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Decoding the Standards

Keystone Analysis - Algebra I

Major Parts of Standards

 Algebra I (Common Core) 1. A1. Compare and/or order any real numbers
2. A1. Simplify square roots
 Algebra I (Academic) 3. A1. Find the GCF and/or LCM for sets of monomials
 Algebra II (Common Core) 4. A1. Simplify/evaluate expressions involving properties/laws of
 Algebra II (Academic) exponents, roots, and/or absolute values to solve problems
 Geometry (Common Core) 5. A1. Use estimation to solve problems
 Geometry (Academic) 6. A1. Add, subtract, and/or multiply polynomial expressions (express
answers in simplest form)
7. A1. Factor algebraic expressions, including difference of squares and
8. A1. Simplify/reduce a rational algebraic expression,
9. A1. Write, solve, and/or apply a linear equation
10. A1. Interpret solutions to problems in the context of the problem
Major Parts of The content situation
11. A1. Write and/or solve a system of linear equations (including problem
situations) using graphing, substitution, and/or elimination
 Numbers and Operations (Common Core) 12. A1. Interpret solutions to problems in the context of the problem
 Geometry (Common Core) situation
 Measurement, Data, and Probability (Common Core) 13. A1. Write or solve compound inequalities and/or graph their solution
 Numbers, Number Systems and Number Relationships sets on a number line (may include absolute value inequalities)
14. A1. Identify or graph the solution set to a linear inequality on a number
 Computation and Estimation (Academic) 15. A1. Interpret solutions to problems in the context of the problem
 Measurements and Estimation (Academic) situation
 Mathematical Reasoning and Connections (Academic) 16. A1. Write and/or solve a system of linear inequalities using graphing)
 Mathematical Problem Solving and Communications (Academic) 17. A1. Interpret solutions to problems in the context of the problem
 Statistics and Data Analysis (Academic) situation)
18. A1. Analyze a set of data for the existence of a pattern and represent the
 Probability and Predictions (Academic) pattern algebraically and/or graphically
 Algebra and Functions (Academic) 19. A1. Determine whether a relation is a function, given a set of points or a
 Geometry (Academic) graph
 Trigonometry (Academic) 20. A1. Identify the domain or range of a relation
 Concepts of Calculus (Academic) 21. A1. Create, interpret and/or use the equation, graph, or table of a linear
22. A1. Translate from one representation of a linear function to another.
23. A1. Identify, describe, and/or use constant rates of change.
24. A1. Apply the concept of linear rate of change (slope) to solve problems
25. A1. Write or identify a linear equation when given the graph of the line,
SAT, ACT, PSSA, and Keystone two points on the line, or the slope and a point on the line.
26. A1. Determine the slope and/or y-intercept represented by a linear
equation or graph]
Level One: mainly computation and word problems 27. A1. Draw, identify, find, and/or write an equation for a line of best fit
 Reading for a scatter plot
a. 17 Computation Problems (just solving equations) 28. A1. Calculate and/or interpret the range, quartiles, and interquartile
b. 18 Word Problems range of data
c. 15 Problems with multiple mathematical connections 29. A1. Estimate or calculate to make predictions based on a circle, line, bar
(alg & geom.) graph, measures of central tendency, or other representations)
i. 3 of these problems involved 30. A1. Make predictions using the equations or graphs of best-fit lines of
analyzing a graph for given info. scatter plots
 Vocabulary 31. A1. Find probabilities for compound events
a. Parallel/perpendicular lines, functions, domain, range,
defined, undefined, etc.
 Unique Items All 31 of these benchmarks describe the requirements for taking the
a. Should be familiar with trigonometric functions (sine, Keystone Exam for Algebra I. These standards match up with other
cosine, tangent) as well as plane geometry
common core and PA academic standards. If the common core
Level Two: more emphasis on cross-mathematical theory connections between standards and PA academic standards that match up with these
algebra and geometry
 Reading benchmarks are presented in class, then students will likely show
a. 22 Computation problems (solving equations but proficiency. The keystone analyzes this subset of benchmarks that
require more advanced manipulations
b. 8 Word Problems
arises out of the common core standards and PA academic
c. 20 Problems with multiple more advanced standards.
mathematical connections (alg. & geom., alg. & trig.,
alg. & calc.)
i. 6 of these problems involved
analyzing a graph for new info.
 Vocabulary
a. Relationships, slope, intersections, cubes, Text- Algebra II
compositions of functions, periodic functions, spheres,
vertical asymptotes, infinite geometric series, etc.
 Unique items  Chapter 1: Tools of Algebra
a. Should be familiar with sequences, limits, derivatives,  Chapter 2: Functions, Equations and Graphs
the unit circle, standard deviation, etc.  Chapter 3: Linear Systems
 Chapter 4: Matrices
 Chapter 5: Quadratic Equations and Functions
 Chapter 6: Polynomials and Polynomial Functions
 Chapter 7: Radical Functions and Rational Exponents
 Chapter 8: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
 Chapter 9: Rational Functions
 Chapter 10: Quadratic Relations and Conic Sections
 Chapter 11: Sequences and Series
 Chapter 12: Probability and Statistics
 Chapter 13: Periodic Functions and Trigonometry
 Chapter 14: Trigonometric Identities and Equations
Decoding the Standards
Reading Comprehension Vocabulary Writing

