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1/19/2019 Antifreeze Admixtures for Concrete during Cold Weather Concreting

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Antifreeze Admixtures for Concrete during Cold Weather Conc

Freezing reduces strength of concrete by 20 to 40 % when fresh concrete is subjected to freezin


admixtures of concrete, its properties and uses in cold weather concreting are discussed.

The resistance of the fresh concrete against the freeze and thaw cycle is given by the durability
also lowered by 40 to 60%. There is 70% decrease in the bond between the reinforcement and
is normally cured.

Hence it is very essential during the concreting in cold weather conditions to ensure that the co
undergo freezing in its plastic state.

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1/19/2019 Antifreeze Admixtures for Concrete during Cold Weather Concreting

There are two methods for carrying out cold weather concreting:

price drop

1. Provision of normal ambient temperatures for the concrete. This can be done through the he
concrete ingredients or by providing heating enclosures.

2. The addition of chemical admixtures.

Conventional Chemical Admixtures in Cold Weather Concrete

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1/19/2019 Antifreeze Admixtures for Concrete during Cold Weather Concreting

Conventional concrete used calcium chloride as accelerating admixtures


(https://theconstructor.org/concrete/accelerating-water-reducing-concrete-admixtures/7274/) t
retarding e ects of slow hydration of concrete in low temperatures. This admixture is not e ec
freezing temperatures.

This is found to be a drawback in the conventional form of admixtures. Hence, for arctic weath
special admixtures are necessary. One such is antifreeze admixtures.

Antifreeze Admixtures for Concrete


The antifreeze admixtures a ect the physical condition of the mix water used in the concreting
depress the freezing point of the water to a large extent and can be used in temperatures lesse
Celsius. This can enable the extension of the period of the construction activity.

Chemical Composition and Action of Antifreeze Admixtures


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There are two groups of antifreeze admixtures that provide the characteristics of antifreeze an
setting and hardening properties.

They are:

1. First Group:

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1/19/2019 Antifreeze Admixtures for Concrete during Cold Weather Concreting

This includes chemicals, weak electrolytes, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and non-electrolytic
compounds which lower the freezing point of the water used in the concrete. But these group
accelerators to promote the setting and hardening.

2. Second Group

These include binary as well as ternary admixtures which contains potash and additives based
chloride, sodium nitrite, calcium chloride with sodium nitrite, calcium nitrite -nitrate-urea and o

These have e ective antifreeze properties and accelerating property to promote the setting an
are used in larger dosages compared to that of conventional admixtures.

One such example is the use of 8% of sodium nitrite to keep the liquid at a temperature of -15-

These admixtures function by lowering the liquid phase freezing point and by accelerating the
at the freezing temperatures.

Based on the dosage in the mixture, the non-chloride admixture enables the mix (concrete or t
placed at sub-freezing temperatures. This hence reduces the need of protective measures requ
cold weathering works.

The method improves the quality of the concrete and as it facilitates early setting, early strippin
(https://theconstructor.org/building/formwork-removal-time-speci cation/11083/) can also be
helps in the reuse of the form within a small duration and hence speed up the construction.

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1/19/2019 Antifreeze Admixtures for Concrete during Cold Weather Concreting

The table-1 shows the signi cant di erence is strength gain at 3, 7 and 28 days for plain concre
admixture used concrete.

Table.1: Concrete Compressive strength with and without antifreeze


-50% -20%

Rs. 498 Rs. 796

(As per Ratinov and Rosenburg)

Property Plain Concrete Freeze-protection Admixtu

Set time (-4 degree Celsius) – –

Compressive strength (MPa)

-4 degree Celsius (3 days) 3.4 9.24

-10 degree Celsius (7 days) 8.3 39.3

-10 degree Celsius (28 days) 18.1 49.9

It is possible for the incorporation of other admixtures that contains superplasticizers to be inc
antifreeze admixtures. The main advantage of such combination is that in totality there will be
water.

The water reduction will reduce the freezable free water content in the mix. This freezable wate
one that serves as the heat sink for the heat liberated by the initial hydration reactions. This wi
number of antifreeze admixtures.

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1/19/2019 Antifreeze Admixtures for Concrete during Cold Weather Concreting

Selection of Antifreeze admixtures


The factors based on which the selection of antifreeze admixtures is carried out are:

1. The type of structure

2. The operating Conditions

3. Protecting methods employed in winter concreting

4. Cement brand and aggregate types

A laboratory test must be carried out with the operating materials and the dosage of antifreeze
are intended to be used in the eld.

The incorporation of other admixtures like retarders, superplasticizers with antifreeze admixtu
restricted in cold weather concreting. The dosage of all the admixture that are used must be es
experimentally.

Application and Advantages of Antifreeze admixtures


The antifreeze admixtures are technologically simple and bene cial for cold weather concretin
helps in improving the cohesiveness, cold joint minimizations, sand streaking, and plasticity. Th
to provide large cost saving than other methods of steam curing or concrete enclosures.

The combination of antifreeze agents with water reducing agents or air-entraining agents will h
the resistance of concrete towards the frost action and corrosion.

Read More:

Concrete Under Weather Conditions, Underwater and Aggressive Soils


(https://theconstructor.org/concrete/concreting-under-special-conditions/381/)

What are the Types of Concrete? What are their Applications? (https://theconstructor.or
concrete-applications/19779/)

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1/19/2019 Antifreeze Admixtures for Concrete during Cold Weather Concreting

Types of Shrinkages in Concrete and its Preventions (https://theconstructor.org/concret


shrinkages-in-concrete-prevention/20384/)

About Neenu Arjun (https://theconstructor.org/author/nsneenusk/)


Neenu is a Civil and Structural Engineer and has experience in Design of Concrete and Steel Structures. She i
Partner at theconstructor.org.

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