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# COHOMOLOGY OF Λ-RINGS AND q-DE RHAM

COHOMOLOGY

## Daniel Giovany Clavijo Clavijo

danielg.clavijo@correo.usa.edu.co

Departamento de Matemáticas

## 13th September, 2018

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1. Introduction
2. q-Calculus
Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m
Λ-Rings
4. The Λ-Rings Z[q]
5. Cohomology of Λ-Rings
Hochschild cohomology Relations
q-De Rham Cohomology
6. References

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Introduction

Introduction

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Introduction

Introduction
The theory of Λ-rings was first introduced by Grothendieck (see
[Grothendieck, A. (1958)]) in the context of K -theory where a Λ-ring is
associated to graded rings representing universal Chern classes. In the
SGA 6 (Séminaire de géométrie algébrique du Bois Marie 1996-1997,
[Berthelot et al. (1971)]), Berthelot and Grothendieck when studied the
Hirzebruch-Riemann-Roch theorem (see [Hirzebruch, F. (1956)]) involved
functorial properties of Chern classes, founded a formalism of this
structure. One way to define the Λ-ring is using an axiomatization of the
algebraic properties of exterior power operations when they act on vector
spaces, vector bundles and linear representation of groups. So, a Λ-ring is
a commutative ring together with λi -operations (i ≥ 0).

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q-Calculus

q-Calculus

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q-Calculus

q-Calculus

## Definition [Kac, V., & Cheung, P. (2001)]

The q-derivative of the function f is defined as

δq f (x ) f (qx ) − f (x )
Dq (f (x )) = = , x 6= 0
δq x (q − 1) x

## where q is a fixed number different of 1 and (Dq f )(0) = f 0 (0). f is

supposed to be differentiable at 0 such that f 0 is the classical derivative.

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q-Calculus

Example
The q-derivative of f (x ) = x n, where ”n” is a positive integer
(n ∈ N \ {0}) is by definition

(qx )n − x n
Dq (x n ) =
qx − x
q n − 1 n−1
= x
q−1

## The called q-bracket or q-analogue of n denote by [n]q is defined as

qn − 1
[n]q =
q−1
Observe that the simplified derivative of x n is Dq (x n ) = [ n ]q x n−1 .
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q-Calculus

q-Calculus

Definition
The q-factorial is defined, for n ∈ N, by

n
Y
[n]q ! = [i]q , n ≥ 1
i=0

q ! = 1

Definition
We consider the q-binomial defined, for n, k ∈ N by
" #
n [n]q !
= , n≥k
k q
[n − k]q ! [k]q !

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q-Calculus

q-Calculus
Remark
The q-binomial can be written as:

" #
n [n]q !
=
k q
[n − k]q ! [k]q !

## [n]q [n − 1]q · · · , [n − k + 1]q

=
q q · · · [k]q
k−1
Y [n − i]q
=
i=0
[1 + i]q

k−1
Y q n−i − 1
=
i=0
q 1+i − 1
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q-Calculus

q-Calculus
Theorem
The q-derivative satisfy the following product rules

## i) − Dq (f (x )g(x )) = f (qx )Dq (g(x )) + g(x )Dq (f (x ))

ii) − Dq (f (x )g(x )) = f (x )Dq (g(x )) + g(qx )Dq (f (x ))

Theorem
The q-derivative satisfy the following quotient rules

f (x ) g(x ) Dq (f (x )) − f (x ) Dq (g(x ))
 
i) − Dq =
g(x ) g(qx ) g(x )
f (x ) g(qx ) Dq (f (x )) − f (qx ) Dq (g(x ))
 
ii) − Dq =
g(x ) g(qx ) g(x )
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q-Calculus

q-Calculus

Theorem
The q-derivative satisfy the following inverse rules

(f −1 (x )) Dq (f (x ))
i) − Dq (f −1 (x )) = −
f (qx )
(f −1 (qx )) Dq (f (x ))
ii) − Dq (f −1 (x )) = −
f (x )

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q-Calculus

q-Calculus
Theorem
For n ≥ 0 and 0 ≤ k ≤ n hold the following equations:
k
!
i) Dq (f (x ) ) = Dq (f (x )) + f (x )k Dq (f (x )n−k )
X
n i−1 n−i
f (x ) f (qx )
i=1
k
!
ii) Dq (f (x ) ) = Dq (f (x )) + f (qx )k Dq (f (x )n−k )
X
n i−1 n−i
f (qx ) f (x )
i=1

In particular, if k = n we get:
n
!
iii) Dq (f (x )n ) = Dq (f (x ))
X
f (x )i−1 f (qx )n−i
i=1
n
!
iv ) Dq (f (x ) ) = Dq (f (x ))
X
n i−1 n−i
f (qx ) f (x )
i=1
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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

