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Introduction

PESCO:-
Peshawar Electric Supply Company (PESCO), located in Peshawar provides service of
power distribution to over 2.6 million consumers of all civil districts of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa,
Pakistan. At PESCO networks, we have 132, 66, 33KV sub-transmission lines, sub-stations and
11KV & 440V low tension lines with distribution transformers that deliver electricity to our
home or business. Pesco was formed on March 22, 1998.

132KV GSS KOHAT ROAD PESHAWAR:-


132 KV Kohat road Industrial Grid Sub Station
(G.S.S) foundation was laid by Lieutenant General Fazl-e-Haq on August 10,1983. This G.S.S get
132 kv supply from Shiekh Muhammady Grid station (500 Kv) and is directly connected to
Tarbela Dam (3478 MV installed capacity, Source Wikipedia).Various components present in
this grid station are mentioned below in form of table.

Names of Components P.I.D Line 1 (One P.I.D Line 2 (One University of Peshawar
component for each component for each Line (One component
phase) phase) for each phase)
1. Wave Trap 1 1 1
2. Line Isolators 3 3 0
3. Line Circuit 3 3 0
Breakers
4. Line Current 3 3 0
Transformers
5. Bus Bar 3 3 0
Isolators
6. Transformer 3 3 3
side Isolators
7. Transformer 3 3 3
side C.T
8. Transformer 3 3 3
side Circuit
Breaker
9. Lightning 3 3 3
Arrestor
10. Power 1 1 1
Transformer

Other then this, 3 potential transformers,132 KV line Bus bars, 11.5KV Bus Bar , Controlling and
safety devices are also present in Grid station and are discussed later.
SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF 132 KV KOHAT ROAD INDUSTRIAL G.S.S

This diagram shows the connections of various components in Kohat Road grid
sub station.
132 kv transmission line from Sheikh Muhammady G.S:-
Sheikh Muhammady
Grid station gets 500kv by means of Step up transformers connected to Tarbela dam having
installed capacity of 3748 MV (source Wikipedia). 500kv is then step down by step down
transformers to 220 kv and then to 132 kv . This 132 kv reaches Kohat road G.S.S by means of
transmission lines (Rabbit type) A.S.C.R (aluminium cable Steel reinforce ) wires. 3 wires (3
phase) transmits 132 kv to this G.S.S i.e RED ,YELLOW,BLUE.
Components inside Grid Sub Station:-

1. Wave Trap:-
A device that converts ac signals( ac volage ) to Sound Signals having
high frequency from 40 KHz- 1000 KHz is called wave trap
It is used for following purposes
 Communication between grids
 Reduce power failure and time
 Maintain best performance and to co-ordinate operations between grids

2. Isolator:-
Manually operated mechanical switch which separates a part of
electrical power system normally at off load condition is called isolator .It is used for
safety purpose .There are 3 kind of isolators present in this GSS i.e line isolators, bus
isolators, transformer isolators etc. There are 3 kind of isolators i.e Single break
isolators ,double break isolators, pantograh isolators. The isolator resent in this G.S.S
is Single break isolator. If we use isolator with ON load then an electric arc is
generated which destroy the system.

3. Circuit Breaker:
A sort of switching device that can be activated manually to
control the electrical power system as well as automatically for the protection in case
of short circuiting or overloading is called a circuit breaker.
Working:-
It basically works on the moving of mobile contact.It has 2 type of
contacts i.e fixed contact and mobile contact .In normal condition fixed and mobile
contacts are touched with each other and current flows through upper part of contacts
present in arc chamber. As an abnormal currents flows through it mobile contact
moves at a distance from fixed contact while a little contact still present between both
contacts so in this case current flows through central contacts which are capable of
withstanding an electric arc which is produced in the arc chamber of circuit breaker
due to separation of both contacts and hence circuit breaks. Oil acts as medium
between the contacts so this kind of circuit breaker is called oil based circuit breaker.
Note:
In this G.S.S has its own name e.g P.I.D 1 circuit breaker .In case of line
circuit breakers in order to find the isolator connected with it we simply add 100 with
the circuit breaker number to get isolator number i.e 100+1=101 so the isolator name
connected with it is P.I.D 101.

4. Current Transformers:-
A type of transformer typically used to measure current
flowing in high voltage AC circuits is called Current Transformer (C.T). They are usually
connected with a low range ammeter. They step down the current by a desired a
transformation ratio.

(i).For 132 kv line its ratio is 600/5.

(ii).For 11 kv line its ratio is 400/5. etc

The primary is made up of thick wire which is connected in series with the circuit where
current has to be measured. The secondary is made up of thin wire but has large number
of turns which is connected to the ammeter terminals. They are generally used in grid
station for two purpose.

(i). Metering ( measuring currents).


(ii). Protective relays.

