Sensor 9
4.2.2 Operation Of Ultrasonic Sensors 9
4.2.3 Ultrasonic Obstacle Detection 10
4.2.4 Features 11
4.2.5 Specifications 11
4.3 Light Dependent Resistor 12-15
4.3.1 Light Dependent Resistor 12
4.3.2 Ldr / Photoresistor Symbol 12
4.3.3 Photoresistor / Ldr Structure 13
4.3.4 Working Of Ldr 13
4.3.5 Light Dependent Resistor Specifications 14
4.3.6 Photoresistor / Ldr Latency 15
4.4 Water Sensor 16-17
4.4.1 Water Sensor 16
4.4.2 Operation Of Water Sensor 16
4.4.3 Connection To Arduino Uno 17
4.4.4 Features 17
4.4.5 Pin Definition 17

4.5 Arduino Uno R3 18-23
4.5.1 Introduction 18
4.5.2 Features Of Arduino Uno Board 19
4.5.3 Arduino Uno Pinout 20
4.5.4 Pin Description 21
4.5.5 Communication And Programming 22
4.5.6 Applications 23
4.6 Light Emitting Diode(Led) 24-26
4.6.1 Led 24
4.6.2 Working Principle Of Led 24
4.6.3 Applications Of Led 26
4.6.4 Advantages Of Led’s 26
4.6.5 I-V Characteristics Of Led 26
4.7 Piezo Buzzer 27-28
4.7.1 Introduction 27
4.7.2 Working 27
4.7.3 Application 28
4.8 Connecting Wires 29
4.9 Universal Serial Bus 30-32
4.9.1 Usb 30
4.9.2 Objectives 30
4.9.3 Advantages Of Usb 31
4.9.4 Limitations Of Usb 32
4.10 Battery 33
4.11 Switch 34
4.12 Resistor 35
5.1 Connection Of Device 37-40
5.1.1 Ultrasonic Sensor To Arduino Uno 37
5.1.2 Water Sensor To Arduino 38
5.1.3 Ldr(Photoresistor ) To Arduino 39
5.1.4 Buzzer Connection To Arduino 40
5.2 Working Explanation 41-42
7.1 Advantage Of Device 48
7.2 Application Of Device 48
8.1 Scope Of Device 50
8.2 Enhancement Of Device 50
10 REFERENCE 53-54



Fig 4.1. Working Of Ultrasonic Sensor 9

Fig 4.2. Ultrasonic Obstacle Detection 10
Fig 4.3. Ultrasonic Sensor 10
Fig 4.4. Light Dependent Resistor 12
Fig 4.5. Photoresistor Symbol 13
Fig 4.6. Ldr Structure 13
Fig 4.7. Connection Of Ldr To Arduino 15
Fig 4.8. Water Sensor 16
Fig 4.9. Water Sensor Connection 17
Fig 4.10. Arduino Uno R3 18
Fig 4.11. Arduino Uno R3 And Atmega328 Pin Definition 19
Fig 4.12. Arduino Uno Pinout 21
Fig 4.13. Light Emitting Diodes 24
Fig 4.14. Working Principle Of Led 25
Fig 4.15. I-V Characteristics Of Led 26
Fig 4.16. Piezo Buzzer 27
Fig 4.17. Connecting Wires 29
Fig 4.18. Usb 31
Fig 4.19. Battery 33
Fig 4.20. Switch 34
Fig 4.21. Resistor 35
Fig 5.1 Connection Of Ultrasonic Sensor To Arduino 38
Fig 5.2 Connection Of Water Sensor To Arduino 38
Fig 5.3 Connection Of Ldr To Arduino 39
Fig 5.4 Connection Of Buzzer To Arduino 40
Fig 5.5 Circuit Diagram Of Device 41
Fig 5.6 Smart Blind Stick 42



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There are approximately 37 million people across the globe who are blind, over 15 million
are from India. Even for the non-visually impaired the congestion of obstacles is sometimes
problematic, it’s even worse for the visually impaired. People with visual disabilities are
often dependent on external assistance which can be provided by humans, trained dogs, or
special electronic devices as support systems for decision making. Existing devices are able
to detect and recognize objects that emerge on the floor, but a considerable risk is also
includes the objects that are at a sudden depth, or obstacles above waist level or stairs. Thus
we were motivated to develop a smart white cane to overcome these limitations. The most
common tool that the blind currently use to navigate is the standard white cane. We decided
to modify and enhance the walking cane, since blind are only able to detect objects by touch
or by cane.[1] In the past different systems are designed with limitations without a solid
understanding of the non-visual perception. Some of the systems are only for indoor
navigations, and has no hurdle detection and determining location feature in outdoor
environment. Researchers have spent the decades to develop an intelligent and smart stick to
assist and alert visually impaired persons from obstacles and give information about their
location The user sweeps the cane back and forth in front of them. When the cane hits an
object or falls off of the edge of a stair, the user then becomes aware of the obstacle –
sometimes too late. We accomplished this goal by adding ultrasonic sensors at specific
positions to the cane that provided information about the environment to the user through
audio feedback. Total blindness is the complete lack of form and visual light perception and
is clinically recorded as NLP, an abbreviation as “no light perception”. Blindness is
frequently used to describe severe visual impairment with residual vision. Those described as
having only light perception have no more sight than the ability to tell light from dark and the
general direction of a light source. The system has been developed using both the hardware
and software implementations. The main component of this system is the Radio-Frequency
module which is used to find the stick if it is misplaced around.

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Vision is the most important part of human physiology as 83% of information human being
gets from the environment is via sight. The 2011 statistics by the World Health Organization
(WHO) estimates that there are 285 million people in world with visual impairment, 39
billion of which are blind and 246 with low vision [2]. The traditional and oldest mobility
aids for persons with visual impairments are the walking cane (also called white cane or
stick) and guide dogs. The most important drawbacks of these aids are necessary skills and
training phase, range of motion and very little information conveyed. With the rapid advances
of modern technology, both in hardware and software front have brought potential to provide
intelligent navigation capabilities. Recently there has been a lot of Electronic Travel Aids
(ETA) designed and devised to help the blind navigate independently and safely. Also high-
end technological solutions have been introduced recently to help blind persons to navigate
independently. Many blind guidance systems use ultrasound because of its immunity to the
environmental noise. Another reason why ultrasonic is popular is that the technology is
relatively inexpensive, and also ultrasound emitters and detectors are small enough to be
carried without the need for complex circuit. Blind people have used canes as mobility tools
for centuries, but it was not until after World War I that the white cane was introduced.

