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Experiment No. 1
Static Characteristics of SCR
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AIM: To plot the static (I-V) characteristics of the given Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) and find
the latching current (IL) and holding current (IH).

Sahrdaya College of Engineering and Technology 1


COMPONENT/APPARATUS:
S.No. Name of the Specification Quantity
component/
apparatus
1. SCR TYN612 1
2. Rheostat 300Ω, 1.1A 1
3. Resistor 1K 1
4. Voltmeter 0-30V MC 1
5. Ammeter 0-500mA 1
6. Ammeter 0-10mA 1
7. Ammeter 0-100μA 1
8. DC power supply 0-30V 2

PRINCIPLE:

K G

very
thickest,
thin,
lightly
heavily
doped
n+ doped

n+
p+
K
n- p+
n-
n+
p+ G

p+
A K
G
A

SCR has 3 modes of operation i) forward blocking mode; 2) forward conduction mode and
3) reverse blocking mode
a) Forward blocking mode
When anode is positive with respect to cathode, junctions J1 and J3 are forward biased and
junction J2
is reverse biased. A very small leakage current flows from anode to cathode.
b) Forward conduction mode
If anode to cathode voltage is increased to sufficiently large value, the reverse biased
junction J2 will breakdown and the corresponding voltage is known as forward breakover
voltage VBO. Since other junctions J1 and J3 are already forward biased, there will be free
movement of charge carriers across the three junctions, resulting in a large forward
anode current. The SCR will then be in conducting state (ON state). The ON state voltage
is around 1V and the anode current is limited by the load resistance.
Latching current IL is the minimum anode current required to maintain the thyristor in
the ON
state immediately after it has been turned on and the gate signal has been removed.

Sahrdaya College of Engineering and Technology 2


P N P2 N
Once a thyristor conducts, it behaves like a conducting diode and there is no control over the
device. The device continues to conduct because there is no depletion layer on the junction J2 due to
free movement of carriers.
If the forward anode current is reduced below holding current IH a depletion layer develops
around junction J2 and the thyristor will be in blocking state. Holding current is less than latching
current.
c) Reverse blocking mode
When cathode is made positive with respect to anode, the SCR is said to be reverse biased. J1 and J3
are reverse biased, whereas J2 is forward biased. SCR behaves as if two reverse biased diodes are
connected in series. A small leakage current flows in the SCR. If this reverse voltage is increased,
then at a critical breakdown level, called reverse breakdown voltage VBD avalanche breakdown occurs
at J1 and J3 and reverse current increases rapidly.
Large current at large voltage VBR leads to increased junction temperature and the device gets
damaged.
Static I-V characteristics are shown below.
IA
IL IG2 >IG
IG2 1
IG =
IH IG
VBD 1
0
VAK
VBO

Specifications of SCR TYN612


TYN612 :-
Repetitive peak off-state voltage,
VDRM/VRRM = 600V RMS ON state current,
IT(RMS) = 12A
Average ON state current,
IT(AV) = 8A IGT = 2 to 15mA
VGT = 1.3V
Peak Gate Current, IGFM = 4A (tp =
20μS) Average Gate Power
Dissipation, PG(AV) = 1W Latching
current IL = 60mA
Holding current IH = 30mA
ON state voltage drop VTM=1.6V

PROCEDURE:
a) REVERSE BLOCKING
Make the connections as shown in figure (1).
Keeping the rheostat at maximum resistance position, switch on the dc supply and apply 30
V. Vary the rheostat and note the voltmeter reading (VAK) and ammeter reading (IA) each time.
Continue the procedure till voltmeter reading is maximum. Decrease the rheostat to minimum and
switch off the dc supply.
b) FORWARD BLOCKING
Make the connections as shown in figure (1). Keeping the rheostat at maximum resistance
position, switch on the dc supply and apply 30 V. Vary the rheostat and note the voltmeter reading
(VAK) and ammeter reading (IA) each time. Continue the procedure till voltmeter reading is
maximum. Decrease the rheostat to minimum and switch off the dc supply.
c) FORWARD CONDUCTION
Make the connections as shown in figure (3).

