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Self-Determination

Theory (SDT)
A Theory of Human Motivation
Compiled by: J.R. Maraya

ppt presented by:


j.r. maraya
Proponent/Theorist:
Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan

• both professors at University of


Rochester
Self-Determination Theory (SDT)

What is SDT?
Self-Determination Theory
(SDT)
one of the theories of Human Motivation

Motivation is a process that starts


with a physiological or psychological
need that activates a behavior or a
drive that is aimed at a goal.
The central premise of the theory is that individuals
have innate tendencies towards personal growth
and vitality that are either satisfied or thwarted by
their immediate environment.
Self-Determination Theory
(SDT)
Self-determination theory (SDT) is an empirically based theory of human
motivation, development, and wellness. The theory focuses on types,
rather than just amount, of motivation, paying particular attention to
autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and a motivation as
predictors of performance, relational, and well-being outcomes. It also
addresses the social conditions that enhance versus diminish these types
of motivation, proposing and finding that the degrees to which basic
psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are
supported versus thwarted affect both the type and strength of
motivation. SDT also examines people’s life goals or aspirations, showing
differential relations of intrinsic versus extrinsic life goals to performance
and psychological health.
Taken from: Self-Determination Theory: A Macrotheory of Human Motivation,
Development, and Health (Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan
University of Rochester)
Self-Determination Theory
(SDT)

As a macrotheory of human motivation, self-determination


theory (SDT) addresses such basic issues as personality
development, self-regulation, universal psychological needs,
life goals and aspirations, energy and vitality, nonconscious
processes, the relations of culture to motivation, and the
impact of social environments on motivation, affect, behavior,
and wellbeing.

Taken from: Self-Determination Theory: A Macrotheory of Human Motivation,


Development, and Health (Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan
University of Rochester)
Self-Determination Theory
(SDT)

Self-Determination Theory is a theory of


motivation and personality that
addresses three universal, innate and
psychological needs: competence,
autonomy, and psychological
relatedness.
Taken from:
http://www.learning-theories.com/self-determination-theory-deci-and-ryan.html
Self-Determination Theory (SDT)

Self-Determination/SDT
vs.
other motivational
theories
Self-Determination Theory (SDT)
vs. other motivational theories
Most contemporary theories of motivation assume that
people initiate and persist at behaviors to the extent that
they believe the behaviors will lead to desired outcomes or
goals. Beginning with the work of Lewin (1936) and Tolman
(1932), this premise has led motivation researchers to
explore the psychological value people ascribe to goals (e.g.,
T. Kasser & Ryan, 1996; Vroom, 1964), people’s expectations
about attaining goals (e.g., Abramson, Seligman, & Teasdale,
1978; Bandura, 1989; Rotter, 1966), and the mechanisms that
keep people moving toward selected goals (e.g.,Carver &
Scheier, 1998).
Taken from: The “What” and “Why” of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-
Determination of Behavior (Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan
Department of Psychology, University of Rochester)
Self-Determination Theory (SDT)
vs. other motivational theories

Since the time of the shift toward cognitive theories,


most motivation theorists remained unwilling to
consider needs, focusing instead on goal-related
efficacy. SDT maintained that a full understanding not
only of goal-directed behavior, but also of
psychological development and well-being, cannot be
achieved without addressing the needs that give goals
their psychological potence and that influence which
regulatory processes direct people’s goal pursuits.
Taken from: The “What” and “Why” of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-
Determination of Behavior (Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan
Department of Psychology, University of Rochester)
Self-Determination Theory (SDT)
vs. other motivational theories

Specifically, in SDT, three psychological


needs—for competence, relatedness,
and autonomy—are considered
essential for understanding the what
(i.e., content) and why (i.e., process) of
goal pursuits.
Taken from: The “What” and “Why” of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-
Determination of Behavior (Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan
Department of Psychology, University of Rochester)
Self-Determination Theory/SDT

Three Psychological Needs


“…we assert that there are not instances of
optimal, healthy development in which a need for
autonomy, relatedness, or competence was
neglected, whether or not the individuals
consciously valued these needs. In short,
psychological health requires satisfaction of all
three needs; one or two are not enough.”
Taken from: The “What” and “Why” of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-
Determination of Behavior (Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan
Department of Psychology, University of Rochester)
Self-Determination Theory/SDT

Three Psychological Needs


Accordingly, innate psychological needs for competence,
relatedness, and autonomy concern the deep structure of the
human psyche, for they refer to innate and life-span
tendencies toward achieving effectiveness, connectedness,
and coherence. The presence versus absence of
environmental conditions that allow satisfaction of these
basic needs—in people’s immediate situations and in their
developmental histories—is thus a key predictor of whether
or not people will display vitality and mental health.
Taken from: The “What” and “Why” of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-
Determination of Behavior (Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan
Department of Psychology, University of Rochester)
Three Psychological Needs
autonomy

Self-Determination
Theory
competence psychological
relatedness
Deci and Ryan suggest that when people experience these three
things, they become self-determined and able to be intrinsically
motivated to pursue the things that interest them.
SDT’s Three Psychological
Needs
1.AUTONOMY
refers to being self-initiating and self-regulating of
one's own actions

the universal urge to be causal agents of one’s


own life and act in harmony with one’s integrated
self; however, Deci and Vansteenkiste note this
does not mean to be independent of others

People need to feel in control of their own


behaviors and goals.
SDT’s Three Psychological
Needs
2. COMPETENCE
involves understanding how to attain various
external and internal outcomes and being
efficacious in performing the necessary actions

seek to control the outcome and experience


mastery

People need to gain mastery of tasks and learn


different skills.
SDT’s Three Psychological
Needs
3. RELATEDNESS
is the universal want to interact, be
connected to, and experience caring for
others
involves developing secure and satisfying
connections with others in one's social milieu
People need to experience a sense of
belonging and attachment to other people.
Self-Determination Theory’s
Three Psychological Needs
If not met…
might lead to the tendency to withdraw
concern for others and focus on oneself, or,
in more extreme cases, to engage in
psychological withdrawal or antisocial
activity as compensatory motives for
unfulfilled needs
Self-Determination Theory

Deci and Ryan suggest that when people


experience these three things, they
become self-determined and able to be
intrinsically motivated to pursue the things
that interest them.

