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Chapter 08 Developing Employees for Future Success Answer Key

True / False Questions

1. Development implies learning that is not necessarily related to an employee's current job.

TRUE

The definition of development indicates that it is future oriented. Development implies learning
that is not necessarily related to an employee's current job.

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Learning Objective: 08-01 Discuss how development is related to training and careers.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Training, Development, and Career Management

2. A protean career is one that remains constant despite the changes in a person's interests,
abilities, and values and in the work environment.

FALSE

Today's employees are more likely to have a protean career, one that frequently changes based
on changes in the person's interests, abilities, and values and in the work environment.

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Learning Objective: 08-01 Discuss how development is related to training and careers.

8-1
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Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Training, Development, and Career Management

3. The approaches to employee development fall into four broad categories: formal education,
assessment, job experiences, and interpersonal relationships.

TRUE

The many approaches to employee development fall into four broad categories: formal

education, assessment, job experiences, and interpersonal relationships.

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Learning Objective: 08-02 Identify the methods organizations use for employee development.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

4. The most frequent uses of assessment are to identify employees with managerial potential to
measure current managers' strengths and weaknesses.

TRUE

The most frequent uses of assessment are to identify employees with managerial potential to
measure current managers' strengths and weaknesses.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
to plan employee development.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

8-2
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5. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is an assessment tool for behavioral styles based on the works
of the psychologist William Marston.

FALSE

The DiSC assessment tool is an inventory of behavioral styles based on the work of William
Marston, a psychologist who attempted to categorize normal behavior patterns.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
to plan employee development.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

6. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, individuals with a Feeling (F) preference try
always to be objective in making decisions, whereas individuals with a Thinking (T) preference

are more subjective.

FALSE

Individuals with a Thinking (T) preference try always to be objective in making decisions.

Individuals with a Feeling (F) preference tend to evaluate the impact of the alternatives on
others, as well as their own feelings; they are more subjective.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
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Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

8-3
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7. Research on the validity, reliability, and effectiveness of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is
inconclusive.

TRUE

Research on the validity, reliability, and effectiveness of the MBTI is inconclusive. People who
take the MBTI find it a positive experience and say it helps them change their behavior.

However, MBTI scores are not necessarily stable over time.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
to plan employee development.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

8. Assessment centers are primarily used to identify employees' technical skills.

FALSE

The primary use of assessment centers is to identify whether employees have the personality
characteristics, administrative skills, and interpersonal skills needed for managerial jobs.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

8-4
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9. Research suggests that assessment center ratings are valid for predicting performance, salary
level, and career advancement.

TRUE

Research suggests that assessment center ratings are valid for predicting performance, salary
level, and career advancement. Assessment centers may also be useful for development

because of the feedback that participants receive about their attitudes, skill strengths, and
weaknesses.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
to plan employee development.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

10. A performance appraisal process must identify causes of the performance discrepancy and

develop plans for improving performance.

TRUE

A performance appraisal, or formal process for measuring employee performance, is a major


component of performance management. The appraisal system must tell employees specifically
about their performance problems and ways to improve their performance.

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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

8-5
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11. Most employee development occurs through formal education programs.

FALSE

Most employee development occurs through job experiences—the combination of

relationships, problems, demands, tasks, and other features of an employee's jobs.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

12. An organization can use downward moves as a source of job experience.

TRUE

Lateral moves include job rotation, transfer, or temporary assignment to another organization.

An organization may also use downward moves or promotions as a source of job experience.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

8-6
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13. Job rotation increases employees' understanding of different company functions.

TRUE

Job rotation helps employees gain an appreciation for the company's goals, increases their

understanding of different company functions, develops a network of contacts, and improves


problem-solving and decision-making skills.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

14. The temporary cross-functional move is the least common way to use downward moves for

employee development.

FALSE

The temporary cross-functional move is the most common way to use downward moves for
employee development.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

8-7
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15. Employees on sabbatical generally do not receive their salary or benefits.

FALSE

Temporary assignments can include a sabbatical—a leave of absence from an organization to

renew or develop skills. Employees on sabbatical often receive full pay and benefits.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

16. Mentoring programs tend to be very successful when they are compulsory.

FALSE

Mentoring programs tend to be most successful when they are voluntary and participants

understand the details of the program.

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Learning Objective: 08-05 Summarize principles of successful mentoring programs.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

8-8
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17. Coaches are peers or managers who work with other employees to motivate them, help them
develop their skills, and provide them with reinforcement and feedback.

TRUE

A coach is a peer or manager who works with an employee to motivate the employee, help him
or her develop skills, and provide reinforcement and feedback.

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Learning Objective: 08-06 Tell how managers and peers develop employees through coaching.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

18. Basic career management systems involve the four sequential steps of recruiting, relocation,

reality check, and action planning.

FALSE

A basic career management system involves four steps: data gathering, feedback, goal setting,
and action planning and follow-up.

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Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Systems for Career Management

8-9
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19. In a self-assessment, an organization's responsibility is to identify opportunities and areas that
need improvement.

FALSE

Self-assessment refers to the use of information by employees to determine their career


interests, values, aptitudes, and behavioral tendencies. The employee's responsibility is to

identify opportunities and personal areas needing improvement.

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Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
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Topic: Systems for Career Management

20. In goal setting, it is the employee's responsibility to identify the goal and the method of
determining his or her progress toward that goal.

TRUE

In goal setting, it is the employee's responsibility to identify the goal and the method of
determining her or his progress toward that goal.

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Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
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Topic: Systems for Career Management

8-10
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21. The outcome of action planning often takes the form of a career development plan.

TRUE

The outcome of action planning often takes the form of a career development plan.

Development plans usually include descriptions of strengths and weaknesses, career goals, and
development activities for reaching each goal.

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Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Systems for Career Management

22. Women and minorities often have difficulty finding mentors.

TRUE

With regard to developmental relationships, women and minorities often have trouble finding

mentors. They may not participate in an organization's, profession's, or community's "old boys'
network."

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Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

8-11
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23. Succession planning focuses on high-potential employees.

TRUE

Succession planning focuses on high-potential employees, that is, employees an organization

believes can succeed in higher-level business positions such as general manager of a business
unit, director of a function (such as marketing or finance), or chief executive officer.

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Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
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Topic: Development-Related Challenges

24. The development of high-potential employees is a usually a very swift process.

FALSE

The development of high-potential employees is a slow process.

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Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
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Topic: Development-Related Challenges

8-12
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25. Research suggests that managers who participate in programs like Individual Coaching for
Effectiveness (ICE) improve their skills and are less likely to be terminated.

TRUE

Research suggests that managers who participate in programs like ICE (Individual Coaching for
Effectiveness) improve their skills and are less likely to be terminated.

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Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

Multiple Choice Questions

8-13
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26. Managers provide for _____, a combination of formal education, job experiences, relationships,

and assessment of personality and abilities to help employees prepare for the future of their
careers.

A. emotional development

B. training programs

C. employee development

D. counselling sessions

E. feedback

Employee development is the combination of formal education, job experiences, relationships,


and assessment of personality and abilities to help employees prepare for the future of their
careers.

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Learning Objective: 08-01 Discuss how development is related to training and careers.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Training, Development, and Career Management

8-14
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27. _____ increases an employee's ability to move into jobs that may not yet exist.

A. Development

B. Qualification

C. Physical appearance

D. Personal background

E. Ethnic culture

Development implies learning that is not necessarily related to an employee's current job.
Instead, it prepares employees for other jobs or positions in an organization and increases their

ability to move into jobs that may not yet exist.

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Learning Objective: 08-01 Discuss how development is related to training and careers.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Training, Development, and Career Management

8-15
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28. Which of the following is true of the relationship between training and development?

A. Training is future oriented, while development is focused on improvement of current job.

B. The use of work experience is high in training but low in development.

C. Participation in training is voluntary but compulsory in development.

D. The goal of training is preparation for the current job, while the goal of development is
preparation for changes in the current job.

E. Training is often an ongoing process, while development tends to be a short-term process.

Development implies learning that is not necessarily related to an employee's current job.

Instead, it prepares employees for other jobs or positions in the organization and increases
their ability to move into jobs that may not yet exist. In contrast, training traditionally focuses on

helping employees improve performance of their current jobs.

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Learning Objective: 08-01 Discuss how development is related to training and careers.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Training, Development, and Career Management

8-16
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29. Identify the correct statement regarding protean careers.

A. Employees in protean careers look for organizations to provide job security.

B. Employees in protean careers take lesser responsibility for managing protean careers than
for traditional careers.

C. A protean career is one that does not change frequently.

D. Employees in protean careers look for organizations to provide development opportunities

based on the modern psychological contract.