Keeping both the DC power supplies at minimum voltage position, switch on the dc source
E1. Close the switch S. Adjust the gate current IG to a suitable value (say 5 mA) by varying 0-10V dc
supply. Now, vary E1 and make the anode current IA=10 mA and note the voltmeter reading (VAK).
Open the switch S and note the anode current IA. If it falls to a low value, IA has not reached the
latching current. Again, close the switch S and increase the anode current in steps of 5mA. Open the
switch S and each time note the anode current IA till IA remains same before and after opening the
switch S. Note the minimum value (latching current IL) of anode current IA at which SCR starts
conducting (IL is the minimum value of IA at which it remains same before & after closing the switch
S). Now, with switch S opened, vary the source E1 and note VAK and IA (IA in steps of 5 mA) each
time. Take care that ammeter reading IA does not exceed 100mA.
Now, decrease VAK slowly and note the anode current (=holding current IH) below which the
SCR stops conducting.
TABULATION:
FORWARD
REVERS FORWAR CONDUCTI
E D ON
IG = mA
BLOCKI BLOCKI
VAK (volts) IA (μA) VAK (volts) IA (μA) VAK (volts) IA (mA)

STATIC (I-V) CHARACTERISTICS

RESULT
i) Static (I-V)characteristics of a 600V, 30A SCR (TYN612) were plotted
ii) Latching current = mA
iii) Holding current = mA
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Experiment No. 2
R & RC Firing Circuits
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AIM: Design and set up R and RC firing circuits for SCR of a single phase half-wave controlled
rectifier.
COMPONENT/APPARATUS:
S.No. Name of the Specification Quantity
component/
apparatus
1. SCR TYN612 1
2. POT 10K 1
3. Capacitor 2μF 1
4. Diode 1N4007 2

5. Resistors 100Ω, 47Ω 1


6. Wire-wound resistor 100 Ω 5W 1
7. Transformer 230/12V 1
PRI
NCI
PLE:
R FIRING
CIRCUIT
Resistance firing circuit is simple and economical, but its maximum firing angle is limited
to 90°. During positive half cycle, diode D is forward biased and the gate trigger circuit
draws a small current. Gate voltage vG will be a half-wave dc pulse. The amplitude of this
dc pulse can be controlled by varying R. When the gate voltage vG reaches the gate
trigger voltage VGT, SCR is turned ON. When SCR is conducting, vG is reduced to almost
zero value.
During negative half cycle, diode is reverse biased. Diode prevents the gate-cathode
voltage during
reverse bias not to exceed the peak reverse gate
voltage. Firing angle can be varied from 0 to
90°.

RC FIRING
CIRCUIT
The limited range of firing angle control by resistance firing circuit can be overcome by
RC firing circuit. Here, by varying resistor capacitor triggering circuit firing angle can be
controlled from 0° to
1
8
0
°
.
During negative half cycle, capacitor charges to –Vm through diode D2 with lower plate
positive. Capacitor voltage remains constant (=Vm) until vs=0. During positive half cycle,
SCR is in forward blocking state. Now, capacitor charges through R and when capacitor
voltage reaches VGT, SCR is triggered.
During negative half cycle, diode D1 prevents the breakdown of the gate to cathode
junction.
Note : For an RC circuit, as R increases, time constant T increases, capacitor voltage
reaches VGT slowly. Firing angle will be large. As R decreases, T decreases, vc reaches VGT
fast; firing angle will be less.
Specifications of SCR TYN612
TYN612 :-
Repetitive peak off-state voltage, VDRM/VRRM = 600V
RMS ON state current, IT(RMS) = 12A
Average ON state current, IT(AV) = 8A
IGT = 2 to 15mA
VGT = 1.3V
Peak Gate Current, IGFM = 4A (tp = 20μS)
Average Gate Power Dissipation, PG(AV) = 1W
Latching current IL = 60mA
Holding current IH = 30mA
ON state voltage drop VTM=1.6V

DESIGN:
R FIRING CIRCUIT
Rmin is used to limit the gate current below IGFM.
Take IGFM = 200mA

Rmin Vm 2 = 84.85Ω
=
≥ I GFM
×12
200 −
×10 3

Take Rmin = 100Ω


Stabilising resistor RG is chosen such that voltage across it does not
exceed VRGM. VRGM = 5V
Vm
× GK
R ≤ RGM
V
Rmin +
RGK
Rmin × VRGM 100 × 5
RG ≥ = 41.8Ω
2 ×12
K
−5
=
Vm
− VRGM

Take RGK = 47Ω


SCR will trigger when the instantaneous anode voltage is v.
RC FIRING CIRCUIT
RG is used to limit the gate current below IGFM.
Take IGFM = 200mA

RG Vm 2 = 84.85Ω
=
≥ I GFM
×12
200 −
×10 3

Take RG = 100Ω
SCR will trigger when the instantaneous anode voltage is v.
v = VD + VGT + I GT R

For SCR TYN612, VGT = 1.3V, IGT = 2


to 15mA VD = voltage across diode

Vm − VD − VGT 2 ×12 − 0.6 − 1.3


R= − = 7535Ω
2 ×10 3
=
I
G
T

Take pot R=10kΩ


f=50Hz; T=1/f=0.02s
For typical thyristors, RC ≥ 0.65T
0.65 × 0.02
C≥ = 1.3μ F
1
0

×
1
0
3

Take C=2μF
To find load resistance RL:
Limit the peak value of load current to 200mA.

