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CONFIDENTIAL 3 4551/2 (MS)

ANSWER SCHEME
Question 1

Question Mark Scheme Mark


1(a) (i) Able to name the substance and the type of transport in
Diagram 1.1 & 1.2
1
Diagram 1.1: sodium ions / chloride ions - Facilitated diffusion 1 2
Diagram 1.2: vinegar/ hydrogen ions - simple diffusion
(ii) Able to:
1 – state the flavor for each food respectively 2
2 – explain the process of movement of substances 2
Sample answer 4
F1: Salted eggs in Diagram 1.1 are salty.
E1: Salt ions / sodium ions / chloride ions diffuse from the
concentrated salt solution into the egg through pore proteins of
plasma membrane.
F2: Pickles in Diagram 1.2 are soury.
E2 : Vinegar / hydrogen ions diffuse into the (fruit/ vegetable)
cells directly through the phospholipids of plasma membrane.

(b) Able to name other example of processed food


and explain how the food is preserved

Sample answer
F: candied fruit (accept any example of fruit)// salted fish // dried 1
fruit.
E1: eg: Fruit slices are immersed in concentrated sugar 1
solution.
E2: sugar solution is hypertonic to the fruit cells. 1
E3: water diffuses out of fruit cells by osmosis. 1
E4: Bacteria cannot survive in dehydrated medium. 1 3

Any 3
(c)
Parts of nephron Name of Type of transport
substance
P: Proxymal Glucose Active transport
convoluted tubule 1 2
Loop of Henle Water Osmosis/ Passive
transport 1

(d) E1: Because glucose is needed by the body for cellular 1


respiration / to produce energy.
E2: Because glucose is too big to pass through the phospholipid 1
bilayer
Any 1 1

Total 12

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Question 2

Question Mark Scheme Mark


2(a)(i) 6 1 1

(a)(ii) Able to provide two correct reasons.


Sample answer:
-The diagram shows mitosis.
1
-the number of chromosomes in the daughter nuclei/ cells is the 1 2
same with the parent nucleus/ cell // mitosis produces diploid
chromosomes in the daughter cells.

(b) Able to draw two different daughter nuclei.


 Homologous chromosomes must be separated.
 Marks are given on: 1-number of chromosomes (3 each) 1
2-drawings (size, shade and shape 1 2
must be correct to get a tick)

(c)(i) Fraternal/ non-identical twins 1 1

(ii) Able to explain the difference.


Sample answer:
F- The skin colour of the twins is different// One twin has fair
skin while the other one has dark skin.
1
F- Different physical appearance is due to different
1
combination of genes.
E- the twins are produced when two different ova is fertilized by 1 3
two different sperms.

(d) F1: Mendel’s First Law of Inheritance is known as Law of 1


Segregation.
E1: Every character in an offspring is controlled by a pair of 1

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alleles (which occupy the same loci on homologous


chromosomes.)
E2: During meiosis/ the formation of gametes, these alleles 1
separate to different gametes.
E3: Each gamete only carries one type of allele. 1 Max:
1 3
E4: During fertilisation, gametes from opposite parents unite
randomly to produce different combination of genes / genotype
of offspring.
E5: As a result, the physical appearance / phenotype of 1
offsprings is also different.
Total 12

Question 3

Question Mark Scheme Mark


3(a) Able to name the type of interactions in K, L and M
K: Saprophytism 1
L: Commensalism 1
M: Mutualism 1 3

(b)(i) Able to write the correct term


Commensal // Epiphyte 1 2

(ii) Able to state two structural adaptations for L to grow on its


host.