E. Protean careers are characterized by frequent changes due to changes in a person's desired

level of compensation.

A protean career is one that frequently changes based on changes in a person's interests,
abilities, and values and in the work environment. Employees in protean careers take

responsibility for managing their careers. This practice is consistent with the modern

psychological contract. Employees look for organizations to provide not job security and a
career ladder to climb, but instead development opportunities and flexible work arrangements.

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Learning Objective: 08-01 Discuss how development is related to training and careers.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Training, Development, and Career Management

8-17
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30. A(n) _____ is a career that frequently changes based on changes in a person's interests, abilities,
and values and in the work environment.

A. prescribed career

B. stable career

C. flexible career

D. established career

E. protean career

Today's employees are more likely to have a protean career, one that frequently changes based

on changes in a person's interests, abilities, and values and in the work environment.

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Learning Objective: 08-01 Discuss how development is related to training and careers.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Training, Development, and Career Management

8-18
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31. Protean careers require that employees:

A. look for organizations to provide job security.

B. take responsibility for managing their own careers.

C. be specialized at repetitive tasks.

D. look for organizations to provide a career ladder to climb to higher positions.

E. focus on holding on to their jobs to avoid being laid off.

A protean career is one that frequently changes based on changes in a person's interests,
abilities, and values and in the work environment. Employees in protean careers take

responsibility for managing their careers. This practice is consistent with the modern
psychological contract. Employees look for organizations to provide, not job security and a

career ladder to climb, but instead development opportunities and flexible work arrangements.

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Learning Objective: 08-01 Discuss how development is related to training and careers.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Training, Development, and Career Management

8-19
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32. _____ helps employees select development activities that prepare them to meet their career
goals.

A. Career path

B. Training

C. Policy analysis

D. Job sharing

E. Career management

Career management helps employees select development activities that prepare them to meet

their career goals. It helps employers select development activities in line with their human
resource needs.

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Learning Objective: 08-01 Discuss how development is related to training and careers.
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Topic: Training, Development, and Career Management

8-20
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33. The four general approaches that companies use for employee development include:

A. formal education, assessment, job experiences, and interpersonal relationships.

B. job rotation, promotion, transfer, and job sharing.

C. psychological tests, assessment centers, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and performance


feedback.

D. business games, formal courses, team building, and assessment.

E. total quality management, Six Sigma, lean manufacturing, and quality function deployment.

The many approaches to employee development fall into four broad categories: formal

education, assessment, job experiences, and interpersonal relationships.

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Learning Objective: 08-02 Identify the methods organizations use for employee development.
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

8-21
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34. Which of the following is true of formal education as an approach to employee development?

A. Organizations organize formal educational programs at the workplace or off site to support

employee development.

B. Formal education includes workshops that are open to outsiders as well as employees.

C. As a prerequisite to formal education, trainees must enroll in various courses offered by an


organization.

D. Formal education includes presentations sent out by an organization, which enlist the ethics
and policies educating employees from time to time.

E. In an organization, formal education involves collating data pertaining to the development

of projects.

Organizations may support employee development through a variety of formal educational

programs, either at the workplace or off-site. These may include workshops designed

specifically for an organization's employees, short courses offered by consultants or universities,


university programs offered to employees who live on campus during the program, and

executive MBA programs.

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Learning Objective: 08-02 Identify the methods organizations use for employee development.
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

8-22
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35. Thompson Design, a popular furniture manufacturer, provides employee support through
various workshops on interior design techniques. It also offers three-month courses on various
aspects of decorating a home, from suitable paint for a media room to contemporary outdoor

furnishings. This adds to employees' existing knowledge and skill sets, helping create customer
satisfaction. In this scenario, which of the following approaches to employee development is
Thompson Design taking?

A. Assessment

B. Formal education

C. Job experiences

D. Interpersonal relationships

E. Counseling

Organizations may support employee development through a variety of formal educational

programs, either at the workplace or off site. These may include workshops designed
specifically for an organization's employees, short courses offered by consultants or universities.

In this scenario, Thompson Design is using formal education as an approach to employee

development.

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Learning Objective: 08-02 Identify the methods organizations use for employee development.
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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36. Salt Crumbs general manager, Ricardo, believes that the best way to recruit managers for
vacant, top-level positions in the organization is through internal assessment. The positions
available include senior project manager, executive project director, and chief executive officer.

He feels that an assessment can help him identify potential high performers for these positions
from within the organization, without having to consult resources from outside the
organization. His supervisor, Meghan, argues that it would be good to have fresh faces in the

company, who may suggest new ways to perform old functions. Which of the following can
weaken Meghan's argument?

A. New recruits will bring in fresh ideas and will creatively perform a job that was considered

monotonous earlier.

B. Ricardo believes that hiring from outside the organization will be beneficial in the long run.

C. Hiring internal resources will decrease unemployment in the region.

D. Highly efficient workers who are already familiar with a company and its policies are better

suited for executive positions than new employees.

E. Supervisors find it monotonous socializing with the same crowd every day.

Organizations use assessment to identify managers with potential to move into higher-level

executive positions.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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37. A sales firm regularly enrolls some of its employees in a six-month marketing course with a
leading university. At the end of the course, the employees are able to perform better in the
organization. Which of the following methods of employee development has the firm used?

A. Externship

B. Formal education

C. Assessment

D. Interpersonal relationships

E. Personality test

The employee development method adopted in this case is that of formal education.
Organizations may support employee development through a variety of formal educational

programs, either at the workplace or off-site. These may include workshops designed

specifically for the organization's employees, short courses offered by consultants or

universities, university programs offered to employees who live on campus during the program,
and executive MBA programs (which enroll managers to meet on weekends or evenings to earn

a master's degree in business administration).

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Learning Objective: 08-02 Identify the methods organizations use for employee development.
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

8-25
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38. The process of collecting information and providing feedback to employees about their
behavior, communication style, or skills is known as _____.

A. requirements analysis

B. data mining

C. assessment

D. counseling

E. quality check

One of the ways to provide for employee development is assessment—collecting information

and providing feedback to employees about their behavior, communication style, or skills.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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39. For assessment to work efficiently, an employee must be:

A. provided suggestions to improve his or her weak skills.

B. evaluated discreetly so the employee does not pretend to be a model employee.

C. present on the day the assessment occurs so that results of the feedback will be accurate.

D. employed at the organization for at least a year.

E. informed that an appraisal can take place at any time during the year.

For assessment to support development, the assessment information must be shared with the
employee being assessed. Along with that assessment information, the employee needs

suggestions for correcting skill weaknesses and for using skills already learned.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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40. The energy dichotomy of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator indicates _____.

A. the preparations individuals make before making decisions

B. the amount of consideration individuals give to their own and others' values and feelings

C. individuals' degree of introversion or extroversion

D. the hard facts of a situation

E. individuals' tendency to be either flexible or structured

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) identifies individuals' preferences for source of energy,
means of information gathering, way of decision making, and lifestyle. The energy dichotomy

indicates where individuals gain interpersonal strength and vitality, measured as their degree of
introversion or extroversion.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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41. Hannah Barboza Inc., a publishing company, regularly assesses employees using different
questionnaires. Recent assessments revealed that there were more employees who focused on
the relationships between the ideas of the given projects and fewer employees who actually

took the time to conduct thorough research on them. Based on these results, the managers
were able to correctly assign employees to specific projects for the month. In this scenario,
which of the following Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment dichotomies is Hannah

Barboza Inc. using to allocate projects?

A. Energy dichotomy

B. Information-gathering dichotomy

C. Decision-making dichotomy

D. Lifestyle dichotomy

E. Initiative-oriented dichotomy

The information-gathering dichotomy relates to the preparations individuals make before


making decisions. Individuals with a Sensing (S) preference tend to gather the facts and details

to prepare for a decision. Intuitive types (N) tend to focus less on the facts and more on

possibilities and relationships among them. In this scenario, Hannah Barboza Inc. observed the

information-gathering dichotomy of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to assess its


employees.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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42. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, how do Introverted types (I) gain energy?

A. By focusing on inner thoughts

B. By focusing on interpersonal relationships

C. By gathering facts and details

D. By focusing less on facts and more on possibilities

E. By trying to be objective in making decisions

The energy dichotomy of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator indicates where individuals gain
interpersonal strength and vitality, measured as their degree of introversion or extroversion.

Introverted types (I) gain energy by focusing on inner thoughts and feelings.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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43. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Extroverted types (E) gain energy through:

A. interpersonal relationships.

B. personal thoughts.

C. facts and details.

D. establishing goals.

E. inner feelings.

According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Extroverted types (E) gain energy through
interpersonal relationships while Introverted types (I) gain energy by focusing on inner thoughts

and feelings.