Vm − VTM 2 ×12 − 1.6


Load resistance, = − = 76.9Ω (Use 100Ω, 5W resistor)
RL 200 ×10 3
==
200−3
×10
PROCEDURE:
R FIRING CIRCUIT
i) Make the connections as shown in figure. Switch on
the supply. ii) Observe the voltage waveforms across the load
RL and SCR.
iii) Vary the pot and observe the change in output voltage. Note the
minimum and
maximum firing angles.
RC FIRING CIRCUIT
i) Make the connections as shown in figure. Switch on the supply.
ii) Observe the voltage waveforms across the load RL, SCR and capacitor C.
iii) Vary the pot and observe the change in output voltage. Note the minimum and
maximum firing angles.

CALCULATIONS:

Sl . No.
Firing angle in
Output Voltage
degrees(α)

R FIRING

RC FIRING

RESULT
R & RC firing circuits were designed and set up for SCR and waveforms were observed in CRO.
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Experiment No. 3
UJT firing circuit for SCR
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AIM: Design and set up a UJT firing circuit for SCR for controlling the dc output voltage of a half-
wave rectifier.
COMPONENT/APPARATUS:
S.No. Name of the Specification Quantity
component/
apparatus
1. UJT 2N2646 1
2. SCR TYN612 1
3. POT 100K 1
4. Capacitor 0.1μF 1
5. Zener diode SZ 12 1
6. Diode 1N4007 4
7. Resistors 100Ω,180Ω, 390Ω ,2.7K 1 each
8. Wire-wound resistor 100 Ω 5W 1
9. Transformer 230/12V 1

PRINCIPLE:
The unijunction transistor (UJT) is commonly used for generating triggering
signals for SCRs. The diode bridge D1 to D4 rectifies ac to dc. Resistor R3 lowers the dc
voltage to suitable value for the zener diode and UJT. The zener diode is used to clip the
rectified voltage to a fixed voltage Vz. This voltage applied to the charging RC circuit.
Capacitor C charges through R until it reaches the UJT trigger voltage Vp. The UJT then
turns “ON” and C discharges through the UJT emitter and primary of the pulse
transformer. The pulse voltage at the secondary is fed to the gate circuit of SCR. SCR with
positive anode voltage turns ON. Rate of rise of capacitor voltage can be controlled by
varying R. The firing angle can be controlled up to about 150º.
Specifications of SCR TYN612
TYN612 :-
Repetitive peak off-state voltage,
VDRM/VRRM = 600V RMS ON state current,
IT(RMS) = 12A
Average ON state current,
IT(AV) = 8A IGT = 2 to 15mA
VGT = 1.3V
Peak Gate Current, IGFM = 4A (tp =
20μS) Average Gate Power
Dissipation, PG(AV) = 1W Latching
current IL = 60mA
Holding current IH = 30mA
ON state voltage drop VTM=1.6V
Diode 1N4007
Peak repetitive reverse voltage VRRM – 1000V
RMS reverse voltage VR(RMS) – 700V
Average rectified output current Io – 1A
Non-repetitive peak forward surge current IFSM – 30A
Forward voltage VFM – 1V

DESIGN:
Use UJT 2N2646
VBB = Iv = RBB =
12V VZ 4mA Ip 7K Pz
= 12V = 5μA =
VD = IL = 0.4W
0.7V Vv 200mA Let C =
= 1.5V VTM = 0.1μF Let
η = 0.65 1.6V T = R2 = 100Ω
Vin = 12V 10 mS

To find load resistance RL:


Limit the peak value of load current to 200mA.
PROCEDURE:
i) Make the connections as shown in figure. Switch on the supply.
Observe the waveforms at various points in CRO.
ii) Observe the output waveform across the load.
iii) Vary the pot and observe the change in output voltage. Note the
minimum and maximum firing angles.