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Numerous attempts have been made in the society to help the blind. “Project Prakash” is a
humanitarian mission to help the blind children especially by training them to utilize their
brains to learn a set of objects around them [3]. The stick has a ping sonar sensor to sense the
distant objects. It also has a wet detector to detect the water. The micro-controller used is PIC
microcontroller. The microcontroller circuit is on the outside of the stick but is protected with
a code so its security cannot be breached. The only feedback given to the user is through the
vibration motor [4]. Three sensors are used viz. ultrasonic, pit sensor and the water sensor.
Even this is a PIC based system. The feedback given is through the vibration as well as the
speaker/headphones. There is a GPS system where-in the user has to feed his location. No
information on how a blind man would do that. Also they haven’t mentioned anything about
the size and shape of their cane and neither.
A Navbelt was developed by Shovalet. al [5], an obstacle avoidance wearable portable
computer which is only for indoor navigation. Navbelt was equipped with two modes, in the
first one the system information was translated to audio in different sounds. One sound for
free for travel direction and other for blocked, it was difficult for the person to differentiate
the sounds. Other problem was the system would not know the user momentary position.
A stick for distance measurement using infrared sensors, have introduced by S. Innet and N.
Ritnoom [6] which is a complex and time wasting process. The stick has different vibration
modes for different range which is difficult for a blind to differentiate, it needs time for
training. The stick informs the person clearly at dangerous stage which conveys less
information and safety. The stick has no location and positioning features.

1) The ultrasonic sensor is used to detect the presence of obstacle and calculates the
distance between the source and destination.
2) Light sensor is used to detect the presence or absence of light.
3) Water sensor is used to detect the presence of water.
4) Anti theft protection.
5) Warning through voice

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1) Ultrasonic Sensor
2) Light Dependent Resistor
3) Water Sensor
4) Arduino Uno R3
5) Light Emitting Diode(Led)
6) Piezo Buzzer
7) Connecting Wires
8) Universal Serial Bus
9) Battery
10) Switch
11) Resistor

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4.2.1 Ultrasonic Sensor
As the name indicates, ultrasonic sensors measure distance by using ultrasonic waves.
The sensor head emits an ultrasonic wave and receives the wave reflected back from the
target. Ultrasonic Sensors measure the distance to the target by measuring the time between
the emission and reception.
An optical sensor has a transmitter and receiver, whereas an ultrasonic sensor uses a single
ultrasonic element for both emission and reception. In a reflective model ultrasonic sensor, a
single oscillator emits and receives ultrasonic waves alternately. This enables miniaturization
of the sensor head.

Distance L

Fig 4.1 Working of Ultrasonic sensor

4.2.2 Operation Of Ultrasonic Sensors

When an electrical pulse of high voltage is applied to the ultrasonic transducer it vibrates
across a specific spectrum of frequencies and generates a burst of sound waves. Whenever
any obstacle comes ahead of the ultrasonic sensor the sound waves will reflect back in the
form of echo and generates an electric pulse. It calculates the time taken between sending
sound waves and receiving echo. The echo patterns will be compared with the patterns of
sound waves to determine detected signal’s condition.

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4.2.3 Ultrasonic Obstacle Detection

Ultrasonic sensors are used to detect the presence of targets and to measure the distance to
targets in many robotized processing plants and process plants. Sensors with an ON or OFF
digital output are available for detecting the presence of objects and sensors with an analog
output which changes relatively to the sensor to target separation distance are commercially

Fig 4.2 Ultrasonic Obstacle Detection

Ultrasonic obstacle sensor consists of a set of ultrasonic receiver and transmitter which
operate at the same frequency. The point when the something moves in the zone secured the
circuit’s fine offset is aggravated and the buzzer/alarm is triggered. The ultrasonic waves can
reflect off a glass or liquid surface and return to the sensor head, even transparent targets can
be detected. Detection is not affected by accumulation of dust or dirt. Presence detection is
stable even for targets such as mesh trays or springs.

Fig 4.3 Ultrasonic sensor

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4.2.4 Features
1) Power consumption of 20mA
2) Pulse in/out communication
3) Narrow acceptance angle
4) Provides exact, non-contact separation estimations within 2cm to 3m
5) The explosion point LED shows estimations in advancement
6) 3-pin header makes it simple to connect utilizing a servo development link.
4.2.5 Specifications
1) Power supply: 5V DC
2) Quiescent current: <15mA
3) Effectual angle: <15°
4) Ranging distance: 2cm – 350 cm
5) Resolution: 0.3 cm
6) Output cycle: 50ms
The sensor detects objects by emitting a short ultrasonic burst and then listening for the eco.
Under control of a host microcontroller, the sensor emits a short 40 KHz explosion. This
explosion ventures or travels through the air, hits an article and after that bounces once again
to the sensor.
The sensor provides an output pulse to the host that will terminate when the echo is detected;
hence the width of one pulse to the next is taken into calculation by a program to provide
result in distance of the object.
The distance can be calculated with the following formula:
Distance L = 1/2 x T x C
where L is the distance, T is the time between the emission and reception, and C is the sonic
speed. (The value is multiplied by 1/2 because T is the time for go-and-return distance).

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4.3.1 Light Dependent Resistor
Light dependent resistors, LDRs or photoresistors are often used in circuits where it is
necessary to detect the presence or the level of light.
They can be described by a variety of names from light dependent resistor, LDR,
photoresistor, or even photo cell, photocell or photoconductor.
Although other devices such as photodiodes or photo-transistor can also be used, LDRs or
photoresistors are a particularly convenient electronics component to use. They provide large
change in resistance for changes in light level.
In view of their low cost, ease of manufacture, and ease of use LDRs have been used in a
variety of different applications. At one time LDRs were used in photographic light meters,
and even now they are still used in a variety of applications where it is necessary to detect
light levels.

Fig 4.4 Light Dependent Resistor

4.3.2 LDR / Photoresistor Symbol

The LDR symbol used in circuits is based around the resistor circuit symbol, but shows the
light, in the form of arrows shining on it. In this way it follows the same convention used for
photodiode and phototransistor circuit symbols where arrows are used to show the light
falling on these components.