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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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44. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, what is true of individuals with a Sensing (S)
preference?

A. They enjoy surprises.

B. They tend to rush into decision making.

C. They tend to focus less on facts and more on possibilities and relationships among them.

D. They focus on interpersonal relationships.

E. They tend to gather the facts and details to prepare for a decision.

According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, individuals with a Sensing (S) preference tend to

gather the facts and details to prepare for a decision.

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45. According to the lifestyle dichotomy of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, individuals with a _____
preference enjoy surprises and dislike deadlines.

A. Judging (J)

B. Perceiving (P)

C. Thinking (T)

D. Feeling (F)

E. Sensing (S)

The lifestyle dichotomy of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator describes an individual's tendency to

be either flexible or structured. Individuals with a Perceiving (P) preference enjoy surprises, are
comfortable with changing a decision, and dislike deadlines.

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46. The decision-making dimension of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator relates to the:

A. steps or actions individuals take when making decisions.

B. amount of consideration given to others' feelings when making a decision.

C. individuals' tendency to be flexible and adaptable.

D. confidence and speed with which decisions are reached.

E. individuals' interpersonal strength and vitality.

In decision making, individuals differ in the amount of consideration they give to their own and
others' values and feelings, as opposed to the hard facts of a situation.

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Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

47. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, individuals with a Perceiving (P) preference:

A. are decisive and focused on goals.

B. are comfortable with changing a decision.

C. like deadlines.

D. focus more on possibilities and relationships among facts.

E. do not like surprises.

Individuals with a Perceiving (P) preference enjoy surprises, are comfortable with changing a
decision, and dislike deadlines.

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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

48. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) identifies individuals' preferences for source of energy,

means of information gathering, way of decision making, and _____.

A. succession planning

B. self-assessment

C. lifestyle

D. value system

E. goal setting

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) identifies individuals' preferences for source of energy,

means of information gathering, way of decision making, and lifestyle.

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49. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which of the following is true of individuals who
are Introverted, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging (known as ISTJs)?

A. They appear to be too task-oriented.

B. They tend to take a lot of time to make decisions.

C. They are perceived as friendly and outgoing.

D. They respond well to unexpected opportunities.

E. They are mostly unorganized and impractical.

Individuals who are Introverted, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging (known as ISTJs) tend to be

serious, quiet, practical, orderly, and logical. They can organize tasks, be decisive, and follow
through on plans and goals. They may have difficulty responding to unexpected opportunities,

appear to their colleagues to be too task-oriented or impersonal, and make decisions too fast.

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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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50. Identify the correct statement regarding the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).

A. It is an appropriate tool for measuring job performance.

B. People who take the MBTI generally do not find it to be an enjoyable experience.

C. MBTI scores are stable over time.

D. The MBTI is a valuable tool for understanding communication styles.

E. Research has concluded that the MBTI is highly valid, reliable, and effective.

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a valuable tool for understanding communication
styles and the ways people prefer to interact with others. Research on the validity, reliability,

and effectiveness of the MBTI is inconclusive. People who take the MBTI find it a positive
experience and say it helps them change their behavior. MBTI scores are not necessarily stable

over time. It is not appropriate for measuring job performance, however, or as the only means

of evaluating promotion potential.

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51. Which of the following categories in the DiSC inventory means that a person emphasizes
relationships and also displays optimism?

A. Conscientiousness

B. Steadiness

C. Influence

D. Dominance

E. Initiative

In the DiSC inventory, the category "influence" means a person emphasizes relationships and

persuasion. This type of person likes to collaborate, dislikes being ignored, and displays
optimism and enthusiasm.

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52. Chang works at a leading restaurant. She is usually scared of making any mistakes at her
workplace but is very keen on details. She also prioritizes quality in her work. In the context of
Inscape's DiSC assessment, she would most likely fall under the behavioral style of _____.

A. steadiness

B. dominance

C. conscientiousness

D. humility

E. influence

An employee taking Inscape's DiSC inventory receives a profile report describing his or her
behavioral style, preferred environment, and strategies for effectiveness. Conscientiousness

means the person emphasizes quality and accuracy, displaying competency. This type of person

worries about mistakes and wants to get the details. He or she favors objective thinking and

enjoys working independently.

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53. Schram Enterprises, a software company, conducts Inscape's DiSC inventory assessment to
evaluate its employees. The assessment reveals that there are very few employees who are
diligent at work, calm and composed, even while working with tight deadlines. Which of the

following DiSC categories applies to the employees described in the scenario?

A. Influence

B. Conscientiousness

C. Steadiness

D. Dominance

E. Intelligence

Steadiness means a person emphasizes cooperation, sincerity, and dependability. This type of
person behaves calmly and with humility, dislikes rushing, and is supportive of others. In this

scenario, Schram Enterprises found that only a few employees fall in the steadiness category.

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54. An offsite location in which multiple raters or evaluators evaluate employees' performance on a
number of exercises is known as a(n) _____.

A. development center

B. feedback center

C. control center

D. assessment center

E. counseling center

At an assessment center, multiple raters or evaluators (assessors) evaluate employees'

performance on a number of exercises.

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55. Which of the following is true about an assessment center?

A. An assessment center is a meeting room where a team of seven to ten employees is

assigned a problem and must work together to solve it within a certain time period.

B. At an assessment center, multiple raters or evaluators evaluate employees' performance on

a number of exercises.

C. It is an office that looks into the process of collecting information and providing feedback to
employees about their behavior, communication style, or skills.

D. At an assessment center, senior managers hold a test that identifies individuals' preferences

for source of energy, means of information gathering, way of decision making, and lifestyle.

E. It refers to an on-site location where the corporate leaders design a tool that gathers the
ratings of a manager's use of the skills associated with success in managing.

At an assessment center, multiple raters or evaluators evaluate employees' performance on a

number of exercises. An assessment center is usually an off-site location such as a conference


center.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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56. Brenda Myers, the vice president of FSE Inc., believes in conducting an assessment center
meeting at the end of every month. She believes that this is the best way to identify potential
high performers to succeed her. Her senior manager suggests the meeting would defeat the

purpose of the HR department. Which of the following statements will supports Brenda's
belief?

A. Brenda's choice of a successor will not be influenced by personal bias.

B. Brenda does not trust the HR department to find the right successor.

C. An assessment center meeting requires a lot of elaborate and exhaustive methods to


identify potential candidates.

D. An assessment center meeting alone is not enough to identify potential managers.

E. An assessment center meeting is an authentic way to identify potential managers because

appraisals are standardized.

Multiple raters or evaluators (assessors) evaluate employees' performance on a number of


exercises. The primary use of assessment centers is to identify whether employees have the

personality characteristics, administrative skills, and interpersonal skills needed for managerial

jobs.

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57. The primary use of assessment centers is to identify:

A. the employees who have the personality characteristics and skills needed for managerial

positions.

B. the strengths and weaknesses of an organization.

C. the decision processes and communication styles that inhibit production.

D. the opportunities and threats to an organization.

E. the factors that inhibit group performance.

The primary use of assessment centers is to identify whether employees have the personality

characteristics, administrative skills, and interpersonal skills needed for managerial jobs.

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58. Myrtle Flower Company, a retail florist, decides to evaluate its employees after successfully
completing one year of business. The method of conducting the assessment includes creating
small groups and assigning work to those groups within an allotted time frame. The team

members would have to work together in tackling problems that they might face, without a
source to whom they can refer any questions. In this scenario, which of the following types of
exercises is Myrtle Flower Company conducting?

A. Leader-centered group discussion

B. Paired-up group discussion

C. Leaderless group discussion

D. Team group discussion

E. Time-bound discussion

In a leaderless group discussion, a team of five to seven employees is assigned a problem and

must work together to solve it within a certain time period. In this scenario, Myrtle Flower
Company is conducting the leaderless group discussion assessment.

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59. An employee's tolerance for uncertainty and the ability to get along with others are assessed in
_____.

A. leaderless group discussions

B. in-basket exercises

C. personality tests

D. role plays

E. interviews

The types of exercises used in assessment centers include leaderless group discussions,

interviews, in-baskets, and role-plays. Personality tests may be used to determine employees'
ability to get along with others, tolerance for uncertainty, and other traits related to success as a

manager or team member.

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60. Which of the following is true of in-basket exercises?

A. They require teams of five to seven employees to work together to solve assigned problems

within a certain time period.

B. They are paper-and-pencil tests designed to measure participants' communication styles

and skills.

C. They simulate the administrative tasks of a manager's job, using a pile of documents for the
employee to handle.

D. They require participants to take the part of a manager or employee in a situation involving

the skills to be assessed.