CALCULATIONS:
Sl . No.
Firing angle in
Output Voltage
degrees(α)

RESULT
A UJT firing circuit was designed and set up for SCR of a half-wave rectifier and
waveforms were observed in CRO.
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Experiment No. 4
Single Phase Voltage Controller Using TRIAC
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AIM: Design and set up a single phase voltage controller using TRIAC
COMPONENT/APPARATUS:
S.No. Name of the Specification Quantity
component/
apparatus
1. TRIAC BT136 1
2. DIAC DB3 1
3. Resistor 100Ω 2
1K 5W 1
4. Capacitor 0.1μF 1
5. POT 100K 1
PRI
NCI
PLE:
A TRIAC is a bidirectional thyristor with the terminals of MT1, MT2 and gate G. It is used
extensively for the control of power in AC circuit. When in operation a TRIAC is
equivalent to two SCRs connected in anti-parallel. The TRIAC can be turned on in each
half cycle of applied voltage by
applying a positive or negative voltage to gate with respect to
terminal MT1.

As the input voltage increases positively or negatively, capacitor C is charged through the
load and the resistor R. The charging rate of the capacitor C is controlled by R. When the
capacitor voltage vc exceeds the breakover voltage of the diac (=VBO+VGT), the diac is
turned on. The
capacitor discharges through R, diac and junction of the gate and MT1 terminal of the triac.
Hence, the triac is turned on and allows AC power to flow in the load. The firing angle of both
half cycles of the power supply can be controlled by varying the position of R.

Specifications of TRIAC
BT136 :
VDRM = 600V; IT(RMS) = 4A; IGT = 5 to 30 mA; VGT =
0.7 to 1.5V

Specifications of TRIAC BT136 :


VBO = 32V

PROC
EDUR
E:
Make the circuit as shown in figure. Observe the waveforms across the load resistance for
different positions of the pot. Note the minimum and maximum firing angles.
CALCULATIONS:
Sl . No.
Firing angle in
Output Voltage
degrees(α)

RESULT
A single phase AC voltage controller using TRIAC was set up and waveforms were observed in CRO.
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Experiment No. 5
Single Phase Fully Controlled Converter
=================================================
AIM: To design and set up a single phase fully controlled converter to control the average voltage
across an R-L load with and without freewheeling diode and observe the waveform.
COMPONENT/APPARATUS:
S.No. Name of the Specification Quantity
component/
apparatus
1. SCR TYN612 4
2. Resistor Wire-wound, 100Ω, 5W 1
3. Transformer 230/12V 1
4. Inductor 10mH 1
PRINCIPLE:

Fully controlled converter with R-L load with discontinuous load current.
In the fully controlled bridge rectifier, SCRs T1 and T2 are conducting during
positive half- cycle from α to β where α is firing angle and β is the extinction angle. During
negative half-cycle, T3 and T4 are conducting. A large value of load inductance L will result
in a continuous steady current in the load. A small value of L will produce a discontinuous
load current for large-firing angles.
Fully controlled converter with R-L load with continuous load current.
The single phase fully controlled bridge rectifier consists of four thyristor. During positive
half cycle SCR1 & SCR2 is triggered simultaneously at ωt = α. As a result supply voltage appears
across the load up to ωt = π+α. At ωt = π+α, SCR3 & SCR4 are triggered simultaneously. Hence
load voltage becomes equal to supply voltage supply voltage up to ωt= 2π+α.
Fully controlled converter with R-L load & Freewheeling Diode.
During positive half cycle SCR1 & SCR2 is triggered simultaneously at ωt = α. As a result supply
voltage appears across the load up to ωt = π. At ωt = π, FD is forward biased and load current
freewheels through FD and load until next trigger pulse comes.
At ωt = π +α, SCR3 & SCR4 are triggered simultaneously. Hence load voltage becomes equal to
supply voltage supply voltage up to ωt = 2π.

Sample Wave :

The average output dc voltage is given by,


By controlling the phase angle of firing pulses, applied to the gates of the thyristors in the
range 0º to 180º, the average-value of the dc voltage can be varied continuously from positive
maximum to negative maximum, assuming continuous current flow at the dc terminals. Because the
average dc voltage is reversible even though the current flow in the dc terminals is unidirectional, the
power flow in the converter can be in either direction. Hence two quadrant operation is possible with
fully controlled single-phase bridge circuit.

Specifications of SCR TYN612


VDRM/VRRM = 600V; IT(RMS) = 12A; IT(AV) = 8A; IGT = 2 to 15mA; VGT = 1.3V; IGFM = 4A, PG(AV) = 1W;
IH = 30mA; IL = 60mA
DESIGN:
For SCR TYN612, VGT = 1.3V, IGT = 2 to 15mA
To determine the value of load resistance :-
Limit the load current IL below 100mA.