Main strategies to promote reading comprehension include these Main strategies to promote writing include these strategies:
Main strategies for vocabulary include graphic organizers for concept
strategies: vocabulary:
 Informal writing:
 Anticipation Guide a. Response to homework
 DR/TA (Directed Reading/ Thinking Activity)  Concept Definition Mapping b. Summaries
 Graphic Organizers  Frayer Model c. Reader response
 Group Summarizing  Pre-reading Predictions d. Journals
 Pairs Read  Semantic Feature Analysis e. Logs
 f. Notebooks
Prereading Plan (PreP)  Semantic Mapping
  Formal writings: consist of a structure
Problematic Situations  Word Sorts a. Such as “paragraph structure
 Proposition/Support Outlines  Concept Attainment b. 5 paragraph theme
 Reciprocal Teaching  List-Group-Label c. Essay
 SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review)
 Student VOC Strategy d. Argument
 Sensory Imagery
 Verbal and Visual Word Association (VVWA) e. Persuasion
 Structured Note Taking f. Research
 “Think-alouds”  K-N-W-S (K-W-L for Word Problems)
 Creative writing
 STAR (Select, Teach, Activate, and Revisit)
a. Poems
 Jeopardy
 Concrete
 After Reading Card Game  Free
 Name that Category- The Pyramid Game  Write a poem about…..
Discussion (Indirect Instruction)  Crossword Puzzles b. Letters
 Magic Squares  Editor
 Projects  Prefix, Suffix, Root  People
c. Short stories
 Reports Differentiated Instruction (from EDUC 240)
 Discussion
o Whole group  Checklist for proofreading
 Differentiate curriculum through three major ways:
a. Word choice
o Small group o Content
b. Sentence structure
o Think pairs o Process c. Paragraph structure
o Products
 Cooperative Learning d. Organization of the formal composition
 Make sure to follow suggestions for struggling learners and e. Mechanics/usage
 Panels and Debates advanced learners:
 Role Playing o Struggling= give product assignments in
 Simulations small parts and build up to the big product
o Advanced= have students study the key issues Problem Solving
 Games
across disciplines
 Current Events  Students characteristics that teachers can differentiate:  Formal Operational Students
o Readiness  Concrete Operational Students
o Interest in specific topics  For both types:
o Learning Profiles a. Have students select from a second pair of problems the one
 Instructional Approaches: that is similar to the first pair
Enrichment o Direct Instructional Strategies b. Ask students to write a problem having the same structural
o Inductive Instructional Strategies relationships as the first pair
o Social Instructional Strategies c. Generalize the data and solution of the pair
 Compaction o Independent Instructional Strategies  Five steps for problem solving (Dewey, 1910)
 Trade Books a. Recognizing that a problem exists
 Projects b. Identifying the problem
 Field Trips c. Employing previous experiences (relevant information)
 Clubs d. Testing hypotheses or possible solutions
STEM e. Evaluating the solutions and drawing conclusions
 Teams
 Heuristic methods (Polya, 1945)
 Contests a. Understand the problem
 Speakers b. Devise a plan
o From professional field or university c. Carry out the plan
 Assemblies d. Look back and examine the solution obtained
 Peer Teaching  Student Psychological Set (pre-conceived notions of how problem works)
(More to Come as Methods I goes on)  Student Metacognition
 Bulletin Board challenge
 Types of Student Decisions
o Challenging problem of the week a. Thoughtless decisions
i. Scattered directions and do not build on
previous experiences
(More to Come as Methods I goes on) b. Impatient decisions
Historical Perspectives i. Stop process entirely or keep problem
solver moving directionless in searching
 Elements of Curriculum that can be differentiated: for solution
o Content c. Constructive decisions
o Process- Strategies i. Employ knowledge and skills using proper
o Products- Assessments solution paths
 Vary: d. Immediate procedure decisions
o Instructional Strategies i. Immediate recall of correct methods
o Grouping of students Fine Arts e. Nondecisons
o Lesson Design (Rosenshine, Hunter) i. No knowledge or prior experience is
o Lesson Activities helpful in the solution
 Architecture 
o Material Strategies:
o Buildings
o Assignments a. Working backwards
o Architect
o Assessments i. Ex: Traffic investigations
o Style
 Meet the needs of students (learning styles, learning preferences) b. Finding a pattern
o Music i. Ex: even numbered addresses
o Current c. Adopting a different point of view
o Time period i. Ex: arguing with friend
(More to oCome as Methods
Classic I goes on) d. Solving a simpler analogous problem (specification without
o Crazy Songs loss of generality)
 Art i. Ex: converting from Celsius to Fahrenheit
o Artist e. Considering extreme cases
o Movements i. Ex: negotiating with a friend and
 Literature determining outcome if saying certain
o Poetry things
o Drama f. Making a drawing (visual representation)
o Short stories i. Ex: drawing a map to give directions
g. Intelligent guessing and testing (including approximation)
i. Ex: meat thermometer
(More to Come as Methods I goes on) h. Accounting for all possibilities (exhaustive listing)
i. Ex: ordering off a menu for best possible
i. Organizing data
i. Ex: tourist getting most out of their time
j. Logical reasoning
i. Ex: business deals with boss
 Problems can usually be solved using a combination of the 10 above strategies