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The light dependent resistor / photoresistor circuit symbols are shown for both the newer
style resistor symbol, i.e. a rectangular box and the older zig-zag line resistor circuit symbols.

Fig 4.5 Photoresistor Symbol

4.3.3 Photoresistor / LDR structure

Strucurally the photoresistor is a light sensitive resistor that has a horizontal body that is
exposed to light. The active semiconductor region is normally deposited onto a semi-
insulating substrate and the active region is normally lightly doped.. In many discrete
photoresistor devices, an interdigital pattern is used to increase the area of the photoresistor
that is exposed to light.

Fig 4.6 LDR structure

4.3.4 Working of LDR

It is relatively easy to understand the basics of how an LDR works without delving into
complicated explanations. It is first necessary to understand that an electrical current consists
of the movement of electrons within a material. Good conductors have a large number of free
electrons that can drift in a given direction under the action of a potential difference.

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Insulators with a high resistance have very few free electrons, and therefore it is hard to make
the them move and hence a current to flow.
An LDR or photoresistor is made any semiconductor material with a high resistance. It has a
high resistance because there are very few electrons that are free and able to move - the vast
majority of the electrons are locked into the crystal lattice and unable to move. Therefore in
this state there is a high LDR resistance.
As light falls on the semiconductor, the light photons are absorbed by the semiconductor
lattice and some of their energy is transferred to the electrons. This gives some of them
sufficient energy to break free from the crystal lattice so that they can then conduct
electricity. This results in a lowering of the resistance of the semiconductor and hence the
overall LDR resistance.
The process is progressive, and as more light shines on the LDR semiconductor, so more
electrons are released to conduct electricity and the resistance falls further.

4.3.5 Light dependent resistor specifications

1) Max power dissipation - 200mW
2) Max voltage @ 0 lux - 200V
3) Peak wavelength - 600nm
4) Min. resistance @ 10lux - 1.8kΩ
5) Max. resistance @ 10lux - 4.5kΩ
6) Typ. resistance @ 100lux - 0.7kΩ
7) Dark resistance after 1 sec - 0.03MΩ
8) Dark resistance after 5 sec - 0.25MΩ

LDRs are very useful components that can be used for a variety of light sensing applications.
As the LDR resistance varies over such a wide range, they are particularly useful, and there
are many LDR circuits available beyond any shown here. In order to utilise these
components, it is necessary to know something of how an LDR works, which has been
explained above.

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4.3.6 Photoresistor / LDR latency

One important aspect associated with photoresists or light dependent resistors is that of the
latency, or the time taken for the component to respond to any changes.
It takes a noticeable amount of time from any changes in light level before the LDR /
photoresists attains its final value for the new level of light and for this reason the LDR /
photo resistor is not a good choice where there are reasonably rapid changing values of light.
However when the light changes take place over a period of time they are more than
The rate at which the resistance changes is called the resistance recovery rate. The LDR /
photoresists normally responds within a few tens of milliseconds when light is applied after
total darkness, but when light is removed it can take up to a second or so for the resistance to
reach its final level.
It is for this reason that one of the specifications normally quoted in the photoresistor
datasheets is the dark resistance after a given time, typically in seconds. Often two values are
quoted, one for one second and another for five seconds. These given an indication of the
latency of the resistor.

Fig 4.7 Connection of LDR to Arduino

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4.4.1 Water Sensor
Water sensor brick is designed for water detection, which can be widely used in sensing
rainfall, water level, and even liquid leakage.

Fig 4.8 Water Sensor

Connecting a water sensor to an Arduino is a great way to detect a leak, spill, flood, rain,
etc. It can be used to detect the presence, the level, the volume and/or the absence of water.
While this could be used to remind you to water your plants, there is a better Grove sensor
for that. The sensor has an array of exposed traces, which read LOW when water is detected.
4.4.2 Operation of water sensor
Water sensor brick is designed for water detection, which can be widely used in sensing the
rainfall, water level, even the liquate leakage. The brick is mainly comprised of three parts:
An Electronic brick connector, a 1 MΩ resistor, and several lines of bare conducting wires.
This sensor works by having a series of exposed traces connected to ground and interlaced
between the grounded traces are the sens traces. The sensor traces have a weak pull-up
resistor of 1 MΩ. The resistor will pull the sensor trace value high until a drop of water shorts
the sensor trace to the grounded trace. Believe it or not this circuit will work with the digital
I/O pins of your Arduino or you can use it with the analog pins to detect the amount of water
induced contact between the grounded and sensor traces. This item can judge the water level
through with a series of exposed parallel wires stitch to measure the water droplet/water size.
This High Sensitivity Water Sensor can easily change the water size to analog signal, and
output analog value can directly be used in the program function, then to achieve the function
of water level alarm. This item have low power consumption, and high sensitivity, which are
the biggest characteristics of this module. The High Sensitivity Water Sensor can be
compatible with Arduino UNO, Arduino mega2560,Arduino ADK etc.

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4.4.3 Connection to Arduino Uno

The +5 v pin of the water sensor should be connected to arduino 5v or 3.5 v pin or Vin pin as
to supply it they require voltage. The ground of water sensor is o be connected to the ground
of the arduino in the way to complete the circuit. The S pin on the water sensor is the analog
data pin, this pin is the heart of the water sensor this pin provide the basic water presence

Fig 4.9 Water sensor connection

4.4.4 Features
 Working voltage: 5V
 Working Current: <20ma
 Interface: Analog
 Width of detection: 40mm×16mm
 Working Temperature: 10°C~30°C
 Weight: 3g
 Size: 65mm×20mm×8mm
 Arduino compatible interface
 Low power consumption
 High sensitivity
 Output voltage signal: 0~4.2V
4.4.5 Pin definition
 "S" stand for signal input
 "+" stand for power supply
 "-" stand for GND

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4.5.1 Introduction
 Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board developed by which is an open-source
electronics platform mainly based on AVR microcontroller Atmega328.
 First Arduino project was started in Interaction Design Institute Ivrea in 2003 by David
Cuartielles and Massimo Banzi with the intention of providing a cheap and flexible way to
students and professional for controlling a number of devices in the real world.
 The current version of Arduino Uno comes with USB interface, 6 analog input pins, 14
I/O digital ports that are used to connect with external electronic circuits. Out of 14 I/O
ports, 6 pins can be used for PWM output.
 It allows the designers to control and sense the external electronic devices in the real