Sample answer
F1: L has aerial roots which able to absorb moisture from the 1
air.
F2: Root system contains ants to increase humus. 1
F3: Corrugated leaves can direct rainwater to their roots. 1
F4: The leaves are coated with thick cuticle to reduce 1 2
transpiration.
Any 2

(iii) Able to explain the effect of dead host on L

Sample answer:
E1: The tree trunk decomposes 1 3
E2: thus the tree cannot provide support to L 1
E3: L will fall to the ground 1
E4: and die due to lack of sunlight 1

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(c) F: Mutualism 1
E1: The interaction between oxpecker and the rhinoceros where 1
E2: oxpeckers gain food (fleas / insects) from Rhinos body 1
E3: while the rhinos has the parasites removed/ cleared from its 1 3
body.
Any 3
Total 12

Question 4

Question Mark Scheme Mark


4(a) Able to name hormone X and hormone Y
X: Glucagon 1
Y: Insulin 1 2

(b) Sample answer:


Organ P is pancreas which secretes hormone X/ Glucagon. 1 3
Glucagon stimulates the conversion of glycogen to glucose 1
in organ Q which is the liver 1
blood glucose level is raised to normal 1
Any 3
(c)(i)
Sample answer
F1: The urine of a diabetic contains glucose. 1
F2: the kidney failed to fully reabsorb all the glucose from the 1
glomerular filtrate.
F3: glucose is secreted in the urine. 1 3

(ii) Able to plan a simple experiment to test a diabetic

Sample answer:
F1: Add 2 to 3 drops of Benedict’s solution to 2ml of a urine 1 2
sample in a test tube
F2: place the test tube inside a boiling water bath. 1
F3: A brick-red precipitate is observed if glucose is present in 1
the urine.

(d) F: Eat glucose tablets or drink glucose solution immediately. 1


E1: Overdose of Insulin/ hormone Y depletes glucose in the
blood. 1
E2: the intake of glucose will immediately provides energy. 1 2

Total 12

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Question 5

Question Mark Scheme Mark


5(a) (i) Able to name the tissue:
Sample Answer:
F: Aerenchyma tissue 1 1

Able to explain the adaptation of the tissue.


(ii)
Sample answers:
E1: The tissue is spongy with large air spaces between the 1 2
cells. 1
E2: to make the plant light // to make the plant buoyant.

(b) The importance of Substance R:


F1: R is lignin 1
E1: It strengthens the xylem vessels 1
E2: which forms the primary xylem 1
E3: provides mechanical support for terrestrial plants 1 2
Any 2

(c) Sample Answer:


E1: Collenchyma tissues provide turgidity to herbaceous plants 1 3
E2: turgor pressure of the fluid in the vacuoles pushes against 1
the cell walls,
E3: the thickening of the cell walls with cellulose and pectin 1
E4: creating support for the plant 1
Any 3

(d)(i) Sample Answer:


E1: Tissue R is ligament / connective tissue 1 2
E2: which attach tibia to the femur bone 1
E3: if R is torn, the tibia might be dislocated from the femur. 1
E4: one might experience difficulty to move/ to walk 1
Any 2

(ii) Sample Answer:


F: Osteoarthritis // Gout 1 2
E1: Maintain ideal body weight 1
E2: losing body weight, reducing stress on your joints. 1
E3: Exercise regularly to maintain your physical fitness. 1
E4: Maintain good posture to protect joints. 1
Any 2
Total 20

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Question 6
Question Mark Scheme Mark
Able to name and identify lipid.
(a)(i) Sample answers:
Lipid which is Q 1
Explanation:
E: The shape of Q/ Lipid compliments the active site of 1 2
Lipase.

(ii) Able to explain the characteristics of lipase.

Sample of answers:

E1: Lipase has specific active site which compliments the 1 3


shape of lipid.
E2: The shape of lipase remains unchanged at the end of the 1
reaction.
E3: each lipase enzyme catalyses one reaction at a time. 1

Able to explain: 4 Max:7


(b) 1- rate of enzyme reaction at range P-Q
2- rate of enzyme reaction at range R-S
Able to suggest how to increase the rate of enzyme 3
reaction and justify the suggestion

Sample of answers:

P-Q
E1: As the substrate concentration increases, the rate of
enzyme reaction also increases.
E2: more molecules of substrate are added means more
chances of collision with the enzyme molecules.