Definition [Lascoux, A. (2003)]
Let < be a ring, r ∈ N \ {0}, and <[u1 , u2 , · · · , ur ] the polynomial ring in
r indeterminates u1 , u2 , · · · , ur , over the ring <. A polynomial
P(u1 , u2 , · · · , ur ) ∈ <[u1 , u2 , · · · , ur ] is called u-symmetric if it satisfies
 
P (u1 , u2 , · · · , ur ) = P uπ(1) , uπ(2) , · · · , uπ(r )

## for every permutation π ∈ Sr .

Definition
Let < be a ring, k ∈ N \ {0}. A homogeneous polynomial of degree k is a
polynomial in r indeterminates u1 , u2 , · · · , ur , such that
P(u1 , u2 , · · · , ur ) ∈ <[u1 , u2 , · · · , ur ] satisfy the following condition:

## P(ηu1 , ηu2 , · · · , ηur ) = η k P(u1 , u2 , · · · , ur ).

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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

Example
Let λ = (λ1 , λ2 , · · · , λk ) (λ1 ≥ λ2 ≥ · · · ≥ λk ) be a partition of n denoted
by λ ` n [Andrews, G. (1998)]. Thus, by [Sagan, B. (2013)], we define the
monomial symmetric function corresponding to λ as:

## xi1 1 xi2 2 · · · xiλk k

X λ λ
mλ (x1 , x2 , · · · ) =

## where the sum is over all distinct monomials having exponents

λ1 , λ2 , · · · , λk .
For example, if λ = (2, 1) then:

## Therefore, for λ ` n, we get that mλ (x1 , x2 , · · · ) is a symmetric and

homogeneous polynomial with deg(mλ ) = n.

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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

## Fundamental Theorem on Symmetric Polynomials (FTSP)

[Blum-Smith, B., & Coskey, S. (2017)]
Let < be a ring, Every symmetric polynomial in r ∈ N \ {0} variables
u1 , u2 , · · · , ur is representable in a unique way as a polynomial in the
elementary symmetric polynomials σ1 , σ2 , · · · , σr , where σi is be the
so-called i-th elementary symmetric polynomial in the variables
u1 , u2 , · · · , ur ,
X Y
σi = uk
S⊆{1,2,··· ,r } k∈S
|S|=i

## P ∈ <[u1 , u2 , · · · , ur ] and Q ∈ <[σ1 , σ2 , · · · , σr ]

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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

Example
Let P = P(u1 , u2 , u3 ) = 5u12 u2 u3 + 5u1 u22 u3 + 5u1 u2 u32 + 7u1 u2 u3 where
P(u1 , u2 , u3 ) ∈ < [u1 , u2 , u3 ]. So, the symmetric polynomials associated
are:

σ1 = σ1 (u1 , u2 , u3 ) = u1 + u2 + u3
σ2 = σ2 (u1 , u2 , u3 ) = u1 u2 + u2 u3 + u1 u3
σ3 = σ3 (u1 , u2 , u3 ) = u1 u2 u3

## g1 (σ1 , σ2 , σ3 ) = 5 (u1 + u2 + u3 )2−1 (u1 u2 + u2 u3 + u1 u3 )1−1 (u1 u2 u3 )1

= 5 σ1 σ3

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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

Example
So, when make P − g1 we obtain P − g1 = 7 u1 u2 u3 such that

## g2 (σ1 , σ2 , σ3 ) = 7 (u1 + u2 + u3 )1−1 (u1 u2 + u2 u3 + u1 u3 )1−1 (u1 u2 u3 )1

= 7 σ3

Therefore, P − g1 − g2 = 0 so that

P = g1 + g2
= 5 σ1 σ3 + 7 σ3
= Q(σ1 , σ2 , σ3 )

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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

## Definition [Grinberg, D. (2017)]

Let n ∈ N. Consider symmetric polynomial

fn ∈ Z[u1 , u2 , · · · , un , v1 , v2 , · · · , vn ]

such that

X Y
fn (u1 , u2 , · · · , un , v1 , v2 , · · · , vn ) = ui vj
S⊆{1,2,...,n}×{1,2,...,n} (i,j)∈S
|S|=n

## by the FTSP there exists

Q (σ1 1 , · · · , σ1 n , σ2 1 , · · · , σ2 n ) ∈ Z [σ1 1 , · · · , σ1 n , σ2 1 , · · · , σ2 n ]

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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

## Definition [Grinberg, D. (2017)]

such that,

fn = Q (σ1 1 , σ1 2 , · · · , σ1 n , σ2 1 , σ2 2 , · · · , σ2 n ) .