Fig 4.10 Arduino Uno R3

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 This board comes with all the features required to run the controller and can be directly
connected to the computer through USB cable that is used to transfer the code to the
controller using IDE (Integrated Development Environment) software, mainly developed
to program Arduino. IDE is equally compatible with Windows, MAC or Linux Systems,
however, Windows is preferable to use. Programming languages like C and C++ are used
in IDE.
 Apart from USB, battery or AC to DC adopter can also be used to power the board.
 Arduino Uno boards are quite similar to other boards in Arduino family in terms of use
and functionality, however, Uno boards don’t come with FTDI USB to Serial driver chip.
 There are many versions of Uno boards available, however, Arduino Nano V3 and
Arduino Uno are the most official versions that come with Atmega328 8-bit AVR Atmel
microcontroller where RAM memory is 32KB.
 When nature and functionality of the task go complex, Mirco SD card can be added in the
boards to make them store more information.
4.5.2 Features of Arduino Uno Board
 Arduino Uno comes with USB interface i.e. USB port is added on the board to develop
serial communication with the computer.
 Atmega328 microcontroller is placed on the board that comes with a number of features
like timers, counters, interrupts, PWM, CPU, I/O pins and based on a 16MHz clock that
helps in producing more frequency and number of instructions per cycle.

Fig 4.11 Arduino Uno R3 and ATmega328 Pin definition

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 It is an open source platform where anyone can modify and optimize the board based on
the number of instructions and task they want to achieve.
 This board comes with a built-in regulation feature which keeps the voltage under control
when the device is connected to the external device.
 Reset pin is added in the board that reset the whole board and takes the running program
in the initial stage. This pin is useful when board hangs up in the middle of the running
program; pushing this pin will clear everything up in the program and starts the program
right from the beginning.
 There are 14 I/O digital and 6 analog pins incorporated in the board that allows the
external connection with any circuit with the board. These pins provide the flexibility and
ease of use to the external devices that can be connected through these pins. There is no
hard and fast interface required to connect the devices to the board. Simply plug the
external device into the pins of the board that are laid out on the board in the form of the
 The 6 analog pins are marked as A0 to A5 and come with a resolution of 10bits. These
pins measure from 0 to 5V, however, they can be configured to the high range
using analogReference() function and AREF pin.
 13KB of flash memory is used to store the number of instructions in the form of code.
 Only 5 V is required to turn the board on, which can be achieved directly using USB port
or external adopter, however, it can support external power source up to 12 V which can
be regulated and limit to 5 V or 3.3 V based on the requirement of the project.

4.5.3 Arduino Uno Pinout

Arduino Uno is based on AVR microcontroller called Atmega328. This controller comes
with 2KB SRAM, 32KB of flash memory, 1KB of EEPROM. Arduino Board comes with 14
digital pins and 6 analog pins. ON-chip ADC is used to sample these pins. A 16 MHz
frequency crystal oscillator is equipped on the board. Following figure shows the pinout of
the Arduino Uno Board.

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Fig 4.12 Arduino Uno Pinout

4.5.4 Pin Description

There are several I/O digital and analog pins placed on the board which operates at 5V. These
pins come with standard operating ratings ranging between 20mA to 40mA. Internal pull-up
resistors are used in the board that limits the current exceeding from the given operating
conditions. However, too much increase in current makes these resisters useless and damages
the device.
LED. Arduino Uno comes with built-in LED which is connected through pin 13. Providing
HIGH value to the pin will turn it ON and LOW will turn it OFF.
Vin. It is the input voltage provided to the Arduino Board. It is different than 5 V supplied
through a USB port. This pin is used to supply voltage. If a voltage is provided through
power jack, it can be accessed through this pin.
5V. This board comes with the ability to provide voltage regulation. 5V pin is used to provide
output regulated voltage. The board is powered up using three ways i.e. USB, Vin pin of the
board or DC power jack.
USB supports voltage around 5V while Vin and Power Jack support a voltage ranges between
7V to 20V. It is recommended to operate the board on 5V. It is important to note that, if a
voltage is supplied through 5V or 3.3V pins, they result in bypassing the voltage regulation
that can damage the board if voltage surpasses from its limit.

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GND. These are ground pins. More than one ground pins are provided on the board which
can be used as per requirement.
Reset. This pin is incorporated on the board which resets the program running on the board.
Instead of physical reset on the board, IDE comes with a feature of resetting the board
through programming.
IOREF. This pin is very useful for providing voltage reference to the board. A shield is used
to read the voltage across this pin which then select the proper power source.
PWM. PWM is provided by 3,5,6,9,10, 11pins. These pins are configured to provided 8-bit
output PWM.
SPI. It is known as Serial Peripheral Interface. Four pins 10(SS), 11(MOSI), 12(MISO),
13(SCK) provide SPI communication with the help of SPI library.
AREF. It is called Analog Reference. This pin is used for providing a reference voltage to the
analog inputs.
TWI. It is called Two-wire Interface. TWI communication is accessed through Wire Library.
A4 and A5 pins are used for this purpose.
Serial Communication. Serial communication is carried out through two pins called Pin 0
(Rx) and Pin 1 (Tx).
Rx pin is used to receive data while Tx pin is used to transmit data.
External Interrupts. Pin 2 and 3 are used for providing external interrupts. An interrupt is
called by providing LOW or changing value.

4.5.5 Communication and Programming

Arduino Uno comes with an ability of interfacing with other other Arduino boards,
microcontrollers and computer. The Atmega328 placed on the board provides serial
communication using pins like Rx and Tx.
The Atmega16U2 incorporated on the board provides a pathway for serial communication
using USB com drivers. Serial monitor is provided on the IDE software which is used to send
or receive text data from the board. If LEDs placed on the Rx and Tx pins will flash,
they indicate the transmission of data.
Arduino Uno is programmed using Arduino Software which is a cross-platform application
called IDE written in Java. The AVR microcontroller Atmega328 laid out on the base comes
with builtin bootloader that sets you free from using a separate burner to upload the program
on the board.

