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SEMINAR REPORT ON WIDEBAND CODE-DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS(WCDMA) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION SUBMITTED TO:

SEMINAR REPORT ON

WIDEBAND CODE-DIVISION

MULTIPLE ACCESS(WCDMA)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION

SUBMITTED TO:

MRS. MEENAKSHI AWSATHI SR.ASSTT. PROFESSOR

SUBMITTED BY:

SABAL KUMAR EC-B(3RD YEAR)

CONTENT

INTRODUCTION :WCDMA BASICS OF WCDMA SPECIFICATIONS GENRATION OF WCDMA SPREADING PRINCIPLE CODES

POWER CONTROL

WCDMA HANDOVERS ADVANTAGES OF WCDMA CURRENT WCDMA MARKET

WCDMA

WCDMA: A high speed 3G mobile wireless technology with capacity to offer higher data rate than CDMA.

WCDMA has the capacity to easily handle bandwidth-intensive applications such as video, data, and image transmission necessary for mobile internet services.

WCDMA was adopted as a standard by the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT 2000) with the intention to create a

global standard for real time multimedia services and international

roaming.

WCDMA is direct spread technology, which means that it will spread its transmissions over a wide, 5MHz carrier.

WCDMA is the leading 3G wireless standard in the world today.

BASICS OF THE WCDMA

WCDMA users share same radio resources whereas TDMA or FDMA users have their own radio resources allocated.

User signals are differentiated based on codes.

whereas TDMA or FDMA users have their own radio resources allocated.  User signals are differentiated

GENERATION OF WCDMA

Channelization Scrambling code code Channel QPSK data Channel Chip rate Chip rate
Channelization
Scrambling
code
code
Channel
QPSK
data
Channel
Chip rate
Chip rate

bit rate

(always 3.84 Mchips/s)

Channelization Scrambling code code Channel QPSK data Channel Chip rate Chip rate bit rate (always 3.84

SPREADING PRINCIPLE

Direct Sequence Spreading - Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA)

Separates users through different codes

Codes are used for two purposes:

Differentiate channels/users

Spreading the data over the entire bandwidth

Code

t MS 1 MS 2 MS 3 f
t
MS 1
MS 2
MS 3
f
data over the entire bandwidth Code t MS 1 MS 2 MS 3 f 5 MHz

5 MHz

WCDMA (5 MHz)

IS-95 (1.25 MHz)

CDMA2000 (1.25, 3.75 MHz)

SPREADING CODES

Spreading code = Scrambling code + Channelization code

Scrambling codes

Separates different mobiles (in uplink) Separates different cells (in downlink)

Channelization codes

Separates different channels that are transmitted on the same scrambling

code Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes Period depends on data rate

CHANNELIZATION CODES

Channelization Codes have different length depending on the bit rate

In the Downlink, Channelization Codes are used to distinguish between data (and

control) channels coming from the same RBS

CC1, CC2
CC1, CC2
CC3, CC4 CC5, CC6, CC7
CC3, CC4
CC5, CC6, CC7

In the Uplink, Channelization Codes are used to distinguish between data (and control) channels from the same UE

CC1 , CC2, CC3
CC1 , CC2, CC3
CC1, CC2 CC1, CC2, CC3, CC4
CC1, CC2
CC1, CC2, CC3, CC4

SCRAMBLING CODES

After the Channelization Codes, the data stream is multiplied by a special code to distinguish between different transmitters.