E. They require the use of interest and aptitude tests to evaluate an employee's vocabulary,
general mental ability, and reasoning skills.

In-basket exercises simulate the administrative tasks of a manager's job, using a pile of

documents for the employee to handle.

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Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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61. Which of the following assessment center exercises is being used when a team of five to seven
employees is assigned a problem and must work together to solve it within a certain time
period?

A. Interview session

B. Leaderless group discussion

C. Role playing

D. In-basket exercise

E. Personality test

In a leaderless group discussion, a team of five to seven employees is assigned a problem and
must work together to solve it within a certain time period.

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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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62. In assessment centers, typically, each assessor observes and records _____ employees' behaviors
in each exercise.

A. six or seven

B. four or five

C. eight or nine

D. one or two

E. ten or eleven

In assessment centers, the assessors are usually managers who have been trained to look for

employee behaviors that are related to the skills being assessed. Typically, each assessor
observes and records one or two employees' behaviors in each exercise.

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63. In _____, a participant takes the part of a manager or employee in a situation involving the skills
to be assessed.

A. personality tests

B. group discussions

C. interview sessions

D. role plays

E. leaderless group discussions

In role plays, the participant takes the part of a manager or employee in a situation involving

the skills to be assessed.

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64. Which of the following statements is true about the 360-degree feedback process?

A. It involves rating an individual in terms of work-related behaviors.

B. It collects a single perspective of a manager's performance.

C. It breaks down formal communications about behaviors and skill ratings between
employees and their internal and external customers.

D. It gives results that can be easily interpreted by anyone.

E. It demands very less time from the raters to complete the evaluations.

The 360-degree feedback system often involves rating an individual in terms of work-related

behaviors. For development purposes, the rater would identify an area of behavior as a
strength of that employee or an area requiring further development.

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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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65. How does 360-degree feedback help organizations?

A. Managers can identify subordinates who provide negative feedback.

B. Delivering ratings to a manager provides a simple way for the manager to act on the
feedback.

C. Performance improves and behavior changes as a result of participation.

D. It demands very little time, so the raters can focus on other tasks.

E. Managers can easily interpret the results themselves and take necessary action.

There are several benefits of 360-degree feedback. This method establishes formal

communications about behaviors and skill ratings between employees and their internal and
external customers. Studies have shown that performance improves and behavior changes as a

result of participating in 360-degree feedback systems.

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66. The combination of relationships, problems, demands, tasks, and other features of an
employee's jobs is referred to as _____.

A. job appraisals

B. job experiences

C. formal education

D. technical training

E. interpersonal relationships

Most employee development occurs through job experiences—the combination of

relationships, problems, demands, tasks, and other features of an employee's jobs.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
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67. Using job experiences for development assumes that:

A. development occurs only when job demands involve obstacles.

B. development occurs only through promotions.

C. development is most likely to occur when employees experience high levels of negative
stress in their jobs.

D. development is most likely to occur when an employee's skills and experiences do not

entirely match the skills required for the current job.

E. development is most likely to occur when an employee has the prerequisite skills to perform

the job.

Using job experiences for employee development assumes that development is most likely to
occur when an employee's skills and experiences do not entirely match the skills required for

the employee's current job. The usefulness of job experiences for employee development varies

depending on whether the employee views the experiences as positive or negative sources of
stress.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
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68. Which of the following is true of job enlargement?

A. It is a systematic approach to help an organization modify its core processes to achieve

more efficient results.

B. It aims at greater productivity through reduced application of mental and physical effort.

C. It attempts to motivate employees by giving them the opportunity to use specific skill sets.

D. It involves moving employees through a series of job assignments in one or more functional

areas.

E. It involves adding challenges or new responsibilities to employees' current jobs.

In the context of job design, job enlargement involves adding challenges or new responsibilities
to employees' current jobs.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
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Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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69. Which of the following is true of job enlargement?

A. It creates a type of role ambiguity because an employee is not sure how to handle

improvements.

B. It allows employers more scope in recruiting more employees.

C. It assigns an employee to a position in a different area of a company.

D. It creates an opportunity for employees to develop new skills and knowledge.

E. It moves employees through a series of job assignments in one or more functional areas.

Job enlargement not only makes a job more interesting, but also creates an opportunity for

employees to develop new skills.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
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70. Job rotation involves:

A. adding challenges or new responsibilities to an employee's current job.

B. moving an employee through a series of job assignments in one or more functional areas of
the company.

C. allowing an employee to work full-time in a temporary position at another company.

D. allowing an employee to switch between two different jobs within the company on a daily

or weekly basis.

E. assigning an employee to a position with less responsibility and authority.

A job design technique that can be applied to employee development is job rotation, moving
employees through a series of job assignments in one or more functional areas.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
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71. Zenita was a creative writer at The Machner Group before her editor asked her to try out her
skills at photography in the company's visuals department. After completing a short course on
photography, Zenita joined the visuals department. Which of the following methods of job

design did Zenita experience?

A. Job experience

B. Job enlargement

C. Job rotation

D. Job reduction

E. Job revolution

Another job design technique that can be applied to employee development is job rotation,
moving employees through a series of job assignments in one or more functional areas. In this

scenario, Zenita experienced job rotation.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
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72. Valarie Robbins, a project manager at Schmitt and Co., believes that she should create an
opportunity for all employees to gain knowledge about the different areas in the organization.
She believes that it will make her employees familiar with all departments of the company. Her

manager advises her that this strategy could cost the company time and money. Which of the
following statements supports Valarie's belief?

A. The economy is currently under recession, and the company is losing profits.

B. This strategy takes up a lot of time, something that the company cannot afford.

C. This strategy will create job dissatisfaction in employees who prefer to stick to one job.

D. Too much knowledge will create confusion when employees keep switching roles.

E. This strategy will allow employees to develop new skills and will keep them empowered.

Job enlargement not only makes a job more interesting, but also creates an opportunity for

employees to develop new skills.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
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73. Which of the following is a potential problem of job rotation?

A. Employees typically develop a short-term perspective on their problems and solutions.

B. Employees generally earn less.

C. Promotions usually take longer.

D. Employees typically develop specialized skills but fail to use them due to quick rotations.

E. It decreases employees' understanding of different company functions.

Job rotation helps employees increase their understanding of different company functions. It
also helps employees increase their salary and earn promotions faster. However, knowing they

will be rotated to another job may give the employees a short-term perspective on problems
and their solutions.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


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Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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74. Which of the following is true about job rotation?

A. According to research, job rotation typically does not benefit managers.

B. Job rotation is a simple process and rarely requires the involvement or the commitment of
top management.

C. The system is restricted to a limited number of key positions and employees within a
company.

D. The system ensures that employees understand the specific skills to be developed.

E. Rotation schedules are decided solely on the ability of other departments to accommodate

new employees.

Job rotation for non-management employees as well as managers can be beneficial, depending
on the program's objectives. Employees and their managers understand and agree on the

expectations for the job rotation, including which skills are to be developed.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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75. Which of the following is true about a transfer?

A. It typically involves a full-time temporary position at another organization.

B. A transfer fundamentally increases job responsibilities.

C. A transfer essentially increases compensation.

D. It occurs when an employee is given less responsibility and authority.

E. It is an assignment of an employee to a position in a different area of the company, usually


in a lateral move.

In a transfer, the organization assigns an employee to a position in a different area of the

company. Transfers do not necessarily increase job responsibilities or compensation. They are
usually lateral moves, that is, moves to a job with a similar level of responsibility.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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76. A move to a job with a similar level of responsibility within the same organization is called a(n):

A. externship.

B. promotion.

C. downward move.

D. upward move.

E. lateral move.

Most companies use upward, downward, and lateral moves as an option for employee
development. Lateral moves are moves to a job with a similar level of responsibility.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

77. An organization may demote an employee to a lower-level position:

A. to provide greater challenges to him or her.

B. so that the employee can learn different skills.

C. to increase the employee's visibility.

D. so that the employee can get more authority.

E. to give him more responsibility.

A downward move occurs when an employee is given less responsibility and authority. The

organization may demote an employee because of poor performance or move the employee
to a lower-level position in another function so that the employee can develop different skills.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

78. Hollander McKenzie, an employee of Baha Enterprises, is having trouble in his current job. His
manager's constant feedback is that he does not maintain consistency in his work. In a meeting
with Hollander's manager, the HR team decides to shift him to a department that would not
require as much as his current position requires. In this scenario, which of the following

approaches to employee development is Hollander experiencing?

A. Promotion

B. Downward move

C. Transfer

D. Sabbatical

E. Job enlargement

Downward move occurs when an employee is given less responsibility and authority. An
organization may demote an employee because of poor performance or move the employee
to a lower-level position in another function so that the employee can develop different skills. In
this scenario, Hollander is experiencing a downward move.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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79. A(n) _____ involves moving an employee into a position with greater challenges, more
responsibility, and more authority than in the previous job.

