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9.

Feedback and Oscillators

9. Feedback and Oscillators TLT-8016 Basic Analog Circuits 2005/2006 1


9.1 Effect of Feedback on Gain
Closed-Loop Gain

Figure 9.1 Feedback amplifier. Note that the signals are denoted as xi, xf, xo, and so on.
The signals can be either currents or voltages.

xi = xs − β xo
Af – closed-loop gain;
A – open-loop gain;
xo = A( xs − β xo ) Aβ – loop gain;
If Aβ > 0 – negative feedback;
xo A (9.1) if Aβ < 0 – positive feedback.
Af = =
xs 1 + Aβ

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Problems Associated With Positive Gain Stabilization
Feedback
x A
dA f 1 + Aβ − Aβ 1
Af = o = = =
x s 1 + Aβ
(9.1) dA (1 + Aβ )2 (1 + Aβ )2
1. Positive feedback: dA A A
dA f = ; Af =
Let A = -10; β = 0.099. Af = -104. A (1 + Aβ )2
1 + Aβ
Let A = -9.9; β = 0.099. Af = -901.
1% change of A causes 91% change of Af. dA A f
dA f =
2. Negative feedback: A (1 + Aβ )
Let A = 104; β = 0.01. Af = 100. dA f dA 1
Let A = 9000; β = 0.01. Af = 98.9. = (9.2)
Af A (1 + Aβ )
10% change of A causes 1% change of Af.
Conclusion: Positive feedback increases the gain, dAf/Af – relative instability of the closed-loop
but the gain is unstable. In contrast negative gain;
feedback decreases the gain and stabilizes it. dA/A – relative instability of the open-loop gain.

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Exercise
9.2 (a) An amplifier has A = 105±10 %. Suppose that we want a feedback amplifier with Af that varies
by no more than ±1 % due to variations in A. What is the maximum value of nominal gain Af allowed?
(b) Repeat if Af is allowed to vary by only ±0.1 %.

Solution:
(a) In (9.2) (b)
dA dA f
dA f dA 1 = 10% = 0.1; = 0.1% = 0.001
= (9.2) A Af
Af A (1 + Aβ )
1
0.1 = 0.001 ⇒ (1 + Aβ ) = 100;
dA dA f (1 + Aβ )
= 10% = 0.1; = 1% = 0.01
A Af
A 105
1 Af = = = 103
0.1 = 0.01 ⇒ (1 + Aβ ) = 10; 1 + Aβ 100
(1 + Aβ )

Since A = 105 the maximum gain with variation


less than 1% is

A 105
Af = = = 10 4
1 + Aβ 10

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9.2 Reduction of Nonlinear Distortion and Noise

2. 0V

0V

- 2. 0V

15. 35ms 16. 00ms 17. 00ms 18. 00ms


V( OUT)
Ti me

A circuit of common-emitter amplifier from BAC exercises (Exercise 8) and its output
waveshape. The signal at the output is distorted.

The distortion of the output signal is basically due Total harmonic distortion (THD:
to the curvature of the input characteristic of the
BJT. V22 + V32 + V42 + ....
THD =
The output signal is not any more sinusoidal and V1
has harmonics. V1 – amplitude of the fundamental harmonic;
Figure of merit of the distortion: the amplitudes of V2, V3,… -amplitudes of the higher harmonics.
the harmonics.
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Figure 9.2 Transfer characteristic of a certain nonlinear Figure 9.3 Output of amplifier of Figure 9.2 for xin = sin(ωt).
amplifier. Notice the distortion resulting from the nonlinear transfer
characteristic.

Gain of the nonlinear amplifier in Figure 9.2:


• if 0 < xi < 10; A = 10;
• if –10 < xi < 0; A = 5.

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Figure 9.4 Addition of a linear high-gain preamplifier and negative feedback to reduce distortion.

Closed loop gain of the whole amplifier:


Open loop gain of the cascade of preamplifier • if 0 < xi < 10
and nonlinear amplifier: A 10 4
Af = = = 9.99
• if 0 < xi < 10; A = 104 ; 1 + Aβ 1 + 10 × 0.1
4

• if –10 < xi < 0; A = 5000. • if –10 < xi < 0


A 5000
Af = = = 9.98
1 + Aβ 1 + 5000 × 0.1

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Compensatory Distortion of the Input Signal

Figure 9.4 Addition of a linear high-gain preamplifier and negative feedback to reduce distortion.

xi = xs − x f

xi = xs − xs (9.4)
1 + Aβ
1
xi = xs (9.5)
1 + Aβ

xi = xs / 1001 for 0 < xi < 10 −3


xi = xs / 501 for − 2 ×10 −3 < xi < 0
Figure 9.5 Predistorted input signal.