5. Potential Transformer:
They are used for accurate voltage readings from a high
voltage circuits. They are step down transformers with a defined voltage
transformation ratio. Their secondary is connected to a low range voltmeter for
voltage measurements. Power rating of these transformers is very high. Dry type
potential transformers are used for upto 5,000V and immersed type for beyond
13,800V. Between 5,000V to 13,800V, both types are available. The power ratings
are usually 40W to 100W. A precautionary tip: the secondary is always completely
insulated and isolated from the primary (high voltage) and is grounded for protection
of operators.
6. Lightning Arresters:-
The device used to protect insulation and conductors from
damaging effect of thundering and lightning is called Lightning Arresters.It has 2
terminals i.e high voltage terminal and ground terminal. They have MOV( metal
oxide varistors) which is actually a semiconductor.At low voltage it behaves as an
insulator and doesn’t allow current to pass throught it but at high thundering strikes it
it behaves as a conductor and allow the current to pass throught it and to go to earth.
7. Power Trasformer:-
It is a kind of stepdown transformer which stepsdown 132kv
to 11.5kv having power rating in range of 31.5/40MVA and current rating
1581.4/2008.2 A.
Tranformer parts and its functions:=
Its has following parts and functions
of each part.
 Conservator:- It stores air and oil. It allows the oil to expand and contract as it heats
up and cool down. It is present on upper part of transformer and cylindrical in shape.
 Tank:- This is a container used to keep both winding and oil cool.
 Buchhole relay:- it is used to protect windingsthere are 2 windingsinside it.one for
detecting oil level and other to be connected to alaram.
 Breather:- it is a device used for absorbing moistureof oil and air.
 Radiator fins:- Used to cool the oil in the transformer.
 Explosion vent:- protects the transformer in event of major fault.
 Bushing:- it is used to prevent unwanted leakage of electricity .it insulates the
conductor while entering in tank to be conneted to the winding.
 Tap Changer:- it is used to set the exact amount of voltage change by means of
coonecting number of turns of the winding to external panel.
 Oil level scale:- present on the side of tank used to check the oil level in tank.
 Drain Valve:- used to take damaged oil out and is present under the oil tank.

8. Capacitor Bank:-
A grouping of several identical capacitors interconnected in
parallel or in series with one another is called a capacitor bank This is used for following
purposes
 To correct power factor lag or phase shifts in alternating current (AC) power
supplies.
 Used in direct current (DC) power supplies to increase stored energy .
 Absorbs active power from line and supplies reactive power.
 To make flow of power smooth.

RELAYS:-
An electrical device ,typically having an electromagnet which is
activated by current or signal in one circuit to open or close another circuitis called a relay. It is
consists of an electromagnet and set of contacts.

(i) Transformer side relays;-


Following relays are connected with transformer
side present on relay panel.

 Over Current Relay:-


In case of over loading or short circuiting a huge amount of
current flows which damages transformer so o/c relay protects transformer from this
circuit by automatic opening and closing the circuit. o/c relay is an instantaneous type
relay.the actual quantity in this relay is current.when normal current flows in current coil
the magnetic field is not sufficient to move the contacts. In this casethe restraining force
is greator than deflecting force but if huge amount of current flows the magnetic field
increases and allows the contacts to touch reach other and produces a sound indicating
fault.
 Dc Supervision Relay:-
Since all the relays and circuit breakers work on dc supply so if
a fault occurs in dc supply of transformer region including huge rectifiers this relay indicates
the occurance of fault.
 Differential trip relay:-
This relay compares the primary and secondary current of power
transformer..If any unbalance current found between them it indicates fault and take
necessary actions.
 Winding temperature relay:-
It checks the appropriate temperature of both coils
(primary,secondary) of poer transformer.If temperature is less than 60 degree air is a cooling
medium. If temperation exceeds 60 degree andlo than 92 degree then fan starts
automatically. If temperature is 92 degree alaram starts and if temperature is greator than 92
degree it indicates fault and take necessary actions.
 Oil temperature relay:-
It checks the temperature of oil to be suitable for proper orking
of transformer its working is same as winding temperature relay.
 Main buchholz relay:-
It detects following faults in a transformer.
 Insulation faults between turns,breakdon of core of transformer,core heating.
 Generation of CO and CO2 gases due to decomposition of transformer oil.
 Other faults related to transformer oil.
 Tap changer relay:-
It detects fault and performers necessary action when the specified
oil flow speed between the on-load tap changer head and oil conservator is exceeded.

Transmission line side relays:-


Folloing relays are connected on transmission
line side.
 Distance relay:-
It works on voltage and current ratio . it has 2 coils one is connected
to current transformer and other to the potential transformer.it detects the fault when
impedence of the line becomes less than adjucted value of relay impedence then torque
produces in instantaneous relay and it operates.
 Auxilary relay:-
This relay is used to control alarm indication and other auxiliary duties in A.C or
D.C.system.

 DC Supervision relay:-
This relay supervises dc current and voltage related faults
on transmission line side components i.e other relay operations etc.
 Auto reclose relay :-
This relay automatically open the circuit breaker during fault
(short circuiting or overloading) and automatically close the circuit breaker after the fault
is removed. it automatically restore power to the line after momentry faults.
 P.T Failure relay:-
This relay is responsible for detecting any kind of defect in
potential transformer after detecting fault it performs necessary action.
 Over current and ground faults:-
When a wire due to some reasons broke down
and touches the ground so a huge amount of current flows or their is any kind og ground
related fault then this relay indicates an error.
 Over current Relay:-
If their is undesired huge amount of current flows in a system
other than ground related faults than this relay indicates a fault.
 Under-frequency relay:-
This relay is adjusted at a particular frequency if the
frequency of the incoming line become less than the adjusted one then it
automatically turns off all the feeders in order to safe the feeders from damage.In
kohat road G.S.S it is adjusted on the value 42.5 HZ.

 Auxiliary controls:-
This control panel plays a vital role. It is responsible for
tap changing(increasing or decreasing voltage), stopping a transformer from
working in case of emergency situation, to switch on or off the fans of
transformer, shows temperature of winding and oil in transformer ,shows working
indication of tap changer, it also indicates fault on several relays.