A. appraisal

B. demotion

C. promotion

D. transfer

E. externship

A promotion involves moving an employee into a position with greater challenges, more

responsibility, and more authority than in the previous job. Usually promotions include pay
increases.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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80. Allowing employees to take a full-time temporary position at another company is known as
a(n):

A. transfer.

B. expatriate assignment.

C. sabbatical.

D. externship.

E. lateral move.

In some cases, an employer may benefit from the skills an employee can learn at another

organization. The employer may encourage the employee to participate in an externship—a


full-time temporary position at another organization.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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81. Kim Riaz is a technical analyst at WaterDrop Inc. and has consistently impressed her managers
with her ability to perform outstandingly in all projects assigned to her. Her manager, Carl,
understands that she is really good at her job but also recognizes that she might experience

burnout because of the repetitive nature of the job. He talks to her about developing other
possible skills by working full time for a short period at a different company. In this scenario,
which of the following approaches to employee development is Carl encouraging?

A. Externship

B. Transfer

C. Promotion

D. Job rotation

E. Job transfer

An employer may encourage an employee to participate in an externship—a full-time

temporary position at another organization. Externships are an attractive option for employees
in analytical positions, who otherwise might solve the same kinds of problems over and over,

becoming bored as they miss out on exposure to challenging new ideas and techniques. In this

scenario, Keyes' manager suggests that she try out an externship.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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82. Marika is a senior journalist at a news agency. She goes on a temporary leave for six months
and travels around different parts of South Asia during her leave. She records her travel
experiences in a book and shares it with her colleagues upon her return. During her leave, she

was also being paid by the organization. This is an example of a(n) _____.

A. transfer

B. expatriate assignment

C. sabbatical

D. externship

E. downward move

This is an example of a sabbatical. Temporary assignments can include a sabbatical—a leave of


absence from an organization to renew or develop skills. Employees on sabbatical often receive

full pay and benefits. Sabbaticals let employees get away from the day-to-day stresses of their

jobs and acquire new skills and perspectives. Sabbaticals also allow employees more time for
personal pursuits such as writing a book or spending more time with family members.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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83. Providing employees with the opportunity to get away from the day-to-day stresses of their job
and acquire new skills and perspectives is known as a(n) _____.

A. transfer

B. expatriate assignment

C. sabbatical

D. externship

E. downward move

Temporary assignments can include a sabbatical—a leave of absence from an organization to

renew or develop skills.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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84. Kiara Evans, the editor-in-chief of News CRB, believes that her senior editor, Sean, would
benefit from a sabbatical so he can develop new skills and refresh his existing ones. Sean, on
the other hand, believes that he can develop new skills even if he continues performing his

regular job. Which of the following statements supports Kiara's belief?

A. Sean can try his hand at various other departments to help him gain new skills.

B. Sean thinks that Kiara is looking to promote another senior editor on the team.

C. Kiara wants Sean to take time off to pursue his dream of writing a book.

D. Sean's salary cannot be matched by any other company in the local area.

E. Sean is looking forward to receiving the Perfect Attendance Award.

A sabbatical is a leave of absence from an organization to renew or develop skills. Sabbaticals


also allow employees more time for personal pursuits such as writing a book or spending more

time with family members. A sabbatical would allow Sean to pursue his dream of writing a

book.

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Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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85. Management at an IT firm is thinking of promoting Barbara, a customer service representative,
to the position of senior customer relationship manager. Which of the following, if true, would
weaken management's decision to promote her?

A. Barbara is currently on a sabbatical and is expected to return to the office in three months.

B. Barbara was promoted to her current position less than a year ago.

C. Barbara has already had a pay rise over the last two years.

D. Barbara has little experience in handling such a position, which would require greater
responsibility.

E. Barbara has never been on an externship, unlike some of her customer service colleagues.

In this case, the firm's decision would be affected by Barbara's lack of experience in handling
positions that require greater responsibility. A promotion involves moving an employee into a

position with greater challenges, more responsibility, and more authority than in the previous

job.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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86. Doug was part of a formal mentoring program and was mentored by Amelia. The mentoring
sessions were conducted over a period of six weeks to improve Doug's communications and
interpersonal skills in the workplace. The sessions, however, were unsuccessful. Which of the

following, if true, would most likely have caused the failure of the mentoring sessions?

A. Doug failed to treat the mentoring sessions as therapy.

B. Doug and Amelia did not have an informal relationship before the formal mentoring
program began.

C. Amelia is a senior employee and has more experience than Doug.

D. Doug's participation was involuntary, and he had little understanding of the details of the

program.

E. Doug is a new employee, whereas Amelia has been working with the firm for many years.

Mentoring programs tend to be most successful when they are voluntary and participants

understand the details of the program. Most mentoring relationships develop informally as a
result of interests or values shared by the mentor and protégé.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking


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Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 08-05 Summarize principles of successful mentoring programs.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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87. Which of the following is true of mentoring?

A. Mentoring is the best substitute for therapy.

B. Most mentoring relationships develop formally as a result of interests or values officially


discussed by a mentor and a protégé.

C. Employees most likely to seek a mentor are emotionally unstable and have a low need for
power and achievement.

D. Mentoring programs tend to be most successful when they are voluntary and participants
understand the details of the program.

E. Informal mentoring programs ensure access to mentors for all employees, regardless of

gender or race.

Mentoring programs tend to be most successful when they are voluntary and participants

understand the details of the program. Most mentoring relationships develop informally as a

result of interests or values shared by the mentor and protégé.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-05 Summarize principles of successful mentoring programs.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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88. Charles is a successful senior employee at Groo Technology Inc. Because he has five years of
experience in the company and is well recognized for his contributions, the company's CEO
asks Charles to utilize his vast experience to pass on knowledge to a new employee who is a

quick learner but not very skilled yet at carrying out his role. In this scenario, the CEO wants
Charles to be a _____.

A. protégé

B. coach

C. mentor

D. tutor

E. guru

A mentor is an experienced, productive senior employee who helps develop a less experienced

employee, called the protégé. In this scenario, the CEO of Groo Technology Inc. decides to talk

to Charles about being a mentor.

AACSB: Knowledge Application


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 08-05 Summarize principles of successful mentoring programs.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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89. Which of the following is a characteristic of a successful formal mentoring program?

A. Mentor and protégé participation is mandatory.

B. Managers are rewarded for employee development.

C. Mentors are chosen on a random basis.

D. Mentors become therapists for their protégés.

E. Mentor-protégé relationships are artificially created.

Rewarding managers for employee development is important because it signals that mentoring
and other development activities are worthwhile. Mentoring programs tend to be most

successful when they are voluntary and participants understand the details of the program.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-05 Summarize principles of successful mentoring programs.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

90. Acting as a mentor gives managers:

A. career support and sponsorship.

B. increased visibility among the organization's managers.

C. a chance to talk about their worries.

D. a chance to develop their interpersonal skills.

E. a greater opportunity to be promoted.

Acting as a mentor gives managers a chance to develop their interpersonal skills and increase
their feelings that they are contributing something important to the organization.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

8-75
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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-05 Summarize principles of successful mentoring programs.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

91. A peer or manager who works closely with employees to motivate them, help them develop
their skills, and provide reinforcement and feedback is known as a:

A. protégé.

B. coach.

C. moderator.

D. high-potential employee.

E. facilitator.

A coach is a peer or manager who works with an employee to motivate the employee, help
him/her develop skills, and provide reinforcement and feedback.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


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Learning Objective: 08-06 Tell how managers and peers develop employees through coaching.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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92. Mindy Ellis, a manager at Savannah Grasse, observes that Mark is a slow learner and has not
been able to grasp the nuances of his job responsibilities. She sees potential in Mark and
decides to motivate him by working one-on-one with him and teaching him the necessary skills

required to perform his job well. In this scenario, Mindy is acting as a _____.

A. pupil

B. protégé

C. mentor

D. coach

E. tutor

A coach is a peer or manager who works with an employee to motivate the employee, help him
or her develop skills, and provide reinforcement and feedback. In this scenario, Mindy is acting

like a coach.

AACSB: Knowledge Application


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
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Learning Objective: 08-06 Tell how managers and peers develop employees through coaching.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

8-77
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93. Which of the following is a component of a basic career management system?