## Now, using canonical homomorphism we set

Q ( σ1 1 , · · · , σ1 n , σ2 1 , · · · , σ2 n ) = Q ( x1 , · · · , xn , y1 · · · , yn )

## Thus, we define the Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn as

Pn ( x1 , · · · , xn , y1 , · · · , yn ) = Q ( x1 , · · · , xn , y1 , · · · , yn )

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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

Theorem
For every n ∈ N,

Y n
X
(1 + ui vj t) = Pk (x1 , x2 , ..., xk , y1 , y2 , ..., yk ) tk
(i,j)∈{1,2,...,n}×{1,2,...,n} k=0

## in the ring (Z[u1 , u2 , ..., un , v1 , v2 , ..., vn ]) [[t]].

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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

Example
To understand the universal polynomials Pn we bring the first four of them

P0 = 1
P1 = x1 y1
P2 = x12 y2 + x2 y12 − 2x2 y2
P3 = x13 y3 + x3 y13 + x1 x2 y1 y2 − 3x1 x2 y3 − 3x3 y1 y2 + 3x3 y3
P4 = x4 y14 + x1 x3 y12 y2 + x12 x2 y1 y3 + x14 y4 − 4x4 y12 x2 + x22 y22
− 2x1 x3 y22 − 2x22 y1 y3 − x1 x3 y1 y3 − 4x12 x2 y4 + 2x4 y22
+ 4x4 y1 y3 + 2x22 y4 + 4x1 x3 y4 − 4x4 y4

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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

## Definition [Grinberg, D. (2017)]

Let n, m ∈ N. Consider symmetric polynomial

## fn,m ∈ Z [u1 , u2 , · · · , unm ]

such that
X YY
fn,m (u1 , u2 , · · · , unm ) = ui
{1,2,··· ,nm} I∈S i∈I
S⊆( m )
|S|=n

## Q(σ1 , σ2 , · · · , σnm ) ∈ Z [σ1 , σ2 , · · · , σnm ]

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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

## Definition [Grinberg, D. (2017)]

such that,
fn,m (u1 , u2 , · · · , unm ) = Q(σ1 , σ2 , · · · , σnm ).

## Now, using canonical homomorphism we set

Q ( σ1 , σ2 , · · · , σnm ) = Q ( x1 , x2 , · · · , xnm )

## Pn,m ( x1 , x2 , · · · , xnm ) = Q ( x1 , x2 , · · · , xnm )

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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

Theorem
For every n, m ∈ N,

 
Y Y n
X
1 + ui t = Pk,m (x1 , x2 , · · · , xkm ) tk
I∈({1,2,...,nm}
m ) i∈I k=0

## in the ring (Z[u1 , u2 , ..., unm ]) [[t]].

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Λ-Rings and Adams Operations Grothendieck’s polynomials Pn and Pn,m

Example
To understand the universal polynomials Pn,m we bring some of them

## P0,m = 1 for all m ∈ N

P1,0 = 1
P1,m = xm for all positive m ∈ N
Pn,0 = 0 for all integers n ≥ 2
Pn,1 = xn for all positive n ∈ N
P2,2 = x1 x3 − x4
P2,3 = x6 − x1 x5 + x2 x4
P3,2 = x6 + x12 x4 − 2x2 x4 − x1 x5 + x32
P3,3 = x1 x42 + x22 x5 − 2x1 x3 x5 − x1 x2 x6 + x12 x7
− x4 x5 + 3x3 x6 − x2 x7 − x1 x8 + x9
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Λ-Rings

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Definition
A Λ-ring is a commutative ring < with unit 1 endowed with special
functions λn : < → < with n ≥ 0, called ”λ-operations” where ∀x , y ∈ <
satisfy:

i) λ0 (x ) = 1, 1 is the unit of R.
ii) λ1 (x ) = x .
iii) λn (1) = O, O is the null element in R and n ≥ 2.
n
X
n
iv ) λ (x + y ) = λi (x )λn−i (y ).
i=0
v) λn (xy ) = Pn (λ1 (x ), · · · , λn (x ); λ1 (y ), · · · , λn (y )).
vi) λn (λm (x )) = Pn,m (λ1 (x ), · · · , λnm (x )).

## If only satisfy i), iii) and iv ) then we called a pre-Λ-ring.

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Example
Let us consider Z endowed with the following operations
λn (x ) = xn = x (x −1) ···n!(x −n+1) , x ∈ Z and n ≥ 0. Thus, Z, (λi ) i∈N is a
 

pre-Λ-ring .
1
Note that the first two properties are trivial, e.i. , λ0 (x ) = 0! = 1 and
1 x
λ (x ) = 1! = x . Now, for the last property we use the The
Chu-Vandermonde identity ([Darij, G. (2017)] , Theorem 2.25, pag 59-65).
!
x +y
λn (x + y ) =
n
n
! !
X x y
= , Chu-Vandermonde identity
k=0
k n−k
Xn
= λk (x ) λn−k (y )
k=0