Select R = 100Ω, 5W and L=10mH

PROCEDURE
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram, connect CRO across the load(R load).
2. Switch on the power supply.
3. Observe load voltage waveform on CRO.
4. Gradually vary potentiometer, note down firing angle and corresponding load voltage.
5. Trace the graph of load voltage waveform for any one set of firing angle.
6. Repeat the experiment with RL- load with and without freewheeling diode.

CALCULATIONS:
Sl . No.
Firing angle in
Output Voltage
degrees(α)

RESULT
Single phase fully controlled converter with and without freewheeling diode was designed
and set up and the waveforms were observed in DSO.
=================================================
Experiment No. 6
Chopper Controlled DC Motor
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AIM: Design and set up a MOSFET based step down dc chopper to control the speed of a dc motor.
COMPONENT/APPARATUS:
S.No. Name of the Specification Quantity
component/
apparatus
1. Capacitor 0.1 μF 1
2. Resistor 1KΩ 1
3. IC NE 555 1
4. MOSFET IRF540 1
5. Diode 1N4007 2
6. Pot 47KΩ 1
7. DC motor 12V 1
PRINCIPLE:
Choppers (dc-to-dc converters) are used to get variable dc voltage from a dc source of
fixed voltage. Self commutated devices, such as MOSFETs and IGBTs are preferred
over thyristors for building choppers because they can be commutated by a low power
control signal and do not need commutation circuit. Further, they can be operated at a
higher frequency for the same rating. The operation at a high frequency improves motor
performance by reducing current ripple and eliminating discontinuous conduction.
When the switch S is turned on, say at t=0, the supply is connected to the load
and vo = V. The load current io builds up exponentially. When the switch is turned off at t
= ton, the load current freewheels through DFD and vo = 0. Energy stored in the load
inductance is gradually dissipated in load resistance; load current decays exponentially. At
t = T, switch S is turned on again and cycle
repeats.

ton
Average voltage, =
×
Vo
V
=
D
V
T
where ton is the on-time of the
chopper, T is the
chopping period
D is the duty ratio of the chopper
The output voltage varies linearly with the duty ratio of the chopper. The output
voltage can be controlled in the range 0<Vo<V. This configuration of the chopper is known
as step-down chopper.
The gate drive circuit for MOSFET is an astable multivibrator. A 555 IC is used to
generate
the rectangular pulses. This output is given to MOSFET to turn it on. Using
potentiometer, pulse width or duty cycle D can be adjusted. Hence the speed can be varied.
The astable multivibrator circuit is as shown below
The ON and OFF times of the output are given by
TH = 0.693 × (R1 + R2 ) × C
TL = 0.693 × R2 × C
DESIGN:
For constant frequency operation, T=TH + TL must be a constant. For that, the resistance R2 is split
into two, RH for ON period, and R – RH for OFF period.
T = T H + TL
= 0.693× (R1 + RH ) × C + 0.693× (R − RH ) × C
= 0.693× (R1 + R) × C
Take C = 0.1μF and switching frequency f = 300Hz

PROCEDUR
E:

i) Make the connections for the astable multivibrator only. Switch on the
12V dc supply. Observe the waveforms of output voltage in CRO for
different positions of pot. Measure the ON time, OFF time, period T and
duty ratio each time. Save the output of 555 timer using DSO for a
particular duty ratio.
ii) Complete the circuit with MOSFET and dc motor. Switch on the supply. Note the
variations in speed for different positions of pot.

SAMPLE GRAPH

RESULT
MOSFET based step down dc chopper to control the speed of a dc motor was designed and set up.
=================================================
Experiment No. 7
Single Phase Half Bridge/Full Bridge Inverter
=================================================
AIM: To design and set up a single phase half-bridge square wave inverter.
COMPONENT/APPARATUS:
S.No. Name of the Specification Quantity
component/
apparatus
1. Timer 555 1
1. IC IR2111 1
3. Bootstrap diode 1N4148 1
4. MOSFET IRF540 2
5. Capacitor 470μF, 1μF 2 each
0.1μF, 0.01μF, 10μF 1 each
6. Resistor 10Ω, 150kΩ 2 each
7. Diode 1N4007 1
PRINCIPLE:
In the half bridge square wave inverter, 2 equal capacitors are connected in series
across dc input and their junction potential is at mid potential with a Vd/2 voltage across each
capacitor. When MOSFET 1 is turned ON, output voltage across load is +Vd/2 and
direction of current is positive. When MOSFET 2 is turned on in the negative half cycle,
voltage across load is –Vd/2 and direction of
current is reversed.