A. Sabbatical

B. Goal setting

C. Externship

D. Team building

E. Workplace ethics

A basic career management system involves four steps: data gathering, feedback, goal setting,
and action planning and follow-up.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Systems for Career Management

94. What is an employee's responsibility in the data gathering stage of career management?

A. To identify opportunities and areas needing improvement

B. To communicate performance evaluations

C. To identify steps and a timetable to reach goals

D. To provide assessment information to identify strengths, weaknesses, interests, and values

E. To ensure that goals are specific, challenging, and attainable

In the data gathering stage of career management, the employee's responsibility is to identify

opportunities and personal areas needing improvement.

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Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Systems for Career Management

95. The step in the career management process in which psychological tests, such as the Myers-
Briggs Type Indicator and the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, are used is:

A. follow-up.

B. reality check.

C. goal setting.

D. action planning.

E. data gathering.

In the data gathering step of the career management process, several assessment tools may be

used. Self-assessment tools often include psychological tests such as the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator, the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, and the Self-Directed Search.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
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Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Systems for Career Management

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96. The career management process starts with:

A. self-assessment.

B. goal setting.

C. reality checking.

D. identifying the steps and timetable to reach a goal.

E. specifying the competencies to be developed.

Assessment tools may be applied to data gathering, the first step in the career management
process. Self-assessment refers to the use of information by employees to determine their

career interests, values, aptitudes, and behavioral tendencies.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Systems for Career Management

8-80
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97. Wrap Foods, a leading brand in microwaveable food items, prides itself on helping its
employees with their career paths. The employees are highly efficient and are motivated to
define areas of weakness in their job performances and work to eliminate them. The employees

take various tests to help them assess their career interests and behavioral tendencies, thus
helping them work on becoming successful. In this scenario, which of the following systems for
career management is being employed at Wrap Foods?

A. Feedback

B. Self-assessment

C. Self-discipline

D. Goal setting

E. Action plan

Self-assessment refers to the use of information by employees to determine their career

interests, values, aptitudes, and behavioral tendencies. In this scenario, the employees at Wrap
Foods engage in self-assessment.

AACSB: Knowledge Application


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Systems for Career Management

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98. Walter, a senior manager at BottleCap Creations, believes that rather than pointing out the
limitations of his subordinates and making them lose their sense of self-worth, he should allow
them to identify their strengths and weaknesses on their own through various tests. His

colleague, Veronica, claims that the opposite approach, pointing out mistakes, is a good way to
create improvements. Which of the following statements, if true, would weaken Veronica's
claim?

A. Employees who have their mistakes identified by their supervisor are more focused and
determined on the job.

B. Pointing out faults to an employee is an effective learning process because the employee
will make sure to follow through on the supervisor's feedback.

C. Employees prefer having face-to-face conversations with their supervisors about their

limitations and strengths.

D. A self-assessment test may not identify all the limitations or strengths that employees may

possess.

E. Employees will realize their limitations and strengths better when they evaluate their own

skills.

Self-assessment refers to the use of information by employees to determine their career


interests, values, aptitudes, and behavioral tendencies.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Systems for Career Management

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99. The _____ is a self-assessment tool that helps employees identify their occupational and job
interests.

A. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

B. Self-Directed Search

C. Leaderless group discussion

D. Occupational Outlook Handbook

E. Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory

The Strong-Campbell inventory helps employees identify their occupational and job interests.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


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Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Systems for Career Management

100. Which of the following helps identify employees' preferences for working in different types of
environments like sales and counseling?

A. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

B. Self-Directed Search

C. Leaderless group discussion

D. Occupational Outlook Handbook

E. Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory

The Self-Directed Search identifies employees' preferences for working in different kinds of
environments—sales, counseling, and so on.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Systems for Career Management

101. The step in the career management process in which employees receive information about
their skills and knowledge and where these assets fit into the organization's plans is called:

A. self-assessment.

B. feedback.

C. goal setting.

D. action planning.

E. data gathering.

In the feedback step of career management, employees receive information about their skills
and knowledge and where these assets fit into the organization's plans.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Systems for Career Management

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102. Marcus, a manager at Royal Memphis Hotel, is training a new group of employees. After each
training session, the employees complete various exercises to test their knowledge. After
evaluating the results, Marcus speaks one-on-one with the employees to help them define their

areas of weakness and encourage them to keep fine-tuning their strengths. In this scenario,
Marcus is providing his employees with _____.

A. counseling

B. feedback

C. goals

D. self-assessment

E. self-appraisal

In feedback, employees receive information about their skills and knowledge and where these

assets fit into an organization's plans. In this scenario, Marcus is providing feedback to his

employees.

AACSB: Knowledge Application


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Systems for Career Management

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103. In the feedback step of the career management process, the employee is primarily responsible
for:

A. ensuring that his or her goal is specific, challenging, and attainable.

B. identifying the company's resources needed to reach goals.

C. identifying what skills he or she could realistically develop in light of the opportunities
available.

D. identifying resources he or she needs, including courses, work experiences, and


relationships.

E. identifying his or her strengths, weaknesses, interests, and values.

The employee's responsibility in the feedback step is to identify what skills he or she could
realistically develop in light of the opportunities available.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


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Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Systems for Career Management

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104. Employees at Akesson Inc. are frustrated with their manager, Ryan, who does not believe in
providing feedback because he thinks it's a waste of time. His employees argue that they do
not know how to hone their skills if they are not told what areas they should work on and what

areas are satisfactory. Which of the following statements would strengthen the employees'
arguments?

A. Ryan only hires employees who have the potential to follow through on his high

expectations.

B. Feedback is not an effective mechanism because employees can choose to reject the

constructive information.

C. Evaluating each employee is a herculean task that would require a lot of time and effort.

D. Employees who receive feedback gain more clarity on their roles and are able to contribute
to an organization in a more effective manner.

E. Employees ought to evaluate themselves because self-assessment is the best type of

feedback.

Feedback enables employees to receive information about their skills and knowledge and

where these assets fit into an organization's plans.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking


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Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Systems for Career Management

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105. Usually an employer conducts the reality check as part of a performance appraisal or as the
_____ stage of performance management.

A. self-assessment

B. action planning

C. goal setting

D. data gathering

E. feedback

Usually the employer conducts the reality check as part of a performance appraisal or as the

feedback stage of performance management.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Systems for Career Management

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106. What is the organization's responsibility in the goal-setting stage of the career management
process?

A. To identify what skills can be developed realistically

B. To identify goals and methods to determine goal progress

C. To identify steps and a timetable to reach goals

D. To ensure that the goal is specific, challenging, and attainable

E. To communicate performance evaluation and opportunities available to an employee

In the goal-setting stage of the career management process, the organization's responsibilities

are to ensure that the goal is specific, challenging, and attainable and to help an employee
reach the goal.

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Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Systems for Career Management

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107. Christopher Maine, an employee, understands that he has great potential after taking a self-
assessment test at his company. He decides to create a checklist of short-term objectives to be
achieved to help him hone his skills. In this scenario, Christopher is employing _____ as a

mechanism of career management.

A. feedback

B. self-assessment

C. goal setting

D. assessment

E. appraisal

Based on the information from the self-assessment and reality check, an employee sets short-
and long-term career objectives. In this scenario, Christopher Maine is utilizing the goal setting

system for career management.

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Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Systems for Career Management

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108. Charlie, the CEO of MindChannel Inc., believes that introducing a strategy of writing down one's
career goals will help increase the productivity and potential of his employees. Charlie believes
that these goals will keep his employees motivated to aim for higher positions in the

organization. The vice president thinks close monitoring and constant criticism is better than
writing down goals to motivate employees to meet the target. Which of the statements will help
weaken the vice president's belief?

A. Goals are usually difficult to accomplish because they depend on an employee's willpower.

B. Constant feedback is a strong motivator to help increase the potential of employees.

C. Goals, when achieved, create a feeling of accomplishment, something that criticism will not

create.

D. Motivation should be demonstrated in company communications, which are formal and


assertive.

E. Goals, if not met, can create a sense of worthlessness in an employee.

An organization's responsibilities are to ensure that the goal is specific, challenging, and
attainable and to help the employee reach the goal.

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Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
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Topic: Systems for Career Management

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109. The final step in the career management process is:

A. self-assessment.

B. reality check.

C. goal setting.

D. action planning.

E. feedback.

During the final step of the career management process, employees prepare an action plan for
how they will achieve their short- and long-term career goals. The employee is responsible for

identifying the steps and timetable to reach the goals. The employer should identify resources
needed, including courses, work experiences, and relationships.

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Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Systems for Career Management

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110. During the action planning and follow-up step of the career management process, the
employer:

A. has the responsibility of communicating the performance evaluation.

B. should identify opportunities and personal areas needing improvement.

C. should ensure that the goal is specific.

D. is responsible for identifying the steps and timetable to reach the goals.

E. should identify the resources needed.

During the final step, employees prepare an action plan for how they will achieve their short-

and long-term career goals. The employer should identify resources needed, including courses,
work experiences, and relationships.