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An Example with Crossover Distortion

Figure 9.7 Nonlinear class-B power amplifier.

Figure 9.8 Transfer characteristic for the amplifier of Figure 9.7.


vo = vs − 0.6 for vs > 0.6

vo ≅ vs + 0.6 for vs < −0.6

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Figure 9.9a Class-B power amplifier with feedback. The feedback has effect to reduce the distortion
if the source of the distortion is included in the feedback loop. In the circuit above the switch must be
in position B. If the switch is in position A, the feedback has no effect on the distortion.

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Influence of the Feedback on the Noise in Amplifiers
Noise – a random signal, generated in the circuit Generally the negative feedback doesn’t reduce
or penetrating from outside in the circuit. The the noise in the amplifier, since the feedback
noise adds to the desired signal and deteriorates also generates noise.
its quality. The noise generation in the circuit is
The negative feedback can help in some particular
basically due to the transfer of the current by
cases, when the source of the noise is localized in
charged particles (electrons and holes) and the
one stage of the circuit only. Than including this
thermal agitation.
stage in a feedback loop reduces the noise.
All electronic elements, except capacitors and
inductors generate noise.

Figure 9.13 Feedback amplifier with a noise source. The noise is generated in
one stage of the circuit (A1) and the feedback can reduce this noise only.

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9.3 Input and Output Impedance
Types of Feedback
Conditionally the feedback is divided in 4 types:
• series voltage;
• series current;
• parallel voltage;
• parallel current.

Figure 9.14 Types of feedback. (b) Series current feedback.

Figure 9.14 Types of feedback. (a) Series voltage feedback.

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Figure 9.14 Types of feedback. (c) Parallel voltage feedback. Figure 9.14 Types of feedback. (c) Parallel current feedback.

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The Effects of Various Types of Feedback on Gain

The general formula For series voltage feedback: xo = vo, xs = vs.


xo A Af, A and β are voltage gains.
Af = =
xs 1 + Aβ For series current feedback: xo = io, xs = vs.
Af and A are transconductances: Gm = io/vs;
is valid for all feedback types. For the different β is a transresistance: β = vf/io.
feedback types the gains assumed as Af, A and β
For parallel voltage feedback: xo = vo, xs = is.
are different quantities.
Af and A are transresistances: Rm = vo/is;
β is a transconductance: β = if/vo.
For parallel current feedback: xo = io, xs = is.
Af, A and β are current gains.

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The Effects of Series Feedback on Input The Effects of Parallel Feedback on Input
Impedance Impedance

Figure 9.15 Model for analysis of the effect of series


feedback on input impedance.

vs
Rif = = Ri (1 + Aβ ) > Ri Figure 9.16 Model for analysis of the effect of parallel
is feedback on input impedance.

The series feedback increases the input impedance. vs Ri


Rif = = < Ri
i s 1 + Aβ
The parallel feedback decreases the input
impedance.

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The Effects of Voltage Feedback on The Effects of Current Feedback on
Output Impedance Output Impedance

Figure 9.18 Model for the analysis of output impedance


with current feedback.

vtest
Figure 9.17 Model for the analysis of output impedance Rof = = Ro (1 + Aβ ) > Ro
with voltage feedback. itest
v Ro The current feedback increases the output
Rof = test = < Ro impedance.
itest 1 + Aβ
The voltage feedback decreases the output
impedance.

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9.7 Effect of Feedback on Pole Locations
Dominant - Pole Amplifiers
Poles – roots of the denominator of the gain. Gain The closed-loop gain can be put into the form
is expressed as a function of Laplace transform
A0 f
variable s. A(s ) = (9.43)
Expression for open-loop gain
(s 2πf ) + 1
bf

A0 The closed-loop dc gain is


A(s ) = (9.42)
(s 2πf b ) + 1 A0
A0 f = (9.44)
If β is constant, the closed-loop gain is 1 + A0 β
A0 The closed-loop break frequency
s (2πf b ) + 1
A f (s ) =
A0 β
1+ f bf = f b (1 + A0 β ) (9.45)
s (2πf b ) + 1

Conclusion: negative feedback increases the


upper break frequency of the amplifier.