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Arduino Uno comes with a wide range of applications. A larger number of people are using
Arduino boards for developing sensors and instruments that are used in scientific
research. Following are some main applications of the board.
 Embedded System
 Security and Defense System
 Digital Electronics and Robotics
 Parking Lot Counter
 Weighing Machines
 Traffic Light Count Down Timer
 Medical Instrument
 Emergency Light for Railways
 Home Automation
 Industrial Automation
There are a lot of other microcontrollers available in the market that are more powerful and
cheap as compared to Arduino board. So, why you prefer Arduino Uno?
Actually, Arduino comes with a big community that is developing and sharing the knowledge
with a wide range of audience. Quick support is available pertaining to technical aspects of
any electronic project. When you decide Arduino board over other controllers, you don’t
need to arrange extra peripherals and devices as most of the functions are readily available on
the board that makes your project economical in nature and free from a lot of technical
That’s all for today. I hope you have got a lot of information regarding Arduino Uno board.
However, if you are unsure or have any question you can approach me in the comment
section below. I’d love to help you according to best of my knowledge. Keep your feedback
and suggestions coming; they help us provide you quality work that resonates with your
needs and requirements. Thanks for reading the article.

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4.6.1 LED
Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor light sources. The light emitted from LEDs
varies from visible to infrared and ultraviolet regions. They operate on low voltage and
power. LEDs are one of the most common electronic components and are mostly used as
indicators in circuits. They are also used for luminance and optoelectronic applications.
Based on semiconductor diode, LEDs emit photons when electrons recombine with holes on
forward biasing. The two terminals of LEDs are anode (+) and cathode (-) and can be
identified by their size. The longer leg is the positive terminal or anode and shorter one is
negative terminal.
The forward voltage of LED (1.7V-2.2V) is lower than the voltage supplied (5V) to drive it
in a circuit. Using an LED as such would burn it because a high current would destroy its p-n
gate. Therefore a current limiting resistor is used in series with LED. Without this resistor,
either low input voltage (equal to forward voltage) or PWM (pulse width modulation) is used
to drive the LED. Get details about internal structure of a LED.

Fig 4.13 Light emitting diodes

4.6.2 Working Principle of LED

The working principle of the Light emitting diode is based on the quantum theory. The
quantum theory says that when the electron comes down from the higher energy level to the
lower energy level then, the energy emits from the photon. The photon energy is equal to the
energy gap between these two energy levels. If the PN-junction diode is in the forward
biased, then the current flows through the diode.
The flow of current in the semiconductors is caused by the both flow of holes in the opposite
direction of current and flow of electrons in the direction of the current. Hence there will be
recombination due to the flow of these charge carriers.

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The recombination indicates that the electrons in the conduction band jump down to the
valence band. When the electrons jump from one band to another band the electrons will emit
the electromagnetic energy in the form of photons and the photon energy is equal to the
forbidden energy gap.
For an example, let us consider the quantum theory, the energy of the photon is the product of
both Planck constant and frequency of electromagnetic radiation. The mathematical equation
is shown
Eq = hf
Where h is known as a Planck constant, and the velocity of electromagnetic radiation is equal
to the speed of light i.e c. The frequency radiation is related to the velocity of light as a f= c /
λ. λ is denoted as a wavelength of an electromagnetic radiation and the above equation will
become as a
Eq = he / λ
From the above equation, we can say that the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation is
inversely proportional to the forbidden gap. In general silicon, germanium semiconductors
this forbidden energy gap is between the condition and valence bands are such that the total
radiation of electromagnetic wave during recombination is in the form of the infrared
radiation. We can’t see the wavelength of infrared because they are out of our visible range.
The infrared radiation is said to be as a heat because the silicon and the germanium
semiconductors are not direct gap semiconductors rather these are indirect gap
semiconductors. But in the direct gap semiconductors, the maximum energy level of the
valence band and minimum energy level of conduction band does not occur at the same
moment of electrons. Therefore, during the recombination of electrons and holes are a
migration of electrons from the conduction band to valence band the momentum of electron
band will be changed.

Fig 4.14 working principle of LED

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4.6.3 Applications of LED

There are many applications of the LED and some of them are explained below.
 LED is used as a bulb in the homes and industries
 The light emitting diodes are used in the motorcycles and cars
 These are used in the mobile phones to display the message
 At the traffic light signals led’s are used
4.6.4 Advantages of LED’s
 The cost of LED’s is less and they are tiny.
 By using the LED’s the electricity is controlled.
 The intensity of the LED differs with the help of the microcontroller.

4.6.5 I-V Characteristics of LED

There are different types of light emitting diodes are available in the market and there are
different LED characteristics which include the color light, or wavelength radiation, light
intensity. The important characteristic of the LED is color. In the starting use of LED, there is
the only red color. As the use of LED is increased with the help of the semiconductor process
and doing the research on the new metals for LED, the different colors were formed.

Fig 4.15 I-V Characteristics of LED

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4.7.1 Introduction
Piezo buzzer is an electronic device commonly used to produce sound. Light weight, simple
construction and low price make it usable in various applications like car/truck reversing
indicator, computers, call bells etc. Piezo buzzer is based on the inverse principle of piezo
electricity discovered in 1880 by Jacques and Pierre Curie. It is the phenomena of generating
electricity when mechanical pressure is applied to certain materials and the vice versa is also
true. Such materials are called piezo electric materials. Piezo electric materials are either
naturally available or manmade. Piezoceramic is class of manmade material, which poses
piezo electric effect and is widely used to make disc, the heart of piezo buzzer. When
subjected to an alternating electric field they stretch or compress, in accordance with the
frequency of the signal thereby producing sound.

Fig 4.16 - Piezo Buzzer

4.7.2 Working
When a small DC voltage is applied to the input pins, it is first converted to an oscillating
signal using the combination of resistor and transistor. These oscillating signals are amplified
using the inductor coil. When high voltage alternating signals are applied to the piezo
ceramic disc, it causes mechanical expansion and contraction in radial direction. This causes
the metal plate to bend in opposite direction. When metal plate bends and shrinks in opposite
direction continuously it produces sound waves in the air.