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Theorem
λi be a Λ-ring , where i ∈ N. Consider the subring 1 + < [[t]]+

Let <,
of formal power series in the indeterminate t over the ring <. Consider a
map λt : < −→ 1 + < [[t]]+ as follow

X
λt (x ) = 1 + λi (x ) ti , ∀x ∈ <.
i=1

## Note that the coefficient λ0 (x ) = 1 for t 0 mean that λt (x ) is invertible in

< [[t]]. Then,
i)
λt (x ) · λt (y ) = λt (x + y ) , ∀x , y ∈ <
ii)
λt (−x ) = (λt (x ))−1 , ∀x ∈ <
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Example
Let be n, m ∈ Z such that λt is expressed as follow:

! ! ! ! ! !
n n n m m m
λt (n)λt (m) = + ··· + t + ··· + t
1 n 1 m

= (1 + t)n (1 + t)m

= (1 + t)n+m

= λt (n + m).

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Definition
Let x ∈ R. If λt (x ) is a polynomial of degree n, i.e. deg(λt (x )) = n, then
we say that x has dimension n and denoted by dim(x ) = n. If every
element in R is finite dimensional, then say that R is finite dimensional.

Theorem
λi

Let <, be a Λ-ring , where i ∈ N. Then,

## i) Let x ∈ <. The element x is 1-dimensional or rank 1 if and only if

λi (x ) = O, for i > 1.

## ii) Let x , y ∈ < be two 1-dimensional elements or rank 1. Then, xy is

1-dimensional or rank 1 as well.

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Definition
λi λi
 
Let <, and S, be Λ-rings with i ∈ N.

 

## homomorphism such that for every i ∈ N hold f ◦ λi = λi ◦ f

(commutes).
ii) A λ-ideal in R es an ideal I in R sucht that λi (x ) ∈ I for i ≥ 1 and
x ∈ R.
iii) A subring R0 of R is said a λ-subring if for every i ∈ N and x ∈ R0
satisfy that λi (x ) ∈ R0

Theorem
i

Let <, λ a Λ-ring and I an ideal of R generated by {Zj }j∈J . Then I is
a λ-ideal if and only if λn (zj ) ∈ I for n ∈ N and j ∈ J.
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Definition
i

Let <, λ be Λ-rings with i ∈ N. R is said an augmented Λ-ring if R
comes equipped with a λ-homomorphism  : R −→ Z, called
augmentation.

Theorem
The following statements hold
i) If R is an augmented Λ-ring with augmentation , then

0 ≤ (x ) ≤ dim (x )

## for any finite dimensional element x ∈ R.

ii) A Λ-ring R is augmented if and only if there exists a λ-ideal I such
that M
R=Z I
is an abelian group
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## Theorem (The Splitting Principle [Yau, D. (2010)])

i

Let <, λ be Λ-rings with i ∈ N, let be x ∈ R such that dim (x ) = n.
Then there exists a Λ-ring S containing R such that

x = x1 + · · · + xn

## in S, where each dim (xi ) = 1 with 1 ≤ i ≤ n. Furthermore, if R is

augmented with augmentation  and (x ) = m, then the augmentation
can be extend to S in such that a wat that

(
1 if 1 ≤ j ≤ m
(xj ) =
0 if m < j ≤ n

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Theorem
λi

Let <, be Λ-rings with i ∈ N. Let be u1 , · · · , um ∈ R such that
dim (ui ) = 1 with 1 ≤ i ≤ m. Then for n ∈ N we get

X Y
λn (u1 + · · · + um ) = uk
S⊆{1,2,··· ,m} k∈S
|S|=n

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## Definition [Grinberg, D. (2017)]

Let j ∈ N \ {0}. Consider symmetric polynomial

fj ∈ Z[u1 , u2 , · · · , uj ]

such that

j
j
X
fj (u1 , u2 , · · · , uj ) = ui
i=1

## by the FTSP there exists

Q(σ1 , σ2 , · · · , σj ) ∈ Z [σ1 , σ2 , · · · , σj ]

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## Definition [Grinberg, D. (2017)]

such that,
fj (u1 , u2 , · · · , uj ) = Q(σ1 , σ2 , · · · , σj ).