HALF BRIDGE INVERTER

D1
S1
Vd/2
io vo
M
-
LOAD
+
Vd/2
B
P

S2 D2

FULL BRIDGE INVERTER


For the proper control of the switching ON/OFF of MOSFET, there is a driver
circuit used called IR2111. The output of IR2111 is obtained at pin No. 7 which is connected
to MOSFET 1 and thereby it gets turned ON. While inverted output of the pin No. 7 is
obtained at pin 4, which is given to MOSFET 2 and thus it gets turned on during the negative
half cycle.
The IR2111 circuit is operated by giving a clock signal through 555 timer. The 555
timer is a timing circuit capable of producing accurate time delays or oscillation. In the
time delay mode of operation, the time is precisely controlled by one external resistor
and capacitor. The external capacitor charges through RA and RB and discharges through
RB only. Thus the duty cycle may be precisely set by the ratio of these two resistors.
Through the proper design of 555 timer circuit and the usage of IR2111 driver circuit with
proper control we can drive the half bridge inverter.
DESIGN:
Take 555 timer, f=50Hz. Duty cycle = 0.5
Assume, RA=RB=R
tON = 0.69(RA + RB )C = 1.38RC
Assume C = 0.1μF
−3 −6
20 ×10 = 1.38 × R × 0.1×10
R = 144.93kΩ
RA = RB = R = 150K

SAMPLE GRAPH

IR2111
PROCEDURE:

i) Make the connections for the astable multivibrator only. Switch on the 12V dc
supply. Observe the waveforms of output voltage in CRO. Note the time period T.
ii) Connect the IR2111 half bridge driver circuit at the output of the 555 timer. Connect
the half bridge inverter power circuit using MOSFETs. Switch on the supply. Observe
the output across the load. Observe the outputs at pins 7 and 4 of IR2111.
CALCULATIONS:
Sl . No.
Duty Cycle Output Voltage

RESULT:
Half bridge square wave inverter using MOSFETs and IR2111 driver circuit was designed and set up.
=================================================
Experiment No. 8
Static Characteristics of MOSFET
=================================================
AIM
To plot the drain and transfer characteristics of power MOSFET.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
Sl.
No Instrument Specification Quantity
.
1. MOSFET IRF540 1 No.
2. Volt Meter 0 – 30 V 2 No.
3. Mili Ammeter 0 – 50 mA 1 No.

1K, 1/4W 1 No.


4. Resistor
100Ω, 5W 1 No.
DC Power
5. 0 – 30V 2 No.
Supply

THEORY:

The circuit diagram for determining the MOSFET characteristics is as shown in figure. The source
terminals are taken as common terminal, between the input and output of a MOSFET.

Transfer Characteristics:
This characteristics shows the variation of drain current ID as a function of gate source voltage VGS. The
typical transfer characteristics for n-channel PMOSFET is shown in model graph. Threshold voltage V ST
is an important parameter of MOSFET. V GST is the minimum positive voltage between gate and source to
induce n-channel. Thus for the threshold voltage below V GST, the device is in off state. Magnitude of V GST
is of the order of 2 to 3V.

Drain Characteristics:
The model graph shows PMOSFET’s output characteristics is a variation of drain current I D as a function
of drain source voltage VDS, with gate-source voltage VGS as a parameter. For low values of VDS, the graph
between ID-VDS is almost linear, this indicates a constant value of on resistance R DS=VDS / ID for given VGS.
If VDS is increased, output characteristic is relatively flat, indicating that drain current is nearly constant.

When power MOSFET is driven with large gate-source voltage, MOSFET is driven to turn ON. Here the
MOSFET acting as a closed switch is said to be driven into ohmic region. When device turns ON,
PMOSFET traverses IDS-VDS characteristics from CUT-OFF to active region and then to ohmic region.
When PMOSFET turns OFF, it takes backward journey from ohmic region to cut OFF state.

Dynamic resistance, rd=Δ VDS /Δ ID


Mutual conductance, gm = Δ ID /Δ VGS
Amplification factor,µ = Δ VDS /Δ VGS

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
DESIGN
ID=500 mA V=30 V
R=V/I = 30/500 x 10-3= 60Ω ~100 Ώ
P=VI = 30 x 500x 10-3 ~10 W
IA= 5mA, R=1 K, 1/4 W

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the figure.
2. Set VGS to a constant value .Vary the voltage VDS and note down the corresponding ammeter readings (ID).
3. Repeat the procedure for different values of VGS.
4. Plot the drain characteristics VDS Vs ID.
5. Set the VDS to a constant value. Vary the voltage VGS and note down the corresponding ammeter readings
(ID).
6. Repeat the procedure for different values of VDS.
7. Then plot the transfer characteristics of VGS Vs ID
8. From the graph plotted find rd, gm and µ.