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Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
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Topic: Systems for Career Management

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111. Martha Wong has been through a series of self-assessments and has received constant
feedback. She has listed her goals for the future and thinks of various ways in which she can
accomplish them. The act of determining the various methods to accomplish Martha's goals is

an example of _____.

A. empowerment

B. determination

C. training

D. an action plan

E. a career restructure

Employees prepare an action plan for how they will achieve their short- and long-term career
goals as a final step of the career management process. In this scenario, the act of determining

the various methods to accomplish Martha Wong's goals is an example of an action plan.

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Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Systems for Career Management

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112. Circumstances that resemble an invisible barrier that keep most women and minorities from
attaining the top jobs in organizations are referred to as the:

A. revolving door.

B. fixed wall.

C. glass ceiling.

D. closed door.

E. glass escalator.

The glass ceiling refers to circumstances resembling an invisible barrier that keep most women

and minorities from attaining the top jobs in organizations.

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

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113. Michael Nolan, a newly appointed executive manager at Zeta Inc., realizes that his team,
consisting mostly of women, has not received a pay raise even though they have been working
in the organization for many years. He believes this is because the company has purposely not

provided the necessary tools for them to aim for better positions in the company. Michael's
senior manager, Howard, says that Michael's belief is wrong. Which of the following statements
supports Michael's belief?

A. Howard believes the company has provided the required tools for success to both male and
female employees.

B. The company has constantly encouraged its female employees to take on more
responsibilities.

C. Howard believes that the women in the organization are quite comfortable with their

current positions.

D. The company must break away from the stereotype attached to female employees that they

are not fit for senior positions.

E. The tools and amenities provided are very traditional and do not help meet the necessary

skills required.

The glass ceiling is likely caused by a lack of access to training programs, to appropriate
developmental job experiences, and to developmental relationships such as mentoring. In this

scenario, the company must avoid the stereotype that female employees are not fit for senior

positions.

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Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

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114. Michelle Antony, an employee at Matthews Inc., finds it difficult to attain a promotion even after
working for seven years at the firm. She believes that she is not being promoted because she is
a woman. In this scenario, Michelle's progress in the organization is restricted by a _____.

A. downward move

B. nickel fence

C. job reduction

D. job rotation

E. glass ceiling

Women and minorities are rare in the top level of U.S. corporations. Observers of this situation
have noted that it looks as if an invisible barrier is keeping women and minorities from reaching

the top jobs, a barrier that has come to be known as the glass ceiling. In this scenario, Michelle

feels her progress in the organization is restricted by a glass-ceiling effect.

AACSB: Knowledge Application


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

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115. The glass ceiling is likely caused by:

A. a lack of access to developmental relationships.

B. the presence of a diverse workforce.

C. the presence of too many mentors for female employees.

D. the presence of women with technical skills.

E. providing challenging job assignments to high-potential employees.

The glass ceiling is likely caused by a lack of access to training programs, appropriate
developmental job experiences, and developmental relationships such as mentoring.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

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116. _____ is the process of identifying and tracking high-potential employees who will be able to fill
top management positions when they become vacant.

A. Acculturation

B. Leaderless group discussion

C. Benchmarking

D. Data gathering

E. Succession planning

As positions at the top of organizations become vacant, many organizations have determined

that their middle managers are fewer and often unprepared for top-level responsibility. This
situation has raised awareness of the need for succession planning—the process of identifying

and tracking high-potential employees who will be able to fill top management positions when

they become vacant.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

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117. A pharmaceutical company, TechnoGene, has initiated a system where high-potential
employees are identified and trained for senior positions in the company. Which of the
following processes is exemplified in this scenario?

A. Succession planning

B. Self-assessment

C. Feedback

D. Handing over formalities

E. Goal setting

Succession planning is the process of identifying and tracking high-potential employees who
will be able to fill top management positions when they become vacant. In this scenario,

TechnoGene has implemented a succession planning strategy.

AACSB: Knowledge Application


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Apply
Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

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118. Steve Karl, a general manager at Bleaker Inc., believes that succession planning helps create a
sense of motivation in high-potential employees who are also very ambitious. His management
colleague, Darrell, feels that succession planning would create fewer opportunities for low-

potential employees who would also some day like to hold higher positions in the organization.
Which of the following statements supports Steve's belief?

A. Succession planning alone can help create a sense of motivation in employees.

B. Darrell feels that succession planning can create conflict among employees.

C. Succession planning helps provide special training and knowledge to potential high
performers.

D. Succession planning may create personal bias in employees who fail to see talent in others.

E. Succession planning is just one of the many ways to identify eligible employees in the

organization.

Succession planning systems helps attract and retain ambitious managerial employees by
providing development opportunities.

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

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119. Identify the correct statement about succession planning.

A. It ensures that middle management systematically reviews leadership talent in the company.

B. It provides a set of developmental experiences that managers must complete to be


considered for top management positions.

C. All companies have a succession plan ready when they need one.

D. It identifies a specific replacement for each managerial position within a company.

E. It focuses on low-potential and medium-potential employees.

Succession planning forces senior management to regularly and thoughtfully review a

company's leadership talent. It provides a set of development experiences that managers must
complete to be considered for top management positions, so the organization does not

promote managers before they are ready.

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

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120. In the case of succession planning, job assignments for high-potential employees are based
on:

A. the personal preferences of these employees.

B. the immediate needs of an organization.

C. the willingness of departments to accommodate these employees.

D. the successful career paths of the managers whom these employees are preparing to

replace.

E. the availability of special assignments such as serving on committees and task forces.

Succession planning focuses on high-potential employees, that is, employees the organization
believes can succeed in higher-level business positions. Job assignments are based on the

successful career paths of the managers whom the high-potential employees are preparing to

replace.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

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121. The process of developing a succession plan begins with:

A. reviewing the existing talent.

B. linking succession planning with other human resource systems.

C. identifying the positions to be planned for.

D. establishing position requirements.

E. deciding how to measure employees' potential for being able to fill requirements.

The process for developing a succession plan begins with identifying the positions to be
planned for and the employees to be included in the plan.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 1 Easy
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

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122. The employees at Melly Towers acknowledge that their supervisor is excellent at his work and
that he has received many accolades during his 40-year career. However, they claim he is a
dysfunctional manager. The supervisor, when confronted, argues that his work should speak for

itself and his behavior is irrelevant. Which of the following statements supports the employees'
claim?

A. The employees require this style of supervision because it keeps them focused.

B. The supervisor feels that his behavior is normal and necessary to keep the team grounded.

C. The supervisor often discourages employees from challenging tasks saying that they are
incapable of accomplishing them.

D. The employees are consistently recognized for performing their very best in challenging

tasks, and they owe their success to their supervisor.

E. The supervisor believes that keeping a distance from his employees will create a sense of
fear in them.

A manager who is otherwise competent may engage in some behaviors that make him or her
ineffective or even "toxic"—someone who stifles good ideas and drives away employees. These

dysfunctional behaviors include insensitivity to others, inability to be a team player, arrogance,

poor conflict-management skills, inability to meet business objectives, and inability to adapt to
change.

AACSB: Reflective Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Analyze
Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

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123. An Individual Coaching for Effectiveness program is designed to:

A. help managers with dysfunctional behavior.

B. improve the technical skills of employees.

C. help prepare managers for overseas assignments.

D. reduce the effects of the glass ceiling.

E. attract and retain ambitious managerial employees.

Development programs for managers with dysfunctional behavior may include specialized
programs such as one called Individual Coaching for Effectiveness (ICE). The ICE program

includes diagnosis, coaching, and support activities tailored to each manager's needs.

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Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

Essay Questions

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124. Discuss the relationship between training, development, and careers.

Training focuses on improving performance in one's current job. Development implies learning
that is not necessarily related to an employee's current job. Instead, it prepares employees for
other jobs or positions in the organization and increases their ability to move into jobs that may
not yet exist. Careers have been traditionally defined in terms of a sequence of positions within

an occupation or organization. However, careers have become more fluid. Protean careers

reflect frequent changes in the employee's interests, abilities, and values and the changing work
environment.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-01 Discuss how development is related to training and careers.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Training, Development, and Career Management

125. What are the different kinds of formal educational programs that organizations may use to
support employee development?

Organizations may support employee development through a variety of formal educational


programs, either at the workplace or off-site. These may include workshops designed

specifically for the organization's employees, short courses offered by consultants or


universities, university programs offered to employees who live on campus during the program,

and executive MBA programs. These programs may involve lectures by business experts,
business games and simulations, experiential programs, and meetings with customers. Another
trend in executive education is for employers and the education provider to create short
courses with content designed specifically for the audience.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand

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Learning Objective: 08-02 Identify the methods organizations use for employee development.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

126. What is the function of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)? What are the different areas of
preferences described by the MBTI?