## Now, using canonical homomorphism we set

Q ( σ1 , σ2 , · · · , σj ) = Q ( x1 , x2 , · · · , xj )

## Thus, we define the Hirzebruch-Newtons polynomials Nj as

Nj ( x1 , x2 , · · · , xj ) = Q ( x1 , x2 , · · · , xj )

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Theorem
For every j ∈ N \ {0},

j
X ui X
t = Nj (x1 , x2 , ..., xj ) tj
i=1
1 − ui t j∈N\{0}

## in the ring (Z [u1 , u2 , ..., uj ]) [[t]].

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Example
To understand the Hirzebruch-Newton polynomials Nj we bring the first
four of them:

N1 = x1
N2 = x12 − 2x2
N3 = x13 − 3x1 x2 + 3x3
N4 = x14 − 4x12 x2 + 4x1 x3 + 2x22 − 4x 4

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Definition
λi

Let <, be a pre-Λ-ring where i ∈ N. For every j ≥ 1 , we define a
j
map Ψ : < −→ < as follows

 
Ψj (x ) = Nj λ1 (x ) , λ2 (x ) , · · · , λj (x ) ∀x ∈ <.

Theorem
i

Let <, λ be a Λ-ring, where i ∈ N. We consider a map

## Ψt (x ) : < −→ < [[t]]

X
x 7−→ Ψt (x ) = Ψj (x ) tj , ∀x ∈ <
j=1
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Theorem
Let x ∈ <, we have
i)
d
Ψt (x ) = −t · log ( λ−t (x ) ) .
dt
Here, for every power series u ∈ 1 + K [[T ]]+ , the logarithmic
d
derivative log(u) of u is defined by
dt
du
d
log(u) = dt .
dt u
ii)
j
j+1
X
j
Ψ (x ) = (−1) i λi (x ) λj−i (−x ) , ∀j ∈ N and j 6= 0
i=0

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Example
For n ∈ Z we have
d
 
Ψt (n) = −t log λ−t (n)
dt
d
 
n
= −t log (1 − t)
dt
−1
 
= −nt
1−t

X
= nt ti
i=1

Ψk (n) = n

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## Theorem [Grinberg, D. (2017)]

λi

Let R, be a Λ-ring. Let u1 , u2 , ..., um be 1-dimensional or rank 1
elements of R. Let j ≥ 0. Then,

## Ψj (u1 + u2 + · · · + um ) = u1j + u2j + · · · + um

j
.

Definition
A ring R is said to be Z-tosion-free if, whenever nx = O for some element
x ∈ R and n ∈ Z with n 6= 0, then x = O

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Theorem
The following statements hold in a Λ−ring R:
i) For integers m, n ≥ 1, we have

Ψn ◦ Ψm = Ψnm = Ψm ◦ ψ n

## ii) If n has a prime factorization n = p1e1 · · · pkek , where p1 , · · · , pk are

primes and each ei ≥ 1, then

## iii) If p is a prime number and x ∈ R, then

n n
Ψp (x ) ≡ x p (mod pR)

## for all n ≥ 1. In particular, we have

Ψp (x ) ≡ x p (mod pR)

when n = 1. 46 / 104
The Λ-Rings Z[q]

## Vic Reiner’s Quote

”If we can count it, we should also try to q-count it”

47 / 104
The Λ-Rings Z[q]

## The Λ-Rings Z[q]

Definition
We define the λ−operations of the Λ−ring Z[q] as
" #
ni
λ ( [n]q ) = q ( )
i 2
i q

## with operations determined by setting q to be 1-dimensional.

Definition
The q−analogue for the Adams operations on Z[q] are given by:

Ψi ( [n]q ) = [n]qi .

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The Λ-Rings Z[q]

## The Λ-Rings Z[q]

Theorem (q−Binomial [Pólya, G., & Alexanderson, G. (1971)])
q
Let be Z[q] a Λ-ring endow with λi ( [n]q ) = q ( 2 )
n
i q with i ∈ Z and
[n]q ∈ Z[q] such that the following holds
n−1
Y n
X
i
(1 + q x ) = λi ( [n]q ) x i
i=0 i=0

## Corollary [Cooper, S. (2017)]

q  
Let be Z[q] a Λ-ring endow with λi ( [n]q ) = q ( 2 ) ni q with i ∈ Z and
[n]q ∈ Z[q] such taht the polynomial in x and y variables
f (x , y ) = n−1 i
i=0 (y − q x ); can be expressed by its coefficients such that,
Q

n−1
Y n
X
(y − q i x ) = (−1)i λi ( [n]q ) y n−i x i
i=0 i=0
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The Λ-Rings Z[q]

## Theorem [Pridham, JP. (2017)]

Let Z[x , y ] be a Λ−rings where x and y are elements of rank 1 or
1−dimensional. We define the λ-operation for n ∈ Z as follow

y −x ( y − x ) ( y − qx ) · · · ( y − q n−1 x )
 
n
λ =
q−1 [n]q ! ( q − 1 )n

Then,
i) The λ-operations are given by
i
y −x 1 n
q ( 2 ) (−x )i y n−i
  X
n
λ =
q−1 (q − 1)n i=0 [i]q ! [n − i]q !

