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St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Albert the Great, St. Alphonsus Ligouri, and St. Gemma Galgani

DISASTER a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic, or environmental losses, which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope, using its own resources.

HAZARD a potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.


1. NATURAL - naturally-occurring physical phenomena caused either by rapid or slow onset events Examples: Earthquake, Flood, Tsunami, Typhoon

2. MAN-MADE / TECHNOLOGICAL - a hazard originating from technological or industrial conditions Examples: Fire, War, Red Tide

3. HYBRID - combination of Natural and Technological Hazards Examples: Flood due to Deforestation, Fire after an Earthquake, Hurricane causing a chemical spill

VULNERABILITY - characteristics of a community or a person that make them susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard

Most Vulnerable Sectors capacities are low and not sufficient; lowest level of the society; farmers, laborers, urban poor, PWDs, women, and children

Less Vulnerable Sectors capacities start from their own ability to acquire material resources; higher levels of society; professionals, small entrepreneurs

Not Vulnerable Sectors high position in the society; government officials

Categories of Vulnerability:

1. Physical / Material housing, nutritional status, infrastructure, and access to services

2. Social / Organizational family structure, administrative structure, degree of justice and equality, divisions and conflicts

3. Attitudinal / Motivational attitude toward change, ideology, religion, consciousness, and faith

CAPACITY - all the strengths, attributes, and resources of a community that can be used to achieve an agreed goal

CAPACITY ASSESSMENT process whereby people identify resources they rely on in times of crisis to reduce the damaging effects of hazards and to secure the sustainability of their livelihood

HAZARD, VULNERABILITY, and CAPACITY ASSESSMENT (HVCA) has mutual dependency to identify elements at risk and appropriate disaster preparedness, raise

awareness, and provide disaster information that can be integrated in baseline studies

General Classification of Disasters:

Based on Time


Slow onset


Rapid onset

Based on Size of Response Necessary


Emergency – doesn’t need outside help


Disaster needs help from outside communities


Catastrophe even with outside help, community is unable to meet the demands of the disaster

Based on Presence of Advance Notice


Advance Notice


No Notice

Based on Types of Hazards Present / Occurred

Vulnerability assessment consideration:

1. Extent refers to the exact location and coverage of the hazard

2. Elements at risk and why people, animals, infrastructure, crops, communication, and anything that can be negatively affected by a hazard

3. People at risk who are most at risk for a particular hazard and how they are affected

4. Location of people at risk where do they live

DISASTER RISK chance or likelihood of suffering harm and loss as a result of a hazardous event


Hazard possibility of causing harm

Risk probability of harm occurring

Effects of Disaster

1. Human / Biological high incidence of disease; loss of life

2. Social disasters affect people first and foremost; depressed, demoralized, and traumatized population

3. Physical / Material collapsed buildings, damaged houses, poor evacuation sites

4. Psychological anxiety, despair, and grief

5. Economic affected by the physical damages to the disruption of the flow of goods and services

6. Environmental Degradation aggravates environmental hazards

7. Political strengthens civil society, challenge or change the existing governance patterns

Disaster and Disaster Risks in the Philippines

The Philippines is situated along a highly seismic area lying along the Pacific Ring of Fire.

The Philippines is geographically located along the Pacific region near the Equator, or the so-called “Typhoon Belt, which is prone to tropical cyclones and storms

The Philippines is the third most disaster risk country worldwide (NDRRMP 2011-2028).

Republic Act 10121 Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010

DepEd Order No. 50 s. 2011 - act as the focal point for DepEd in planning, implementing, coordinating and monitoring of activities related to DRRM, Education in Emergencies (EiE) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA)


HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL HAZARDS - process or phenomenon of atmospheric, hydrological or oceanographic nature; phenomenon caused by extreme climate events

1. Cyclone / Hurricane forms in the northern hemisphere due to very low pressure; a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and Northeastern Pacific Ocean

Tropical Depression 35kph to 65kph Tropical Storm 64kph to 118kph Typhoon exceeds 118kph

Typhoon low pressure area that occurs in Western Pacific Ocean

– low pressure area that occurs in Western Pacific Ocean Things to do Before : 1.

Things to do Before:

1. Keep updated on news and public announcements

2. Know the emergency hotlines

3. Prepare and keep an emergency kit

4. Know, prepare, and keep emergency evacuation plan both within household and the community

5. Follow instructions of the authority

Things to do During:

1. Keep calm and be alert

2. Keep updated

3. Stay inside the house

4. Wear warm clothes

5. Save batteries

6. Call for help if in danger

Things to do After:


Keep updated


Check everyone in the family


Observe your surroundings and be alert


Seek for medical help if needed


Thunderstorm heavy rain characterized by thunder and lightning and possibly a tornado

Things to do Before:

1. Created preparedness plan

2. Trim and remove dead and rotting trees

3. Close the windows and doors

4. Stay inside the house

Things to do During:

1. Stay calm and be alert.

2. Wear warm clothes

3. Stay away from trees, towers, fences if you are in an open area

4. Postpone outside activities

5. Unplug electric appliances

6. Move to the lowest floor of the building or house

7. If in an open area, put your feet together with heels touching each other (tip toe position) while in squat position

Things to do After:


Check any damages


Keep updated


Stay away from damaged areas


Flood running and overlaying of water on land that is usually dry

Flashfloods causes great damage because water flows fast and rises rapidly

Things to do Before:

1. Keep updated

2. Know, prepare, and keep emergency evacuation plan both within household and the community

3. Put electronic gadgets and important files in a ziplock

4. Prepare and keep an emergency kit

5. Know the emergency hotlines

6. Fully charge phones

Things to do During:

1. Keep calm and be alert.

2. Stay updated

3. Do not swim on flood

4. Drink and eat clean water and foods only

5. Stay away from electronic lines

Things to do After:

1. Report damages


Don’’t plug immediately electronic appliances submerged in flood


Avoid affected areas.


Be updated.


Return home if and only declared safe.


Storm Surge masses of water that are pushed toward the shore by meteorological forces

Things to do Before:

1. Keep updated

2. Know, prepare, and keep emergency evacuation plan both within household and the community

3. Stay off the beach where there is weather disturbance

4. Participate in drills

5. Prepare and keep an emergency kit

6. Prepare floating device

7. Put electronic gadgets and important documents in ziplock bag

Things to do During:

1. Keep calm and be alert.

2. Stay away from coastal areas and landslide-prone areas.

3. Shutdown power supply.

4. If caught on a storm surge, hold on to large tree trunk and boulders to protect from the force of water and floating debris

Things to do After:

1. Eat and drink clean food and water only.

2. Check damages.

3. Stay away from electric cables, and collapsed infrastructures

4. Check if safe to go back home

5. Immediately clean debris and mud.

6. Stay updated.