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Uzma Qayum FYMA(2S)(Diagnosis) NEO Personality Inventory Page 1 of 2

The NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R)


Forefront in the evaluation of positive personality characteristics has been the
NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae). The developers of this test used both factor analysis
and theory in item development and scale construction. Quite ambitious, the NEO-PI-
R attempts to provide a multipurpose inventory for predicting interests, health and illness
behavior, psychological well-being, and characteristic coping styles. Of the personality
tests, the NEO-PI-R has been among the most heavily researched during the last
decade.
Based on their review of extensive factor analytic studies and personality theory, the
authors of the NEO-PI-R identified three broad domains: neuroticism (N), extroversion
(E), and openness (0)—thus the name NEO. Each domain has six specific facets.
Neuroticism (N) is defined primarily by anxiety and depression. The six facets of this
domain are anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, and
vulnerability (describing people who do not feel safe). Extraversion (E) refers to the
degree of sociability or withdrawal a person tends to exhibit. Its six facets are warmth,
gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement seeking, and positive emotions.
Finally, openness (0) refers to the breadth of experience to which a person is amenable.
Its six facets are fantasy, aesthetics, feelings (openness to feelings of self and others),
actions (willingness to try new activities), ideas (intellectual curiosity), and values.

Guided by personality theory and factor analytic findings, the authors of the
NEO-PI-R took a rational approach in constructing items. For each of the 18 facets,
14 items were written. Seven were positively worded and seven negatively worded to
create a balance. Subjects respond on a 5-point Likert format ranging from "strongly
disagree" to "strongly agree." Initial items were then refined using a variety of statistical
procedures.
Data in the manual and from a variety of research reports support the NE0 - PI-R
and its earlier version, the NEO. Factor analytic studies support the grouping of three
major areas and associated facets. Reliabilities for the three domains are in the high
.80's to the low .90's for both internal consistency and test–retest reliability.

The NEO-PI-R has supported what is perhaps becoming one of the most accepted
notions in personality and personality assessment-the five factormodel of personality.
Recall that through factor analysis, researchers have repeatedly attempted to find the
minimum number of independent personality dimensions to describe the human
personality. Research with the NEO has supported the notion of the following five
dimensions :

1. Extroversion is the degree to which a person is sociable, leader-like, and assertive as


opposed to withdrawn, quiet, and reserved.
Uzma Qayum FYMA(2S)(Diagnosis) NEO Personality Inventory Page 2 of 2

2. Neuroticism is the degree to which a person is anxious and insecure as opposed to


calm and self-confident.

3. Conscientiousness is the degree to which a person is persevering, responsible, and


organized as opposed to lazy, irresponsible, and impulsive.

4. Agreeableness is the degree to which a person is warm and cooperative as opposed to


unpleasant and disagreeable.

5. Openness to experience is the degree to which a person is imaginative and curious as


opposed to concrete-minded and narrow in thinking.
Among positive characteristics, conscientiousness as identified on the NEO has been
of particular interest. Conscientiousness is constructed of two major facets: achievement
and dependability. Conscientiousness has been found to be valid as a positive predictor
of performance in all occupations studied and to be positively correlated with effective
styles of coping with stressful situations

Neuroticism was also negatively correlated with effective styles of coping with
stressful situations

The trait openness correlated significantlywith crystallized intelligence, and the traits
of openness, agreeableness, and extraversion were found to be beneficial in predicting
success in specific job settings. In addition, Judge and Bono (2000) found that
extraversion and agreeableness were effective in predicting transformational leadership.
Two converging areas of research with the NEO and NEO-PI-R discuss whether
the five-factor model is actually the best way to categorize the minimum dimensions of
human personality.
In a related line of research, investigators have attempted to determine whether the
five factors can be applied across cultures. Testing of this hypothesis is possible because
the NEO-PI-R has been translated into numerous languages. The taxonomic structure
of the NEO has become widely accepted because its five factors of personality have
remained robust across cultures and measures.
Some researchers have made the bold claim that the five-factor model is a
"biologically based human universal". 'This work is further supported by research on a
Korean version of the NEO-PI-R.
The NEO-PI-R reflects modern trends in personality-test construction by its reliance
on theory, logic, and the liberal use of factor analysis and statistical approaches in test
construction. It appears to be exceptionally promising for measuring a wide range of
characteristics in the world community.