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4.7.3 Application
While technological advancements have caused buzzers to be impractical and undesirable
there are still instances in which buzzers and similar circuits may be used. Present day
applications include:
 Novelty uses
 Judging panels
 Educational purposes
 Annunciator panels
 Electronic metronomes
 Game show lock-out device
 Microwave ovens and other household appliances
 Sporting events such as basketball games
 Electrical alarms
 Joy buzzer (mechanical buzzer used for pranks)

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Jump wires (also called as jumper wire) for solderless breadboarding can be obtained in ready
to use jump wire sets or can be manually manufactured.The latter can become tedious work
for larger circuits .Ready to use jumer wire come in different qualities some even with tiny
plugs attached to the wire end.Jump wire material for ready-made or homemade wires should
usually be 22AWG (0.33mm square) solid copper,tin-plated wire-assuming no tiny plugs
attached to the wire ends.The wire ends should be stripped 3/16 to 5/16 in (4.8to
7.9mm).Shorter stripped wires might result in bad contact with the boards spring
clips(insulation being caught in the springs).Longer stripped wires increase the likelihood of
short –circuits on the board.Needle –nose pliers and tweezers are helpful when inserting or
removing wires, are often adhered to for consistency.However, the number of available
colors is typically far fewer than the number of signal types or paths.

Fig 4.17 Connecting Wires

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4.9.1 USB
USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus) is an industry standard that establishes
specifications for cables, connectors and protocolsfor connection, communication and power
supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices. Released in 1996, the USB
standard is currently maintained by the USB Implementers Forum (USB IF). There have been
three generations of USB specifications: USB 1.x, USB 2.0 and USB 3.x; the fourth
called USB4 is scheduled to be published in the middle of 2019
USB was designed to standardize the connection of peripherals like keyboards, pointing
devices, digital still and video cameras, printers, portable media players, disk
drives and network adapters to personal computers, both to communicate and to
supply electric power. It has largely replaced interfaces such as serial ports and parallel ports,
and has become commonplace on a wide range of devices.
USB connectors have been increasingly replacing other types for battery chargers of portable
4.9.2 Objectives
The Universal Serial Bus was developed to simplify and improve the interface between
personal computers and peripheral devices, when compared with previously existing standard
or ad-hoc proprietary interfaces.
From the computer user's perspective, the USB interface improved ease of use in several
ways. The USB interface is self-configuring, so the user need not adjust settings on the
device and interface for speed or data format, or configure interrupts, input/output addresses,
or direct memory access channels.[USB connectors are standardized at the host, so any
peripheral can use any available receptacle. USB takes full advantage of the additional
processing power that can be economically put into peripheral devices so that they can
manage themselves; USB devices often do not have user-adjustable interface settings. The
USB interface is "hot pluggable", meaning devices can be exchanged without rebooting the
host computer. Small devices can be powered directly from the USB interface, displacing
extra power supply cables. Because use of the USB logos is only permitted after compliance
testing, the user can have confidence that a USB device will work as expected without
extensive interaction with settings and configuration; the USB interface defines protocols for
recovery from common errors, improving reliability over previous interfaces. Installation of a
device relying on the USB standard requires minimal operator action. When a device is

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plugged into a port on a running personal computer system, it is either entirely automatically
configured using existing device drivers, or the system prompts the user to locate a driver
which is then installed and configured automatically.
For hardware manufacturers and software developers, the USB standard eliminates the
requirement to develop proprietary interfaces to new peripherals. The wide range of transfer
speeds available from a USB interface suits devices ranging from keyboards and mice up to
streaming video interfaces. A USB interface can be designed to provide the best available
latency for time-critical functions, or can be set up to do background transfers of bulk data
with little impact on system resources. The USB interface is generalized with no signal lines
dedicated to only one function of one device.

Fig 4.18 USB


1) The universal serial bus is easy to use.
2) It has robust connector system.
3) It has low cost.
4) It has variety of connector types and size available.
5) It has true plug and play nature.
6) It has Low power consumption.
7) Daisy chain up to 127 USB components / peripherals at the same time to one PC.
8) Fits almost all devices that have a USB port.

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USB cables are limited in length, as the standard was meant to connect to peripherals on the
same table-top, not between rooms or between buildings. However, a USB port can be
connected to a gateway that accesses distant devices. USB has a strict "tree" topology and
"master-slave" protocol for addressing peripheral devices; peripheral devices cannot interact
with one another except via the host, and two hosts cannot communicate over their USB ports
directly. Some extension to this limitation is possible through USB On-The-Go. A host
cannot "broadcast" signals to all peripherals at once, each must be addressed individually.
Some very high speed peripheral devices require sustained speeds not available in the USB
standard.While converters exist between certain "legacy" interfaces and USB, they may not
provide full implementation of the legacy hardware; for example, a USB to parallel port
converter may work well with a printer, but not with a scanner that requires bi-directional use
of the data pins.
For a product developer, use of USB requires implementation of a complex protocol and
implies an "intelligent" controller in the peripheral device. Developers of USB devices
intended for public sale generally must obtain a USB ID which requires a fee paid to the
Implementers' Forum. Developers of products that use the USB specification must sign an
agreement with Implementer's Forum. Use of the USB logos on the product require annual
fees and membership in the organization.

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The nine-volt battery, or 9-volt battery, is a common size of battery that was introduced for
the early transistor radios. It has a rectangular prism shape with rounded edges and a
polarized snap connector at the top. This type is commonly used in walkie-
talkies, clocks and smoke detectors.
The nine-volt battery format is commonly available in primary carbon-zinc and alkaline
chemistry, in primary lithium iron disulfide, and in rechargeable form in nickel-cadmium,
nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. Mercury-oxide batteries of this format, once common,
have not been manufactured in many years due to their mercury content. Designations for this
format include NEDA 1604 and IEC 6F22 (for zinc-carbon) or MN1604 6LR61 (for
alkaline). The size, regardless of chemistry, is commonly designated PP3—a designation
originally reserved solely for carbon-zinc, or in some countries, E or E-block.[1]
Most nine-volt alkaline batteries are constructed of six individual 1.5 V LR61 cells enclosed
in a wrapper.[2] These cells are slightly smaller than LR8D425 AAAA cells and can be used
in their place for some devices, even though they are 3.5 mm shorter. Carbon-zinc types are
made with six flat cells in a stack, enclosed in a moisture-resistant wrapper to prevent drying.
Primary lithium types are made with three cells in series.[3]

