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# MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

CHAPTER EIGHT
PRINCIPAL STRESSES UNDER A

## 1- We first determine the

internal forces affecting the
element.

## 2- since the element is on the

surface; the problem is plane
stress problem.

element.

## 4- Obtain the principal stresses

and the maximum shear stress.

## 5- Compare with the allowable

values. 2
 In general, the internal
forces result in:
 Two shear forces.
 Two bending moments.
 One torsion moment.

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Two shear forces are :
Vy and Vz result in
Vy Q Vz Q
 xy1  ,  xz1 
It It
Two moments are :
M y and M z result in
M y  z M z  y
 x1 
Iy
,  x2 
Iz +
The axial force P results in
P
 x3 
A
The torsion T results in
Tc

J
(it can be  xy 2 or  xz 2 depends
on the element location) 4
Example :
Find the normal stresses at points A, B and C

Solution :
15 103
 axial   3.75 MPa (compression)
0.1 0.04
(15 103  0.02)  0.02
 bend 1   11.25 MPa
1
 0.1 (0.04)3
12
(15 103  0.05)  0.05
 bend 2   11.25 MPa
1
 0.04  (0.1)3
12
 A   axial   bend 1   bend 2  18.75 MPa
 B   axial   bend 1   bend 2  3.75 MPa
 C   axial   bend 1   bend 2  26.25 MPa

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Example : Find normal and shear stresses at point C

Solution:
1- Find the FBD

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2- Take section at point C
V  21.93 kN
M  21.93 1.5  32.89 kN.m
N  16.45 kN

## Find the stresses resulted from the forces

N
 axial   1.32 MPa (compression)
A
M  c 32.89 103  0.125
 bend    63.16 MPa
I 1
 0.05  (0.25)3
12
 C   axial   bend  64.5 MPa
VQ
C  0
It

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Example :
Find the state of stress at point B
Solution :
Fx  1 kN
Fz  800 N
M y  80 N.m

Fx M y  z
B  
A Iy
1103 80  0.01
   4.167 MPa
0.03  0.04 1
 0.03  (0.04)3
12
Fz Q 800   0.01 0.03  0.015
B    750 kPa
I yt 1
 0.03  (0.04)  0.03
3

12
 xz |  750 kPa 8
B
Example :
  36.87o , d  15 mm
Find the state of stress at points A and B
Solution :
take section at points A and B
and calculate the internal forces
Fx  0, Fy  400 N, Fz  300 N
M x  300  0.1  30 N.m
Ty  300  0.14  42 N.m
M z  400  0.14  56 N.m

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Fy Mz r 400 56  7.5 103
A    
A I  
(0.015) 2 (0.015) 2
4 64
 2.26 MPa  169.01 MPa  171.27 MPa
Fy Mx r 400 30  7.5 103
B    
A I  
(0.015) 2 (0.015) 4
4 64
 2.26 MPa  90.54 MPa  92.8 MPa
 4  7.5 103
Q  A  y  (0.015)  2
 281 109 m3
8 3
Fz Q Ty  r 300  281 109 42  7.5  103
A    
It J  
(0.015)  0.015
4
(0.015) 4
64 32
 2.26 MPa  63.38 MPa  65.64 MPa
Ty  r 42  7.5 103
B    63.38 MPa
J 
(d ) 4
32 10
Example :
cylinder radius (r  20 mm)
Find
(a) the normal and shearing stresses at points H and K
(b) the principal axes and principal stresses at K
(c) the maximum shearing stress at K.

Solution :
Fx  15 kN, Fy  18 kN
Tx  18 103  0.05  900 N.m
M y  15 103  0.05  750 N.n
M z  18 103  0.06  1080 N.m

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Point H
Fx 15 103 1080  0.02
Mz r
x     
A I  (0.02) 2  (0.02) 4
4
 11.9 MPa  171.9 MPa  183.8 MPa
Tx  r 900  0.02
 xz    71.6 MPa
J 
(0.02) 4
2
Point K
Fx 15 103 750  0.02
My r
x     
A I  (0.02) 2

(0.02) 4
4
 11.9 MPa +119.3 MPa  107.4 MPa
Fy Q Tx  r 18 103  5.33 106 900  0.02
 xy    
It J  
(0.02) 4  0.02 (0.02) 4
4 2
 19.1 MPa  71.6 MPa  52.5 MPa
12
 x  107.4 MPa,  xy  52.5

x  y   x  y 
2

 1,2       xy
2

2  2 
 1  128.8 MPa,  2  21.4 MPa
  x  y 
2

R     xy  75.1 MPa
2

 2 
2 xy
tan 2 P    P1  22.20 (cw)
 x  y
thus  S 1  22.80 (ccw)
 max  R  75.1 MPa

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Example : Find
1. the state of stress at points E and H .
2. the principal stresses and their planes
at point H .
3. the maximum shearing stress at point H .

Solution :
Fx  30 kN
Fy  50 kN
Fz  75 kN
M x  50 103  0.13  75 103  0.2
 8.5 kN.m
M z  30 103  0.1  3 kN.m

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Point E
Fy M x zE M z xE 50 103 8.5 103  0.07 3 103  0.02
y      
A Ix Iz 0.14  0.04 1
 0.04  (0.14)3
1
 0.14  (0.04) 3
12 12
E  0

Point H
Fy M x zH M z xH
y   
A Ix Iz
50 103 8.5 103  0.025 3 103  0.02
  
0.14  0.04 1  0.04  (0.14)3 1  0.14  (0.04)3
12 12
 66 MPa
Q  A  y  0.04  0.045  0.0474  85.5 10 6
Fz Q 75 103  85.5 106
 yz     17.52 MPa
I xt 1
 0.04(0.14)3  0.04
12 15
Example:
Find the equation y = F(x), such that
no tension will occur for the column.

Solution :
Tension will occur first at point A, thus
800 103 (800 103  y )  2.25 (800 103  x) 1.5
A    0
4.5  3 1
 3  (4.5)3
1
 4.5  (3)3
12 12
gives
y  0.75  1.5 x
16
Problem: Find
1. the state of stresses at points H and K.
2. the principal stresses and their orientations.
3. the maximum shear stresses and their orientations.
4. mohr’s circles for both H and K.

d  40 mm

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Problem: Find
1. the state of stresses at point H.
2. the principal stresses and their d  60 mm
orientations.
3. the maximum shear stresses
and their orientations.
4. draw mohr’s circle.

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Problem: Find
1. the state of stresses at
points a, b and c .
2. the principal stresses and
their orientations.
3. the maximum shear stresses
and their orientations.
4. draw mohr’s circles

t  10 mm

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END CHAPTER 8

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