## ii) The family of maps

y −x
 
λ n
∈ Z[q, {( q n − 1 )−1 }n≥1 , x , y ]
q−1
.
50 / 104
The Λ-Rings Z[q]

## The Λ-Rings Z[q]

Remark
For the q-exponential [Amari, S., & Ohara, A. (2011)] defined as

X zn 1
eq (z) := =
i=0
[i]q ! (z; q)∞
i

X q ( 2) z n 1
Eq (z) := = = (−z; q)∞
i=0
[i]q ! (z; q)∞

## and for any element x of a Λ-ring where dim (x ) = 1 we have

x
 
λ(q−1)t = eq (x t)
q−1

51 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

52 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Notation
We denote by End(<) the (non-commutative) algebra of Z−linear
endomorphisms of R whose product is given by composition.

## Also, we denote End(<) the subalgebra of End(<) consisting of those

linear endomorphisms f of R that satisfy the condition

f (x )p ≡ f (x p ) (mod pR)

## for every prime p and each element x ∈ R.

53 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Definition
The cochain complex F∗ = F ∗ (R) of abelian groups is defined by:

## i) F 0 is the underlying additive group of End(<).

ii) F 1 = { f : N \ {0} −→ End(<) | f (p)(R) ⊂ pR for every prime p }
iii) F n = { f | f : Nn \ { (0, · · · , 0) } −→ End(<) } where n ≥ 2

Remark
Fn with n ≥ 1 inherits the additive group structure from End(<) such
that for every tuple (m1 , · · · , mn ) ∈ Nn \ { (0, · · · , 0) } and for eny x ∈ R
if f , g ∈ F n , then

## (f + g) (m1 , · · · , mn ) (x ) = f (m1 , · · · , mn ) (x ) + g (m1 , · · · , mn ) (x ).

54 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Definition
The differential dn : Fn −→ F n+1 where n ≥ 0 is defined by:

d n (f ) (m0 , · · · , mn ) =ψ m0 ◦ f (m1 , · · · , mn )
n
X
+ (−1)i f (m0 , · · · , mi−1 mi , · · · , mn )
i=1

## + (−1)n+1 f (m0 , · · · , mn−1 ) ◦ ψ mn

55 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Remark
Now, the dn are certainly an additive group maps and we only need to
check that the image of d 0 lies in F 1 . In fact, let f ∈ F 0 and p a prime
number; that is f satisfies the following

f (x )p ≡ f (x p ) (mod pR)

## Next, applying d 0 to f we get for x ∈ R:

(d 0 f )(p)(x ) = ψ p (f (x )) − f (ψ p (x ))

## (d 0 f )(p)(x ) ≡ f (x )p − f (x p ) (mod pR)

56 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Remark
Observe that by the definition of f ∈ F 0

## (d 0 f )(p)(x ) ≡ f (x )p − f (x )p (mod pR)

Thus,
(d 0 f )(p)(x ) ≡ 0 (mod pR)

## Therefore d 0 ∈ F 0 since (d 0 f )(R) ⊆ pR. So, d 0 is well-defined.

57 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Theorem
Consider the linear map ∂i defined as

∂ i :F n −→ F n+1

m0
ψ f (m1 , · · · , mn ) if i = 0

f 7−→ (∂ i f )(m0 , · · · , mn ) = f (m0 , · · · , mi−1 mi , · · · , mn ), 1 ≤ i ≤ n

f (m , · · · , m
 mn if i = n + 1
0 n−1 )ψ

## then, for 0 ≤ i < j ≤ n + 1 the "cosimplicial identities"

∂ j ◦ ∂ i = ∂ i ◦ ∂ j−1
hold.

58 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Lemma
For each n ∈ N, we have
d n+1 ◦ d n ≡ 0

Definition
The n-th cohomolgy group of the cochain complex F ∗ = F ∗ (R)

d0 d1 d2
0 −→ F 0 −−→ F 1 −−→ F 2 −−→ · · ·

## is called the n-th λ-ring cohomology group (abelian) of R, denoted by

Hλn (R).

59 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Cohomology of Λ-Rings
Hochschild cohomology Relations

60 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

## Let the pair (N \ {0}, • ) the commutative monoid of positive integers

with the usual multiplication. We will write nm instead of just n • m to
represent the multiplication of n, m ∈ N \ {0}. Now, we recall that a
monoid-ring is according to [Lang, S. (2002)].