R-S
E3: As the substrate concentration increases, the rate of
enzyme reaction remains constant/ the same.
E4: rate of enzyme reaction has reached maximum.
E5: no more active sites of enzymes are available to bind with
the substrate.
E6: concentration of enzyme has now becoming the limiting
factor.

(c)(i) Suggestion temperature: 2 Max:8


P: 60oC / (anything beyond 60) // 20 oC
Q: 37 oC / 40 oC

(ii) Justification: 6
P: E1- At higher temperatures, lipase/ enzyme is denatured // At
lower temperatures the kinetic energy of enzyme and
substrate molecules drops.
E2 - The active sites of lipase are altered // rate of collision

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Question Mark Scheme Mark


between enzyme and substrate molecules decreases.
E3 - Lipid will no longer be able to fit into lipase/ the active
site // less lipase-lipid complex are formed.
E4 - the formation of lipase-lipid complex will be halted.
E5 - rate of hydrolysis of lipid decreases.
E6 - the removal of stain is ineffective // the washing becomes
unclean.
Q: E7 - 37 oC is the optimum temperature for enzyme action.
E8 - lipase-lipid complex are maximally formed.
E9 - rate of hydrolysis of lipid is maximum.

TOTAL 20

Question 7
Question Mark Scheme Mark
Able to explain what happens during stage I and stage II in
(a) the ovary
Sample answers:

Stage I:
E1: High level of LH in the blood. 1
E2: stimulates ovulation. 1
E3: matured secondary oocyte is released. 1
Max 3
Stage II:
E4: LH stimulates the development of corpus luteum 1
E5: as well as the secretion of progesterone by the corpus 1 Max:
luteum. 4
(b) (i) Able to explain the effect of taking contraceptive pills on
stage I in the ovarian cycle

Sample of answers:

E1: Low level of FSH in the blood. 1


E2: no follicle develops. 1
E3: graafian follicle does not formed. 1
E4: Less / no secretion of oestrogen. 1
E5: Pituitary gland is less / not stimulated. 1
E6: Less LH secreted / not enough LH. 1 Max:
E7: No ovulation 1 3

Able to explain what the causes for stage III to occur and its
(b)(ii) effect:

Sample of answers:

Causes
E1: Corpus luteum degenerates due to 1
E2: secondary oocyte is not fertilized // fertilisation does not 1
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Question Mark Scheme Mark


occur.

Effect
E3: Low level of progesterone. 1
E4: lining of uterine wall disintegrate // menstruation occurs. 1
E5: No implantation. 1 Max:
E6: No pregnancy. 1 3

(c) Sample Answer:


10
E1 The ovule develops from the ovarian tissue
E2 It has a diploid embryo sac mother cell (2n).
E3 Each ovule is coated by outer layers called the
integuments.
E4 Embryo sac mother cell undergoes meiosis to form a row
of four haploid cells called megaspores (n).
E5 Three of the four megaspores degenerates.
E6 The remaining megaspore grows and enlarges, (filling up
most of the ovule).
E7 The nucleus of the megaspore undergoes mitosis three
times to form eight haploid nuclei.
E8 Three of the eight nuclei migrate to one end of the cell to
form antipodal cells.
E9 Another two nuclei, called the polar nuclei move to the
centre.
E10 One of the three nuclei closer to micropyle develops into
an egg cell which is flanked by two synergid cells.
E11 The structure is known as the embryo sac, where the
embryo will develop.
Total 20

Question 8
Question Mark Scheme Mark
Able to explain how structure S and heart enable the return
(a)(i) of blood pressure back to normal.
Sample answers:
E1 (When the blood pressure decreases), it will be detected by 1 6
baroreceptors
E2 at the wall of aorta. 1
E3 Baroreceptors produce an impulse. 1
E4 which is transmitted to medulla oblongata / S. 1
E5 Medulla Oblongata sent impulse via sympathetic nerve. 1
E6 to the heart / Sinoatrial node. 1
E7 more impulse is initiated. 1
E8 rate of heartbeat increases // blood vessel constrict. 1
E9 resulting in an increase of blood pressure back to normal. 1

(ii) Able to explain how endocrine gland causes the


physiological changes in her body during the situation.