Scrambling codes are not orthogonal so they do not need to be synchronized

The separation of scrambling codes is proportional to the code length longer codes, better separation (but not 100%)

Scrambling codes are 38400 chips long

SCRAMBLING CODES

In the Downlink, the Scrambling Codes are used to distinguish each cell (assigned by operator SC planning)

In the Uplink, the Scrambling Codes are used to distinguish each UE (assigned by network)

Cell “1” transmits using SC1

SC1 SC3
SC1
SC3
SC1 SC4
SC1
SC4

Cell “2” transmits using SC2

SC2 SC5
SC2
SC5
SC2 SC6
SC2
SC6

POWER CONTROL IN WCDMA

The purpose of power control (PC) is to ensure that each user receives and transmits just enough energy to prevent:

Blocking of distant users (near-far-effect)

Exceeding reasonable interference levels

UE1 UE2 UE3
UE1
UE2
UE3
UE1 UE2 Without PC received power levels would be unequal UE3
UE1
UE2
Without PC received
power levels would
be unequal
UE3
UE1 UE2 UE3 In theory with PC received power levels would be equal
UE1 UE2 UE3
In theory with PC
received power levels
would be equal

Power control can be divided into two parts:

Open loop power control (fast power control)

Used to compensate e.g. free-space loss in the beginning of the call

Based on distance attenuation

Closed loop power control (slow power control)

Used to eliminate the effect of fast fading

Applied 1500 times per second

Closed loop power control can also be divided into two parts:

Inner loop power control

Measures the signal levels and compares this to the target value and if the

value is higher than target then power is lowered otherwise power is increased

Outer loop power control

Adjusts the target value for inner loop power control

Can be used to control e.g. the Quality of Service (QOS)

Example of inner loop power control behavior:

With higher velocities channel fading is more rapid and 1500 Hz power control may

not be sufficient

control behavior:  With higher velocities channel fading is more rapid and 1500 Hz power control

WCDMA Handovers

WCDMA handovers can be categorized into three different types which support different handover modes

Intra-frequency handover

WCDMA handover within the same frequency and system. Soft, softer and hard handover supported

Inter-frequency handover

Handover between different frequencies but within the same system. Only hard handover supported

Inter-system handover

Handover to the another system, e.g. from WCDMA to GSM. Only hard handover supported

WCDMA Handovers

Soft handover Handover between different base stations Connected simultaneously to multiple base stations

The transition between them

should be seamless Downlink: Several Node BS transmit the same signal to the UE which combines the transmissions

Uplink: Several Node BS receive

the UE transmissions and it is required that only one of them receives the transmission correctly

and it is required that only one of them receives the transmission correctly UE: USER EQUIPMENT

UE: USER EQUIPMENT

BS:BASE STATION

WCDMA Handovers

Softer handover

Handover within the coverage

area of one base station but between different sectors

Procedure similar to soft handover

Hard handover

The source is released first and then new one is added

Short interruption time

SECTOR B

UE1 BS 2
UE1
BS 2

SECTOR A

CELLS

CURRENT WCDMA MARKETS

GSM+WCDMA share currently over 86%.

Around 260 WCDMA networks in over 105 countries.

CDMA share decreasing every year.

More than 340 million WCDMA subscriber.

WCDMA networks in over 105 countries.  CDMA share decreasing every year.  More than 340

WCDMA SPECIFICATIONS

CHANNAL BANDWIDH

:

5MHZ

DUPLEX MODE

:

FDD and TDD

CHIP RATE

:

3.84Mbps

FRAME LENTH

:

10ms

SPREADING MODULATION

BALANCED QPSK(DOWNLINK) DUAL CHANNEL QPSK(UPLINK)

DATA MODULATION

:

QPSK (DOWNLINK)

 

BPSK(UPLINK)

CHANNEL CODING

:

CONVOLUTIONAL and TURBO

COHERENT DETECTION

:

CODES USER DEDICATED TIME

HANDOVER

:

MULTIPLEXED PILOT SOFT HANDOVER and FREQUENCY HANDOVER

ADVANTAGES OF WCDMA

SERVICE FLEXIBILITY

SPECTRUM EFFICIENCY

CAPACITY AND COVERAGE

EVERRY CONNECTION CAN PROVIDE MULTIPLE SERVICE

NETWORK SCALE ECONOMICS

OUTSTANDING VOICE CAPABILITY