Definition
Let R be a commutative ring and let G be a monoid (multiplicative). The
monoid-ring or monoid algebra of G over R, denoted by R[G] or
sometimes write as RG be the set of all maps f : G −→ R such that
f (g) = 0 for almost all g ∈ G. The addition in R[G] is the common
addition of mappings into abelian groups. Let f1 , f2 ∈ R[G], we define the
(f1 f2 )(z) = f1 (x )f2 (y )
xy =z

## where x , y ∈ G such that xy = z. This sum is actually finite, because

there is only a finite number of pairs of elements (x , y ) ∈ G × G such that
f1 (x )f2 (y ) 6= 0
61 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Cohomology of Λ-Rings
Remark
For the monoid rings we use the following notation. So, let x ∈ R and
g ∈ G. We denoted by x · g the map whose value at g is x and for h 6= g
is 0, that is,
(
x if h = g
xg · (h) =
0 if h 6= g

X
f1 = f1 (g) · g
g∈G

## Moreover, if { xg }g∈G is a set of elements of R almost all zero, and we set

X
f2 = xg · g
g∈G
62 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Cohomology of Λ-Rings
Remark
Thus, by the definition we get that f2 (h) = xh . This implies that a given
element f ∈ R[G] admits a unique expression as

X
f = xg · g
g∈G

## So, for { xg }g∈G and { yh }h∈G the product is express as follow

  
X X X
 xg · g   yh · h  = xg yh · gh
g∈G h∈G g,h

## and the addition can be written as

X X X
xg · g + yg · g = ( xg + yg ) · g
g∈G g∈G g∈G
63 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Theorem
The additive group ( End(R), + ) is a bimodule over the monoid ring
Z[N \ {0}] via the action

## N \ {0} × End(R) × N \ {0} −→ End(R)

(n, f , m) 7−→ Ψn ◦ f ◦ Ψm

## extended linearly to all of Z[N \ {0}]

64 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Remark
There is a canonical isomorphism

Z[N \ {0}] ⊗ n ∼
= Z[Nn \ {0, · · · , 0}]

## setting the multiplication coordinatewise on the monoid Nn \ {0, · · · , 0}.

Remark
For a Z-linear map

## determines and is determined by a function

Nn \ {0, · · · , 0} −→ End(R)

65 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Theorem
For n ≥ 3 there exists a canonical isomorphism

Hλn (R) ∼
= H n (Z[N \ {0}], End(R))

## Hλ2 (R)  H 2 (Z[N \ {0}], End(R))

66 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Main Theorem
For any Λ-ring R, we have that

## Hλ0 (R) = { f ∈ End(R) | f ◦ Ψn = Ψn ◦ f , ∀n ∈ N \ {0}}

Proof
By Definition for
d0
0 −→ F0 −−→ F1
f ∈ End(R) 7−→ ψ p0 ◦ f − f ◦ ψ p0

we have that 0 ⊆ ker (d 0 ) and Hλ0 = ker (d 0 )/0 = ker (d 0 ). In that order
of ideas, if f ∈ ker (d 0 ), then

(d 0 (f ))(n) = 0
Ψn ◦ f − f ◦ Ψn = 0
Ψn ◦ f = f ◦ Ψn , with n ∈ N \ {0}
67 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Corollary
Let be R a λ-ring, then Hλ0 (R) contains Z as a canonical subgroup; which
consist of the multiplications-by-n endomorphism of R.

Proof
By [Yau, D. (2010)] we have that the Λ-ring R must have characteristic 0.
Thus, consider the action of Z on R by multiplication as follow

• : Z × R −→ R
(n, x ) 7−→ nx = |x + x +{z· · · + x}
n−times

68 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Proof
So, for p a prime number, we get

(nx )p = (x + x + · · · + x )p
!
X p
= x a1 x a2 · · · x an
a1 +a2 +···+an =p
a1 , a2 , · · · , an
 !
X p  xp
=
a1 +a2 +···+an =p
a1 , a2 , · · · , an

= np x p , by [Hazewinkel, M. (2013)]

69 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Proof
Now, by the Fermat’s little theorem (see [Jiménez et al (2004)]) we have
that np ≡ n mod ( p ), i.e., np − n = mp where m ∈ Z. Then, if we
consider np − n acting on a set element x p , we get

(np − n) x p = (mp) x p
np x p − nx p = m(px p )
(nx )p − nx p = p(mx p )

## This implies that,

(nx )p ≡ n(x p ) mod ( pR )
Therefore, for the multiplication-by-n endomorphism

fn : R −→ R
x 7−→ nx

lies in End(R).
70 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Proof
Now, for fn we consider the compose by Ψm such that for x ∈ R we can
express x as x1 + · · · + xk where dim (xi ) = 1 with 1 ≤ i ≤ k by the
Splitting Principle. Then,

fn ◦ Ψm (x ) = fn ◦ Ψm ( x1 + · · · + xk )
= fn ( x1m + · · · + xkm )
= nx1m + · · · + nxkm
= n Ψm (x1 ) + · · · + n Ψm (xk )
= ( Ψm (x1 ) + · · · + Ψm (x1 ) ) + · · · + ( Ψm (xk ) + · · · + Ψm (xk ) )
= Ψm (x1 + · · · + x1 ) + · · · + Ψm (xk + · · · + xk )
= Ψm ( (x1 + · · · + x1 ) + · · · + (xk + · · · + xk ) )
= Ψm ( nx1 + · · · + nxk )
= Ψm ( n ( x1 + · · · + xk ) )
= Ψm ( nx )
= Ψm ◦ fn (x )
71 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Corollary
The Λ-ring Z has Hλ0 (Z) ∼
=Z