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Example 9.5 Bode Plots for a Dominant - Pole
Amplifier with Feedback For β = 0.1: A0f = 20dB and fbf = 100kHz.
For β = 1: A0f = 0dB and fbf = 1MHz.
A certain integrated - circuit operational amplifier
has a single pole in its gain function. The open -
loop dc gain is A0 = 105 and the open - loop break
frequency is fb=10 Hz. Prepare magnitude Bode
plots for A(f) and Af(f) if β = 0.01, 0.1, and 1.

Solution:
Open-loop dc gain in dB is
A0 dB = 20 log10 A0 = 20 log10 105 = 100dB

For β = 0.01
A0 105
A0 f = = = 99.9 ≈ 40dB
1 + A0 β 1 + 0.01× 10 5

( )
f bf = f b (1 + A0 β ) = 10 × 1 + 0.01× 105 ≈ 10kHz
Figure 9.38 Bode plots for the feedback amplifier of,
Example 9.5.

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Gain Bandwidth Product

A0
A0 f f bf = × f b (1 + A0 β ) = A0 f b (9.46)
1 + A0 β

The product of dc gain and the bandwidth of an amplifier is independent of the feedback. It
is an important parameter of the amplifier and is called gain-bandwidth product or unity
gain frequency.

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Influence of Negative Feedback on Amplifiers - Summary

1. Gain is decreased and divided by 1 + βA.


2. Gain stability is improved. Relative gain variation dA/A is divided by 1 + βA.
3. Nonlinear distortion is reduced.
4. In general the noise is increased. Only in some particular cases, when the noise source is
localized in a part of the amplifier, the negative feedback can reduce the noise from this
source.
5. Input and output impedances are affected from the feedback. Depending on its type
(series or parallel, voltage or current) input and output impedances are increased or
decreased.
6. Upper half-power frequency is increased and multiplied by 1 + βA.

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9.11 Oscillator Principles
Linear Oscillators The Barkhausen Criterion

Oscillators: circuits, which produce periodic ac


signals with prescribed properties: waveform;
frequency and amplitude.
Linear oscillators: the output is approximately
sinusoidal. The transistors are operating basically Figure 9.69 Linear oscillator with external signal Xin injected.
in active region.
Switching oscillators: the electronic devices X out = A( f )[X in + β ( f )X out ] (9.52)
operate like switches. Usually rectangular pulses
at the output. A( f )
X out = X in (9.53)
1 − A( f )β ( f )
Basic principle of the linear oscillator: part of
the output signal is returned at the input of the To have output signal when Xin = 0, closed-loop
amplifier via positive feedback loop. The gain must be infinity. This is possible if its
returned signal is enough to produce after denominator is 0, i.e.
amplification the same output signal.
A( f )β ( f ) = 1 (9.54)

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Example 9.12 Analysis of an Oscillator Circuit

An oscillator is shown in Figure 9.70. The amplifier Solution:


is an ideal voltage amplifier (infinite input
R(1 / jωC )
impedance and zero output impedance) with a
V R + (1 / jωC )
voltage gain of Av. The RC network connected from β(f )= o =
the amplifier output to the input forms the feedback Vin R + 1 + R(1 / jωC )
network. Find the value of gain Av required for jωC R + (1 / jωC )
oscillation, and find the frequency of oscillation of
the circuit. R(1 / jωC )
β(f )=
R 2 + 3 R / j ωC − 1 / ω 2 C 2

R
β(f )=
(
3 R + j ωR 2 C − 1 / ωC )

Figure 9.70 Typical linear oscillator.

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Av β = 1

 1 
R(3 − Av ) + j  ωR 2C − =0
 ω C 

R(3 − Av ) = 0

Av min = 3

1
ωR 2 C − =0
ωC

1
ω=
RC

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Figure 9.75 Output voltage of the oscillator in Figure 9.74.
Figure 9.74 An example of a Wien-bridge oscillator designed
on the basis of Example 9.12.

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Figure 9.78 Output voltage of the oscillator of Figure 9.77.
Figure 9.77 Modification of the circuit of the Wien-bridge
oscillator. The diodes and the resistor R4 limit the amplitude of
the output signal. In this way is avoided its clipping.

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