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Gender and Economy

Unit IV

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


What is economy?
Economics is “the study of men as they live and
think and more in the ordinary business of life”-
Alfred Marshal

Traditionally the ‘economy’ was defined as the


activities of the men centered around a market
for buying and selling goods

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


What is economy?
Economics is “the study of men as they live and
think and more in the ordinary business of life”-
Alfred Marshal

Traditionally the ‘economy’ was defined as the


activities of the men centered around a market
for buying and selling goods

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


What is economy?

Economy thought of as the world of money,


machines and men. This reflected in how GDP is
measured.

Women were absent in the research and theory


on economy

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


What is economy?

Dif fe re n t ial t re at me n t of work done by


different sexes; cooking , washing, caring in the
public sphere was paid while unpaid when done by
women in private sphere.

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Why gender matters?
Women are half the world’s population

Perform 2/3rd of the world’s working hours


Receives one-tenth of world income

Own only 1/100 the or world’s property


Earn on average only 60 to 75 per cent of men’s
wages

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Why gender matters?
Only 17 of the world’s 195 countries and around
4% of fortune 500 companies are run by women

Broadens understanding of economy beyond


market and money

Gender understanding of labour, credit market


and globalisation

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Why gender matters?
Economic behaviour different for men and
women not only biological but social cultural
construction

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Gender gap
Andocentric assumptions concerning economic
activity- “only income-generating work is work”

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Economic inequality by gender
All over the world men tend to earn more than women

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Economic inequality by gender
All over the world men tend to earn more than women

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Economic inequality by gender
Women are often underrepresented in senior positions within firms,
while at the same time they tend to be overrepresented in low-paying
jobs.

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Economic inequality by gender
In many countries men are more likely to own land and control
productive assets than women

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Economic inequality by gender
Women often have limited influence over important household
decisions, including how their own personal earned income is spent

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Economic inequality by gender

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Economic inequality by gender

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Economic inequality by gender

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Gender issues in formal sector
Gender issues in formal sector
Indian women face immense obstacles when they try
to join the labour force. It is generally assumed that
the problem is restricted to the traditional rather
than the modern segments of the economy

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Gender issues in formal sector
Widespread gender targeting for elementary jobs,
with men preferred for intensive outdoor work and
women preferred for care-giving jobs

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Gender issues in formal sector
The jobs that prefer women—business process
outsourcing centres, teaching and service industries
—pay male employees better. This inconsistent
relationship bet ween demand for female employees
and salary offered indicates that men are valued
more by employers

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Gender issues in formal sector
Deep-rooted cultural perceptions regarding gender-
specific roles

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Gender issues in formal sector
o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g re g a t i o n b a s e d o n g e n de r a n d
concentration of women in relatively low-paying jobs
reduces their bargaining power to negotiate the terms of
employment

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Gender issues in formal sector
wome n cre at i ng job s and opp ort un i t ie s f or
themselves and bringing other women on board.

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Gender issues in formal sector
Almost 73% of India’s female population currently outside
the workforce, increased education and decline in fertility
have clearly been insufficient to improve women’s labour
force participation

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Gender issues in formal sector
The recent technological changes in communication,
net working and internet of things have given rise to
new jobs that are relatively free of gender bias

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Gender stereotype and discrimination
at work place
Gender stereotype and discrimination
at work place
Gender discrimination occurs when a person is subjected to
dif ferent or unequal tre atment in any number of
situations, when that treatment is based on the person’s
gender

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Gender stereotype and discrimination
at work place
Gender discrimination reference to discrimination based on
social behaviour such as non-conformance of gender roles
i ncludi ng se x ua l or ie n t at io n and ge nde r ide n t i t y
discrimination.

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Gender stereotype and discrimination
at work place
Gender discrimination in employment can
include claims that a potential employer asked
discriminatory questions Based on gender
during the interview process: claims that and
employer failed to hire, failed to promote, or
wrongly terminated an employee based on
his/her gender; unequal pay claims; and claims
for sexual harassment of employees.

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Impacts
Investing in addressing gender inequality
and women’s empowerment can lead to
increased productivity and higher social
development.

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Impacts
Nations with the educated and empowered
woman can have higher economic growth.

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Impacts
I m p r o v i n g w o m e n’s e m p o w e r m e n t ,
opportunities and agency can have positive
outcome for their next generation.

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU


Impacts
Im increasing women's control over the
household resources and income is changing
the households expenditure pattern, which
has a positive impact upon their children. In
China, an increase in female income by 10%,
which in t ur n, incre ase s the ave rage
household income, has a positive impact on
the schooling of both girls and boys.

Dr. Nisanth.P.M, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, RGU