Proof
By the Example 3.10 we have that Ψn = ide for all n ∈ N \ {0}. Thus,
Hλ0 = { f | f ∈ End(Z) }. Since f (n) = f (1)n then

End(Z) −→ Z
f 7−→ f (1)

## determines the isomorphism Hλ0 (Z) ∼

= Z.

72 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Main Theorem
Hλ1 (R) is the quotient of the group of λ-derivations by the group of inner
derivation.

Proof
For
d0 d1
0 −−→ F 1 −−→ F 2

get

## Hλ1 (R) = ker(d 1 )/Im(d 0 )

73 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Cohomology of Λ-Rings
Proof
In that order of ideas, if f ∈ ker(d 1 ), then

(d 1 (f ))(p0 , p1 ) = 0
ΨP0 ◦ f (p1 ) − f (p0 p1 ) + f (p0 ) ◦ Ψp1 = 0
f (p0 p1 ) = ΨP0 ◦ f (p1 ) + f (p0 ) ◦ Ψp1

Since the above property is equivalent to the derivations then we call these
maps λ-derivations. Now, if g ∈ Im(d 0 ), then

## where g ∈ End(R). Thus, they are the maps obtained by twisting a

g ∈ F 0 by Ψ∗ . Therefore, we call these maps λ-inner-derivations.
74 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings Hochschild cohomology Relations

Corollary
Hλ0 (Z) ∼
= p pZ ∼
Q Q
= pZ

Proof
Due to Ψ∗ = ide. Thus, Im(d 0 ) = {0}. By Definition, we get

piαi ,
Y
n= αi ≥ 0
i=0

## Since f (n) = f (1)n, then

X
f (n) = αi f (p1 )
i=0

## with f (pi ) ∈ pi Z. 75 / 104

Cohomology of Λ-Rings q-De Rham Cohomology

Cohomology of Λ-Rings
q-De Rham Cohomology
Future work!

76 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings q-De Rham Cohomology

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

Pridam said that the Aomoto cohomology with the Jackson differential

∂x ,q : R[x , q] −→ R[x , q]
f (x ) 7−→ Dq (f (x ))

## implies that, the Aomoto’s q-de Rham cohomology is

 
q-Ω•R[x1 ,··· ,xd ]/R := Ω∗R[x1 ,··· ,xd ]/R [q], ∇q
X
∇q ω := ( ∂xi ,q ω ) ∧ dxi
i

77 / 104
Cohomology of Λ-Rings q-De Rham Cohomology

Cohomology of Λ-Rings

## Moreover, the Scholze’s q-de Rham cohomology with

 : R[x1 , · · · , xd ] −→ A, is étale. So, it has an unique automorphism
A[[q − 1]] −→ A[[q − 1]] such that γi xj = q δij xj . Then, the differential

γi (f ) − f
f 7−→
(q − 1)xi

## determines the cohomology

•  
− ΩA/R, := Ω∗A/R [[q − 1]], ∇q
q\
X
∇q ω := ( ∂xi ,q ω ) ∧ dxi
i

78 / 104
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Homology

## Cartan, Henry and Eilenberg, Samuel (2016)

Homological Algebra (PMS-19)
Princeton University Press

## Madsen, Ib H and Tornehave, Jorgen (1997)

From calculus to cohomology: de Rham cohomology and characteristic classes
Cambridge University Press

## Hatcher, Allen (2002)

Algebraic topology
Cambridge UP, Cambridge

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## Fresse, Benoit (2016)

Homotopy of operads & Grothendieck-Teichmüller groups
Université Lille 1
Yau, Donald (2005)
Cohomology of lambda-rings
arXiv preprint math/0501512

## Burton, David M (2006)

Elementary number theory
Tata McGraw-Hill Education
Weibel, Charles A (1995)
An introduction to homological algebra
Cambridge university press

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## Lang, Serge (2002)

Algebra. Number 211 in Graduate Texts in Mathematics
Springer Verlag

## Jiménez, Rafael and Gordillo, Enrique and Rubiano, Gustavo (2004)

Teoría de números para principiantes

## Aomoto, Kazuhiko and Kato, Yoshifumi (1991)

A q-analogue of de Rham cohomology
Springer

## Borger, James (2008)

The basic geometry of Witt vectors, I: The affine case
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