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# 10/29/2018

Theory of Computation
Dr. Muzammil Khan

Assistant Professor
Department of Computer Science

Office E - 12
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Chapter 4

Finite Automata

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## Finite Automata “FA”

 The word Automata is
 The plural of Greek word “Automaton”
 Means
 Something that work Automatically

 It is called FA because
 Finite, because
 The number of states and the letters both are finite
 Automata, because
 The change of the state is totally govern by the input or
 The determination of what state is next is automatic not
willful

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## Finite Automata (Cont...)

 Finite Automata is
 A language recognizer or
 Token recognizer
 Regular Expression is
 Language specifier or
 Language generator

##  FA has two types

1. DFA (Deterministic Finite Automata)
 Simply called FA
2. NFA (Non-deterministic Finite Automata)

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## Finite Automata “FA or DFA”

 Recursive definition of FA
 A finite automata is the collection of three things
1. Finite set of states
 One initial state, intermediate states and may a final state(s)
2. Finite set of transitions
 Change in states
3. An alphabet
 Possible input letters

##  Also refer as Finite Accepter, because

 It accept certain input strings and reject the others

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DFA (Cont...)
 Formal definition of DFA
 FA is a set of five tuple
 That is
 FA = {Q, ∑, σ, S, F}

 Where
 Q is set of states
 ∑ is an alphabet
 σ is a transition
i.e. σ: Q x ZQ is a transition function
 S is start/ initial state, usually q0 i.e. q0∈Q
 F is set of final states F Q

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DFA Example
 Where
 Q = {q0, q1, q2, q3}
 ∑ = {a, b}
 S = {q0}
 F = {q1, q3}
 Transitions (can use Transition table)
 σ (q0, a)q1,
 σ (q0, b)q2,
 σ (q1, a,b)q3,
 σ (q2, a)q2,
 σ (q2, b)q3 and
 σ (q3, a,b)q3

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Pictorial Representation or
Transition Diagram of DFA
 In pictorial representation
 State is represented by small circle
 Start / Initial state as , , , ,

 Intermediate state , ,

 Final state , ,
 Also called halt state, terminal state, accepting state etc…

##  Dead state / garbage collector / trap state

 Any unusual state representation

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Pictorial Representation or
Transition Diagram of DFA (Cont…)
 In pictorial representation
 Transition represented by arrow “ ”
 Arrow head shows direction of transition
 Labeled by input (symbol from the alphabet)

 Transition Types
 Incoming transition
 Transition entering a state
 Outgoing transition
 Transition going away from a state
 Loop transition
 Transition start and end at the same state

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Transition Table
 Transition
 Changing of state by reading / scanning an input

 Transition Table
 Summarize form of transitions
 Provide all the information about FA
 In table format, where
 Each row represent a state of FA
 Each column represent is letter
of input alphabet

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## Rules for DFA or FA

 The following should be follow during construction of
DFA
 Cannot take empty / null transition i.e. Λ
 Transition for each input letter i.e. alphabet symbols
 At every state
 Only one transition for a letter over a state
 Only one initial state
 One, many or none final state(s)
 No transition for a string or substring

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## Examples: Convert RE to DFA

 RE = (a + b)*
 Accept all words

 RE = a (a + b)*
 Words starting with “a”

 RE = (a + b)+ FA ?

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## Examples: Convert RE to DFA (Cont…)

 FA that accept no language
 Many options

 RE = (a + b)
 Simply convert RE to FA first, then
 Complete the FA

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## Examples: Convert RE to DFA (Cont…)

 Language of words starting and ending with 0 over ∑ =
{0,1}
 RE = 0 (0 + 1)* 0
 DFA

 RE = a* RE = a+

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## Examples: Convert RE to DFA (Cont…)

 RE = a a*b* = a+b* (Which one is correct ?)

##  Language starting and ending with

the same letter
 RE = a (a + b)* a + b (a + b)* b
 DFA
 Can we construct DFA with
only final state ?
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## Examples: Convert RE to DFA (Cont…)

 DFAs with different number of states for RE = a (a + b)*
 FA with 3 states

 FA with 4 states

##  Can be extended further . . .

 DFAs with different number of states for RE = a (a + b)+?
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## Examples: Convert RE to DFA (Cont…)

 Language with words having 3rd b
 RE = (a+b)(a+b) b (a+b)* = (a+b)2 b (a+b)*

##  Language with even length

 RE = ((a+b)(a+b))*

##  Odd length i.e. RE = (a+b) ((a+b)(a+b))* then DFA ?

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## Examples: Convert RE to DFA (Cont…)

 Language containing at least one “aa”

##  Language whose words start and end with “aa”

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## Examples: Convert RE to DFA (Cont…)

 Even-even language
 RE = ( (aa+bb)+(ab+ba)(aa+bb)*(ab+ba) )*

##  Language that accept on λ

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## Examples: Convert RE to DFA (Cont…)

 RE = (0+1)* (00+11) (0+1)*

##  RE = (a+b)* (aaa+bbb) (a+b)*

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Finite Languages
Examples: Convert RE to DFA
 DFA that accept baa only i.e. L = {baa}

##  DFA that accept bba, ab only i.e. L = {bba, ab} ?

 Language with words having length 3
 RE = (a+b)(a+b)(a+b) = (a+b)3

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## Examples: Convert RE to DFA (Cont…)

 L = {λ, b, ab, bb}
So RE = {λ + b + ab + bb}

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## Examples: Convert RE to DFA (Cont…)

 Language starts and ends with the same letter
 Language having at least one “a” and “b”
 Language contain 3,5,6,9 clumps of “a”
 Language of words containing no substring “bb”
 Language of words that do not have substring “ab”
 Solve as many example you can

 Homework
 Solve the Exercise
 Questions 1.1 to 1.7
 Page # 83,84

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End of Chapter

## You may have quiz next week.

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