The most popular psychological inventory for employee development is the Myers-Briggs Type

Indicator (MBTI). The assessment identifies these individuals' preferences in the four areas:

1) Energy: The energy dichotomy deals with introversion versus extroversion. It determines
where individuals gain interpersonal strength and vitality.
2) Information-gathering: The information-gathering dichotomy deals with sensing versus

intuition. It relates to the actions individuals take before making decisions.


3) Decision-making styles: The decision-making considers the aspects of thinking versus feeling.

It differs based on the amount of consideration a person gives to others' feelings in making a
decision.

4) Lifestyle: The lifestyle dichotomy deals with judging versus perceiving. It reflects a person's
tendency to be flexible or structured.

Research on the validity, reliability, and effectiveness of the MBTI is inconclusive. People who

take the MBTI find it a positive experience and say it helps them change their behavior.
However, MBTI scores are not necessarily stable over time. Still, the MBTI is a valuable tool for
understanding communication styles and the ways people prefer to interact with others. It is
not appropriate for measuring job performance, however, or as the only means of evaluating

promotion potential.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
to plan employee development.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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127. Describe a leaderless group discussion.

A leaderless group discussion is an assessment center exercise in which a team of five to seven
employees is assigned a problem and must work together to solve it within a certain time
period. The problem may involve buying and selling supplies, nominating a subordinate for an
award, or assembling a product. Interview questions typically cover each employee's work and

personal experiences, skill strengths and weaknesses, and career plans.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
to plan employee development.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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128. What is 360-degree feedback? What are its advantages and disadvantages?

360-degree feedback is a method of performance measurement by an employee's supervisor,


peers, employees, and customers. Often the feedback involves rating the individual in terms of
work-related behaviors.
Advantages: Organizations collect multiple perspectives of managers' performance, allowing

employees to compare their own personal evaluations with the views of others. This method
also establishes formal communications about behaviors and skill ratings between employees
and their internal and external customers. Performance improves and behavior changes as a

result of participating in upward feedback and 360-degree feedback systems. The change is

greatest in people who received lower ratings from others than what they gave themselves. The
system is most likely to be effective if the rating instrument enables reliable or consistent
ratings, assesses behaviors or skills that are job related, and is easy to use.

Disadvantages: This method demands a significant amount of time for raters to complete the

evaluations. If raters, especially subordinates or peers, provide negative feedback, some


managers might try to identify and punish them. A facilitator is needed to help interpret results.

Simply delivering ratings to a manager does not provide ways for the manager to act on the
feedback. Any form of assessment should be accompanied by suggestions for improvement

and development of an action plan.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-03 Describe how organizations use assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance
to plan employee development.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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129. What are the different ways in which job experiences help in employee development?

Job experiences can be used for development in the following ways:

1) Job enlargement: This is achieved by adding challenges or new responsibilities to employees'


current jobs. Examples include completing a special project, switching roles within a work team,
or researching new ways to serve customers.

2) Job rotation: It helps employees gain an appreciation for the company's goals, increases their
understanding of different functions, develops a network of contacts, and improves problem-
solving and decision-making skills. Job rotation is most likely to succeed when it meets certain

conditions: the organization establishes and communicates clear policies about which positions
are eligible for job rotation; employees and their managers understand and agree on the
expectations for the job rotation, including which skills are to be developed; goals for the
program support business goals; and the rotation schedule is realistic.

3) Transfers, promotions, downward moves: In a transfer, an organization assigns an employee


to a position in a different area of the company, while in a downward move the employee is

given less responsibility and authority. Transfers and downward moves can be anxiety-
provoking and may appear like a punishment. Organizations should provide information about
the potential benefits of the new job, and its challenges; involve employees in planning the

change; give clear and frequent performance feedback; give information on the financial
implications of the job opportunity; and help in locating housing, assistance for dependent
family members, and help for spouse in finding new employment, if necessary. A promotion

involves moving an employee into a position with greater challenges, more responsibility, and
more authority than in the previous job. Because promotions improve the person's pay, status,

and feelings of accomplishment, employees are more willing to accept promotions than lateral
or downward moves. Organizations can more easily offer promotions if they are profitable and
growing. In other conditions, opportunities for promoting employees may be limited.

4) Temporary assignments with other organizations: Externships involve a company allowing its
employees to take full-time temporary position at other companies, while sabbaticals involve a

leave of absence from the company to renew or develop skills. Sabbaticals let employees get
away from the day-to-day stresses of their jobs and acquire new skills and perspectives. They

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allow employees more time for personal pursuits, such as writing a book or spending more

time with family members.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-04 Explain how job experiences can be used for developing skills.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

130. Briefly describe group mentoring programs.

Some organizations use group mentoring programs, which assign four to six protégés to a

successful senior employee, so that more employees can benefit from mentoring. A potential
advantage of group mentoring is that protégés can learn from each other as well as from the
mentor. The leader helps protégés understand the organization, guides them in analyzing their

experiences, and helps them clarify career directions. Each member of the group may complete
specific assignments, or the group may work together on a problem or issue.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-05 Summarize principles of successful mentoring programs.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

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131. How do managers and peers develop employees through coaching?

A coach is a peer or manager who works with an employee to motivate the employee, help him
or her develop skills, and provide reinforcement and feedback. Coaches should be prepared to
take on one or more of three roles: working one-on-one with an employee; helping employees
learn for themselves; and providing resources, such as mentors, courses, or job experiences.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-06 Tell how managers and peers develop employees through coaching.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Approaches to Employee Development

8-113
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132. What are the four steps of a basic career management system?

A basic career management system involves four steps: data gathering, feedback, goal setting,
and action planning and follow-up.

1) Data gathering: This is the first step in the career management process. Self-assessment
refers to the use of information by employees to determine their career interests, values,

aptitudes, and behavioral tendencies. The employee's responsibility is to identify opportunities


and personal areas needing improvement. The organization's responsibility is to provide
assessment information for identifying strengths, weaknesses, interests, and values.

2) Feedback: In the feedback step of the career management process, employees receive
information about their skills and knowledge and where these assets fit into the organization's
plans. The employee's responsibility is to identify what skills he or she could realistically develop
in light of the opportunities available. The organization's responsibility is to communicate the

performance evaluation and the opportunities available to the employee, given the
organization's long-range plans. Opportunities might include promotions and transfers.

3) Goal setting: The employee sets short- and long-term career objectives in one or more of the
following categories: desired positions; level of skill to apply; work setting; and skill acquisition.
The goals should be specific, and they should include a date by which the goal is to be

achieved. It is the employee's responsibility to identify the goal and the method of determining
her or his progress toward that goal. The organization's responsibilities are to ensure that the
goal is specific, challenging, and attainable and to help the employee reach the goal.

4) Action planning and follow-up: Employees prepare an action plan for how they will achieve
their career goals. The employee is responsible for identifying the steps and timetable to reach

the goals. The employer should identify resources needed, including courses, work experiences,
and relationships. Action plans may involve any one or a combination of development
methods—training, assessment, job experiences, or the help of a mentor or coach.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-07 Identify the steps in the process of career management.

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Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium
Topic: Systems for Career Management

133. What is succession planning and what are its benefits? What are the three stages for an
effective program for developing high-potential employees?

Succession planning is the process of identifying and tracking high-potential employees who
will be able to fill top management positions, such as general manager or CEO, when they

become vacant.
Succession planning helps organizations in several ways: it requires senior management to

systematically conduct a review of leadership talent in the company; it ensures that top-level
management talent is available; it provides a set of development experiences that managers

must complete to be considered for top management positions; and it helps attract and retain
managerial employees by providing development opportunities.

An effective program for developing high-potential employees has three stages:

Stage 1: At stage 1, high-potential employees are selected, typically those who have completed
elite academic programs or who have been outstanding performers. Psychological tests and

assessment centers may also be used.


Stage 2: At stage 2, employees receive developmental experiences. Those who succeed are the
ones who continue to demonstrate good performance, who are willing to make sacrifices for

the company, and who have good communication skills. Those who meet expectations move to
the next stage.
Stage 3: At stage 3, the CEO becomes actively involved in developing the employees, who are
exposed to the company's key personnel and are given a greater understanding of the

company's culture. Reaching this stage may take 15 to 20 years.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Learning Objective: 08-08 Discuss how organizations are meeting the challenges of the "glass ceiling," succession planning, and
dysfunctional managers.
Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium

8-115
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McGraw-Hill Education.
Topic: Development-Related Challenges

8-116
Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.