OBSERVATIONS
Transfer Characteristics:

VDS = VDS =
VGS (V) ID(mA) VGS (V) ID(mA)

Drain Characteristics:

VGS = VGS =

VDS(V) ID(mA) VDS(V) ID(mA)


CALCULATIONS:

Mutual Conductance gm = Δ ID / Δ VGS


Dynamic resistance rd = Δ VDS / Δ ID
Amplification factor, µ = gm x rd

MODEL GRAPH

Transfer Characteristics Drain Characteristics

RESULT:

The drain and transfer characteristics of power MOSFET were plotted.

Mutual conductance, gm =

Dynamic Resistance, rd =

Amplification factor,µ =
MATLAB/SIMULINK EXPERIMENTS
EXPERIMENT 9(a)

AIM :
i) Simulate a 1-phase fully controlled and half controlled rectifier circuit for R, RL,
RLE (separately excited motor) load using SIMULINK for different values of
firing angle α.
ii) Observe the waveforms o f speed, torque, armature current, armature voltage, source
current waveforms and find the THD in source current and input power factor.
iii) Measure the THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) of source current and input
power factor
in each case for different α.

IL
1
1
T1 0
IS 10Ω
T3 0
VL
100Vpe 1
Ig 5
ak,
1 0
50
Hz
T4 10m α
H
T2 Ig2

1/100+α

SIMULINK DIAGRAM
Simulink Blocks Used:-
PG – Pulse generator (time-based, amplitude 5, period 1/50 sec, pulse width 10%, phase delay 0 or
1/100)
IS, IL – Current Measurement
VL – Voltage Measurement
T1 to T4 – Thyristor
RL load – Series RLC branch
Vs – AC voltage source
THD – Total Harmonic Distortion`
Sl . No.
Firing angle in
Output Voltage
degrees(α)

R FIRING

RC FIRING

EXPERIMENT 9 (b)
AIM
Simulate a 3-phase thyristor bridge rectifier connected to R or RL load using a synchronized 6-
pulse generator for different values of firing angle.

Simulink blocks used :-


Va, Vb, Vc – AC voltage source (peak amplitude 100V, 50Hz, phase 0, -120, +120)
x = constant
degree – constant
Vab, Vbc, Vca – voltage measurement
synchronized 6-pulse generator (50Hz, 10% pulse width) Thyristor bridge – Universal
bridge (3 bridge arms)
R=10 – series RLC branch (L=0, C=inf)
ground
EXPERIMENT 10 (a)
AIM : Simulate a 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor supplied by a 3-phase P WM bridge
inverter. Observe the speed, torque, stator currents, and stator voltages. Find the THD of stator
current.

Simulink Blocks Used:-


600V – DC voltage source
PWM generator (3arm bridge – 6 pulses)
Machine measurements (asynchronous)
2200VA – Asynchronous machine (squirrel cage)
TL - constant
IGBT UB – universal bridge (3 arm)

SCI
800V M

IGBT
2200V
INVERT
A,
ER mod.
415V,
index =
50Hz
0.8
carrier
freq =
1080Hz
EXPERIMENT 10(b)
AIM : To control the speed of a 3-phase squirrel cage induction motor using stator voltage and
frequency control using sine PWM
Simulink Blocks Used:-
550V – DC voltage source
PWM generator (3arm bridge – 6 pulses) (5000Hz)
Machine measurements (asynchronous)
SCIM – Asynchronous machine (squirrel cage) Preset Model No. 15 (5kW, 400V, 50Hz, 1440rpm)
TL - constant
Inverter – universal bridge (3 arm)
sin_wt – Fcn
EXPERIMENT 11(a)
AIM : Design the values of filter inductance L and filter capacitance C of a buck converter with input
voltage Vs = 48V, average output voltage Vo = 12V and load resistance R = 10Ω. Switching frequency
is 40kHz. The peak to peak ripple inductance current is to be limited to 0.045A and peak to peak
ripple capacitor voltage is to be limited to 0.12V. Also, simulate the circuit.
PRINCIPLE :
DC-DC CONVERTERS :
DC-DC power converters are widely used in regulated switch-mode dc power supplies and dc motor
drive applications. The input to the DC-DC converter is an unregulated dc voltage Vs. The converter
produces a regulated output voltage Vo, having a magnitude that differs from Vs.
Different DC-DC converters are i) Step-down (buck) converter, ii) Step-up (boost) converter iii) Step-
down/step-up (buck-boost) converter iv) Cuk Converter and v) SEPIC (single-ended primary
inductance) converter.
BUCK CONVERTER : A buck converter produces a lower average output voltage Vo than the
dc input voltage Vs.
During the interval when the switch is ON, the diode becomes reverse biased and the input provides
energy to the load as well as to the inductor. During the interval when the switch is off, the inductor
current flows through the diode, transferring some of its stored energy to the load.
The filter capacitor at the output is assumed to be very large so that vo(t)
= Vo. DESIGN:

Duty ratio, D = Vo = 12 = 0.25


V 48
s

L = Vs D (1 − D) = 48 × 0 . 25 × (1 −0.25) = 5mH
f ×Δ I L 40 × 10 3 ×0.045
V D (1− D) 48× 0.25× (1 −0.25)
C= s2 = =1.17μF
8 f L ×Δ V 8 × (40× 103 )2 × 5 × 10−3 × 0.12
c

Simulink Blocks Used:-


R,L,C – series RLC branch
-5
PG – Pulse Generator (Amplitude 1, period 2.5x10 , pulse width 25%)
MOSFET, DIODE (from Simpower systems – Power Electronics)
48V - Dc voltage source
Voltage measurement, current measurement

EXPERIMENT 11 (b)
AIM : Design the values of filter inductance L and filter capacitance C of a boost converter with input
voltage Vs = 5V, average output voltage Vo = 15V and load resistance R = 30Ω. Switching frequency
is 25kHz. The peak to peak ripple inductance current is to be limited to 0.89A and peak to peak ripple
capacitor voltage is to be limited to 0.06V. Also, simulate the circuit.
PRINCIPLE:
BOOST CONVERTER : In Boost converters, the output voltage is always greater than the input voltage.
When the switch is ON, the diode is reverse biased, thus isolating the output voltage. The
input supplies energy to the inductor. When the switch is OFF, the output stage receives
energy from the inductor as well as from the input.

DESIGN:
V
s 5
Duty ratio, D = 1 − =1− = 0.6667
V 15
o
V
o 15
Io= = = 0.5A

R 30

Vs D 5 ×0.6667
L= = =150μH
f ×ΔI L 25 × 10 3 ×0.89

C= IoD = 0.5 ×0.6667 = 222μF


F ΔV 25× 103 ×0.06

Simulink Blocks Used:-


R,L,C – series RLC branch
-5
PG – Pulse Generator (Amplitude 1, period 4x10 , pulse width 66.67%)
MOSFET, DIODE (from Simpower systems – Power Electronics)
5V - Dc voltage source
Voltage measurement, current measurement
EXPERIMENT 11 (c)
AIM : Design the values of filter inductance L and filter capacitance C of a buck-boost
converter with input voltage Vs = 12V, average output voltage Vo = -4V and load resistance
R = 3.2Ω. Switching frequency is 25kHz. The peak to peak ripple inductance current is to
be limited to 0.8A and peak to peak ripple capacitor voltage is to be limited to 0.06V. Also,
simulate the circuit.
PRI
NCI
PLE
:
BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER : In buck-boost converters, the output voltage is either
higher or lower than the input voltage; but the polarity of the output voltage is reversed
with respect to the input voltage.
When the switch is ON, the diode is reverse biased and input provides energy to the
inductor. When the switch is OFF, the energy stored in the inductor is transferred to
the output. No energy is supplied by the input during this interval.
D
ES
IG
N:

Simulink Blocks
Used:- R,L,C –
series RLC
branch
-5
PG – Pulse Generator (Amplitude 1, period 4x10 , pulse width 25%)
MOSFET, DIODE (from Simpower systems – Power Electronics)
12V - Dc voltage source
Voltage measurement, current measurement

EXPERIMENT 12

AIM : To control the speed of a dc motor in closed loop using PID and hysteresis
controller using a step down chopper .

Simulink Blocks
Used:- L=10mH –
series RLC branch
DC Machine (preset
model 01)
GTO (from Simpower systems – Power Electronics)
12V - Dc voltage source
Voltage measurement, current measurement
Transfer Function
PI Controller (Kp=1.6,
Ki=16) Relay (Hysteresis
band 0.1 & -0.1) Bus
Selector
57