Fig 4.19 Battery

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The most familiar form of switch is a manually operated electromechanical device with one
or more sets of electrical contacts, which are connected to external circuits. Each set of
contacts can be in one of two states: either "closed" meaning the contacts are touching and
electricity can flow between them, or "open", meaning the contacts are separated and the
switch is nonconducting. The mechanism actuating the transition between these two states
(open or closed) are usually (there are other types of actions) either an "alternate action" (flip
the switch for continuous "on" or "off") or "momentary" (push for "on" and release for "off")
A switch may be directly manipulated by a human as a control signal to a system, such as a
computer keyboard button, or to control power flow in a circuit, such as a light switch.
Automatically operated switches can be used to control the motions of machines, for
example, to indicate that a garage door has reached its full open position or that a machine
tool is in a position to accept another workpiece. Switches may be operated by process
variables such as pressure, temperature, flow, current, voltage, and force, acting as sensors in
a process and used to automatically control a system. For example, a thermostat is a
temperature-operated switch used to control a heating process. A switch that is operated by
another electrical circuit is called a relay. Large switches may be remotely operated by a
motor drive mechanism. Some switches are used to isolate electric power from a system,
providing a visible point of isolation that can be padlocked if necessary to prevent accidental
operation of a machine during maintenance, or to prevent electric shock.

Fig 4.20 Switch

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A 100KΩ resistor is being used in parallel with the kdr to prevent it from over current and to
give accurate reading in compliance with the current.

Fig- 4.21 Resistor

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By the use of different components ,like ultrasonic sensor ,water sensor and ldr
(photoresistor),this smartstick will help the blind on countering different problems faced by
him while walking on a road or in his home .The ultrasonic sensor range is set to about 80 cm
to reduce other unnecessary distortion’s, the maximum range that an ultrasonic sensor can
measure an obstacle is around 200cm,the ldr will sense the darkness to turn on the led that are
fitted on the device.A supplementary measure had also be taken by fitting it with a water
sensor that can detect water or any kind of slippery floor by extend of its capacity.the
ultrasonic and water sensor alert the person with the beep sound from a piezo buzzer.


The ultrasonic sensor has four pins namely echo, trigger, gnd , Vcc the four pins are
connected directly to the arduino uno pins,as for better detection we are using two ultrasonic
As to make to make this robust and compact we had eliminated the use of breadboard as it
would increase complexity of the device ,after eliminating the breadboard only a single way
to connect both the ultrasonic sensor together is manual soldering of wires as to make them to
single input of the arduino as connecting them to different pins can create problems in
programming and overlapping of signals, which can make the device un usable.
Pin Connection
ECHO pin of ultrasonic sensor connect to PIN 10 of arduino
TRIGGER pin of ultrasonic sensor connect to PIN 9 of arduino
Vcc pin of ultrasonic sensor connect to Vcc of arduino
Gnd pin of ultrasonic sensor connect to Gnd of arduino

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Fig 5.1 Connection of Ultrasonic sensor to Arduino

The programming of aruduino is so done that whenever a object is detected by the ultrasonic
sensor it sets the trigger pin to low and the echo pin to high ,the echo pin sends the signal to
the arduino which is output to a buzzer is given.


Fig 5.2 Connection of Water sensor to Arduino

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Water sensor basically has two pins +,- and S.Where + represents the power input –
represents the ground and S represents the analog input to arduino uno
As the fig shows
(+) pin of water sensor connect to 5v of arduino
(-)pin of water sensor connect to Gnd of arduino
S pin of water sensor connect to A0 of arduino
Water sensor draws a small amount of current from the arduino this current develops a
potential in the water sensor circuit ,as when the sensor touches water or mud the potential
related to it will change as a result of this the current changes and it sends a signal to the
arduino that the sensor is in contact with water arduino when getting this signal changes the
buzzer state from low to high and the beep sound arouses from the piezo buzzer.


Fig 5.3 Connection of LDR to Arduino

 By the use of ldr as an input input sensor a light signaling system can be made.The
coonection are shown above.
 As ldr can operate with a low voltage to it is connected to the 3.3v of the uno.

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 The other terminal of the ldr is connected in series with a resistance of 100kΩ.
 The same terimnal is bypassed to the A1 terminal of the arduino this terminal is the
analog input terminal that provides the basic input to the arduino.
 An group of led’s are connected in parallel with the port 13 of the uno to complete the
circuit one port is connected to the Gnd of the uno.
 When the ldr is dark arduino mad the led’s high and they start glowing.


Buzzer is simply connected to arduino,as in our system buzzer is really important because it
is the only way to alarm the disable about the obstacle or physical phenomena around him.

Fig 5.4 Connection of Buzzer to Arduino

Positive terminal(+) of bazaar connect to port 12 of arduino

Negative terminal(-) of bazaar connect to Gnd of arduino

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Fig 5.5 Circuit diagram of device

 Working of this smart blind stick is easy.when it is switched on the led’s will blink for
two times as this is in the shows that device has enough battery to
work properly,the buzzer also chims for a milisecond to show its working fine.
 Two 9v battery’s are connected in series to provide enough power a single 9v battery
can also power it up but not known for how long it will run.
 When its switched on all of its input sensors start working ,the ultrasonic sensor
always calculating the distance as to detect a object ,water senosr sends the input of its
potential every time it changes, and the ldr sends its bright or dark status .
 When a person is holding this stick and start walking and suppose a obstacle comes in
his way the ultrasonic sensor calculate the distance of the object if its less than or
equal to 87cm it sends and echo pulse to the arduino as this signal is an alarm to the
arduino telling it to high the buzzer as to gane the attention that something is in front
as an obstacle.

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 Now suppose its a slippery floor or any kind of mud or water in front when the tip of
the water sensor just touches the water,even the sensor is so sensitive that it alarms on
the touch of human hand as the cells have water content,then the sensor sends an input
pulse to the arduino to make the buzzer in the high state.
 As the water gets clear from the water sensor it sends the signal to the arduino to low
the buzzer.
 Now suppose its getting dark and the blind does readly checks the time to on its flash
light or any yhing the work is accomplished by the ldr as soon as it gets dark ldr sets a
signal for the arduino to make it the led high and the led starts glowing any person
around him will recognise him and may help him in need.
 We have provided a switch also so as if the stick malfunctions or perform unusually
the owner can switch it off.