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Question Mark Scheme Mark


Sample answers:

E1: (In panic situation) medulla oblongata detects the 1 8


strenuous moments.
E2: stimulates the adrenal glands 1
E3: to secrete adrenaline hormone. 1
E4: transports by the bloodstream. 1
E5: Adrenaline hormone stimulates heart to increase 1
heartbeat.
E6: to transport more oxygen / glucose to muscle tissue // 1
increase blood flow to the muscles.
E7: Breathing rate increases // breath faster/ deeper 1
E8: to get more oxygen 1
E9: glycogen is converted to glucose 1
E10: level of glucose increases 1
E11: rate of respiration in the muscles increases. 1
E12: more energy is generated/ produced 1

Able to explain the similarities and differences between


(b) neurone V and neurone W.

Sample of answers:

Similarities
S1: Both neurons involve in impulse transmission 1 6
S2: Axons of both neurons are covered by myelin sheath. 1
S3: Both have cell body/ axon/ dendron/ dendrite 1

Differences
Neuron V Neuron W
D1 Afferent neuron Efferent neuron 1
D2 Cell body is at the Cell body is located at the 1
middle of the neuron terminal of the neuron
D3 Cell body is located in Cell body is located in grey 1
the ganglion of dorsal matter of the spinal cord
root.
D4 Transmit impulse from Transmit impulse from 1
receptor to spinal cord / spinal cord / interneuron to
interneuron. the effector
D5 Has long dendron Has short dendron 1
D6 Has short axon. Has long axon 1

Total 20

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Question 9
Question Mark Scheme Mark
Able to draw the schematic diagram to show the
(a) inheritance of the ABO blood group in the offspring.
Sample answers:

Parents’ genotype IAIo x IBIo 1 10


Meiosis 1

Gametes IA Io IB Io 1
Fertilisation 1

Genotype of offspring IAIB I AI o I BI o IoIo


1
Phenotype of offspring AB A B O 1

E1 The mother is heterozygous A blood group while the father 1


is heterozygous B blood group.
E2 each gamete carries only one type of allele. 1
E3 Each type of allele controls different trait of blood group. 1
E4 During random fertilisation, each gamete from a parent is 1
free to unite with any gamete from the other parent.
E5 hence gives rise to a 25% chance that the child has a blood 1
group O.

(b) Able to explain how the inheritance of the Rhesus factor


can be a problem to the pregnant mother.

Sample Answer:
E1 : (Problem will arise during pregnancy) if the mother is 1 10
homozygous recessive / Rhesus negative and
E2 : the father is heterozygous for Rhesus positive/ 1
homozygous for Rhesus positive
E3 : Produce the child with 50% Rhesus positif// Produce child 1
with 100% Rhesus positive
E4 : (During late pregnancy or during birth) some of the foetal 1
blood diffuse into maternal blood.
E5 : through placenta 1
E6 : This triggers the mothers blood to produce anti-rhesus 1
antibodies.
E7 : The harmful effect do not show during the first pregnancy 1
E8 : With successive pregnancies, the antibody level builds up 1
in the maternal blood stream
E9 : Her anti-rhesus antibodies may across the placenta 1
E10 : And cause agglutination/haemolysis of the foetal red 1
blood cell
E11 : known as erythroblastosis fetalis. 1
E12 : resulting in newborns being born with jaundice (yellowing 1
of the skin and eyes)
E13 : could results in brain damage/heart failure/death 1
Total 20

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