How exactly do people go about fulfilling


these three needs?
Self-Determination Theory
How exactly do people go about fulfilling
these three needs?
According to Deci, giving people extrinsic rewards for already
intrinsically motivated behavior can undermine autonomy. As
the behavior becomes increasingly controlled by the external
rewards, people begin to feel less in control of their own
behavior and intrinsic motivation is diminished.
Deci also suggests that offering unexpected positive
encouragement and feedback on a person's performance on a
task can increase intrinsic motivation. Why? Because such
feedback helps people to feel more competent, one of the key
needs for personal growth.
Self-Determination Theory
How exactly do people go about fulfilling these
three needs?
"SDT begins by embracing the assumption that all individuals have
natural, innate, and constructive tendencies to develop an ever more
elaborated and unified sense of self. That is, we assume people have a
primary propensity to forge interconnections among aspects of their
own psyches as well as with other individuals and groups in their social
worlds.“ (Deci& Ryan, 2002)

"Social environments can, according to this perspective, either


facilitate and enable the growth and integration propensities with
which the human psyche is endowed, or they can disrupt, forestall,
and fragment these processes resulting in behaviors and inner
experiences that represent the darker side of humanity.“ (Deci and
Ryan, 2002)
Classroom Applications and
Implications
An enormous amount of research shows the
importance of self-determination (i.e., autonomy)
for students in elementary school through college
for enhancing learning and improving important
post-school outcomes.
“..there has been a surge of activity in
applying SDT to many of life’s
domains.”
Taken from: Self-Determination Theory: A Macrotheory of Human
Motivation, Development, and Health (Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan
University of Rochester)
Self-Determination Theory (SDT)
Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991),
when applied to the realm of education, is concerned
primarily with promoting in students an interest in
learning, a valuing of education, and a confidence in
their own capacities and attributes. These outcomes
are manifestations of being intrinsically motivated
and internalizing values and regulatory processes.
Research suggests that these processes result in
high-quality learning and conceptual understanding,
as well as enhanced personal growth and
adjustment.
Taken from: Self-Determination Theory: A Macrotheory of Human
Motivation, Development, and Health (Edward L. Deci and Richard M.
Ryan University of Rochester)
Classroom Applications
1. Nurture students’ inner motivational resources –
Incorporate student interests, preferences and
values in to learning activities and avoid external
regulators such as rewards, directives, deadlines
and compliance requests.

2. Rely on non-controlling language – Communicate


using informational and flexible messages (i.e.,
information-rich and competence affirming),
rather than controlling and rigid messages (i.e.,
coercive or pressurising).
Classroom Applications
3. Communicate value and provide rationales –
When tasks do not appear to capture the
interest of the student, identify and explain the
use, value and importance of the tasks.

4. Know your students and be more involved


with them. Interpersonal involvement helps
children to become motivated and self-
determined
Classroom Applications
5. Positive feedback will most likely improve
competence and intrinsic motivation.

6. Acknowledge and accept expressions of


negative affect – Acknowledge the students
perspective by accepting that students will
inevitably encounter rules and requests that
are not consistent with their preferences and
when they do so they will not engage fully.
Acknowledging their feelings of not liking the
task or not liking the requested way helps them
to feel self-determined.
Classroom Implications
1) Students experience competence when
challenged and given prompt feedback.
2) Students experience autonomy when they
feel supported to explore, take initiative and
develop and implement solutions for their
problems.
3) Students experience relatedness when
they perceive others listening and
responding to them.
Taken from:
https://www.apa.org/research/action/success.aspx
Significance
Self-determination theory has
identified ways to better
motivate students to learn at
all educational levels, including
those with disabilities.

Taken from:
https://www.apa.org/research/action/success.aspx
References
Cherry, Kendra. What is Self-Determination Theory.
Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/motivation/f/self-
determination theory.htm
Deci, Edward L., Pelletier, Luc G., Ryan, Richard M., Vallerand, Robert J. (1991).
Motivation and Education: The Self-Determination Perspective. Educational
Psychologist, 26(3 & 4), 325-346.
Deci, Edward L., Ryan, Richard M. (2008). Self-Determination Theory: A
Macrotheory of Human Motivation, Development, and Health.
Canadian Psychology, 3, 182–185
Deci, Edward L., Ryan, Richard M. (2000). The “What” and “Why” of Goal Pursuits:
Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior. Psychological
Inquiry. 4, 227–268
Hill, Dr Andrew P. (2011, September). A Brief Guide to Self-Determination Theory.
Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Network.
Reeve, Johnmarshall. (2012). A Self-determination Theory Perspective on Student
Engagement. S.L. Christenson et al. (Ed.), Handbook of Research on
Student Engagement, 7, 149-170. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Ryan_(professor)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_L._Deci