Fig 5.6 Smart Blind Stick

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const int waterSens = A0;//define water sensor to pin A0

int SensorValue;//create sensor data variable
const int buzzer = 11;// Analog output pin that the buzzer is attached to

// defines pins numbers

const int trigPin = 9;
const int echoPin = 10;
const int buzzer = 11;
const int motor = 13;
const int ldrPin = A1;//the number of the LDR pin
const int ledPin = 13;//the number of the LED pin

// defines variables
long duration;
int distance;
int safetyDistance;

void setup() {
pinMode(waterSens, INPUT); //set water sensor as an input
Serial.begin(9600); // Starts the serial communication
pinMode(buzzer, OUTPUT);
pinMode(trigPin, OUTPUT); // Sets the trigPin as an Output
pinMode(echoPin, INPUT); // Sets the echoPin as an Input
pinMode(buzzer, OUTPUT);
pinMode(motor, OUTPUT);
Serial.begin(9600); // Starts the serial communication
pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT); //initialize the LED pin as an output
pinMode(ldrPin, INPUT); //initialize the LDR pin as an input

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void loop() {
int sensorValue = analogRead(waterSens);//read the water sensor value
if (sensorValue >= 50) {
digitalWrite(buzzer, HIGH);
digitalWrite(buzzer, LOW);
// Clears the trigPin
digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);

// Sets the trigPin on HIGH state for 10 micro seconds

digitalWrite(trigPin, HIGH);
digitalWrite(trigPin, LOW);

// Reads the echoPin, returns the sound wave travel time in microseconds
duration = pulseIn(echoPin, HIGH);

// Calculating the distance

distance= duration*0.034/2;

safetyDistance = distance;
if (safetyDistance <= 80){
digitalWrite(buzzer, HIGH);
digitalWrite(motor, HIGH);
digitalWrite(buzzer, LOW);
digitalWrite(motor, LOW);

// Prints the distance on the Serial Monitor

Serial.print("Distance: ");
int ldrStatus = analogRead(ldrPin); //read the status of the LDR value

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//check if the LDR status is <= 300

//if it is, the LED is HIGH

if (ldrStatus <=300) {

digitalWrite(ledPin, HIGH); //turn LED on

Serial.println("LDR is DARK, LED is ON");

else {

digitalWrite(ledPin, LOW); //turn LED off


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This device has a different approach towards the need of disabled peoples it may be not upto
the mark, but it is definetly a futuristic device which one can rely upon.For cost cutting we
have used less reliable components whose ranges are low ,one can use best suitable
component for commercial production.
7.1 Advantages of device
1. It will give boost to the moral of a blind person.
2. It has a good accuracy.
3. Based upon open source and extensible software.
4. Simple programming environment
5. This device runs on Windows, Macintosh, Osx, Linux operating systems.

7.2 Application of device

1. This device does not fall under the perview of having industrial applications.
2. Its a generic device that can help someone who is really in need.
3. Its application are limited but can be extended to hearing impared person also with the
use of a motor as a vibrator.

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8.1 Scope of Device

Although this device don’t have vast application but it surely have a great scope ,something
reliable can be achieved for a section of the society that is really vulnerable .
Its a really accurate device and can be produced on large scale to cut prices and improve

8.2 Enhancement of device

 This device can be enhanced upto a great level
 By using a R-F transmitter and Receiver ,if the blind person can not find
the stick he would just have to push the button on the remote and the
stick will make sound as where it is
 By introducing fire sensor and IR sensor.
 By introducing motor for vibration effect.
 By enabling it with gps and SOS system.
 By using rechargeable battery’s to make it perform long.
 By using gyro sensor as to when the stick falls it alarms.
 By implementing.

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The presented system is designed and configured for practical use. The system is able to
handle seven states that may face the blind people. The system will respond to each state
according to a specific program which is coded and installed in the Arduino microcontroller.
1) When obstacle is detected by the ultrasonic sensor in the left, right and front side of
the stick, then arduino send the message to the blind through buzzer and vibrator and
also send the voice message through earphone.
2) The light sensor is used to detect presence or absence of light, if there is no light then
the buzzer will be on, warning through vibration and voice message through
3) water sensor is used to detect the presence of water and send the message to the blind
through buzzer, vibrator, and also send the voice message through earphone.
A simple, cheap, configurable, easy to handle electronic guidance system is proposed to
provide constructive assistant and support for blind and visually impaired persons. The
system is designed, implemented, tested, and verified. The real-time results of the system are
encouraging; it revealed an accuracy of 93% in detecting distances. The results indicate that
the system is efficient and unique in its capability in specifying the source and distance of the
objects that may encounter the blind. It is able to scan areas left, right, and in front of the
blind person regardless of its height or depth. Therefore, it was favoured by those who
participated in the test. The ultrasonic sensor has been fully utilized in order to advance the
mobility of the blind and visual impaired people in safe and independent way.
The water and light sensors are used for the detection of presence of water and light. This
system does not require a huge device to be hold for a long distance, and it also does not
require any special training. This system also resolves limitations that are related to the most
of the movement problems that may influence the blind people in their environment.

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1) Rohit Sheth “Smart White Cane- an Elegant and Economic Walking Aid”
3) “Project Prakash”
4) Mohammad Hazzaz Mahmud, “Smart walking stick - an electronic approach to assist
visually disabled persons” “
stick-an-electronic-approach-to-assist- visually-disabled-persons.pdf”.
5) Sung Jae Kang, et al." Development of an Intelligent Guide-Stick for the Blind",
Proceeding of the IEEE international Conference on Robotics & Automation, 2001
6) Y. Kawai andF. Tomita, “A support system for visually impaired persons to
understand three-dimensional visual information using acoustic interface", IEEE
Conference on Pattern Recognition, Vol.3,pp.974-977,2002.
7) J. M. Sáez, F. Escolano, and A. Peñalver, “First steps towards stereo- based 6DOF
SLAM for the visually impaired,” in IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern
Recognition (CVPR), San Diego, USA,2005.
8) AlbertoRodriguez, et al., "Obstacle avoidance system for assisting visually impaired
people", in proceeding IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Workshop, 2012.
9) ShrutiDambhare, et al., "Smart stick for Blind: Obstacle Detection, Artificial vision
and Real-time assistance via GPS", 2nd National Conference on Information and
Communication Technology (NCICT), 2011.
10) Mohammad Hazzaz, et al., "Smart Walking Stick- an electronic approach to assist
visually disable persons", International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research
vol. 4, No. 10, 2013.
11) S.Shoval,J.Borenstein,Y.Koren,“Mobilerobotobstacleavoidanceinacomputerizedtravel

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