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Inequalities From 2007 Mathematical


Competition Over The World
???
Example 1 (Iran National Mathematical Olympiad 2007). Assume that a, b, c are three
different positive real numbers. Prove that

a + b b + c c + a

a − b b − c c − a > 1.
+ +

Example 2 (Iran National Mathematical Olympiad 2007). Find the largest real T such
that for each non-negative real numbers a, b, c, d, e such that a + b = c + d + e, then
p √ √ √ √ √
a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 + e2 ≥ T ( a + b + c + d + e)2 .

Example 3 (Middle European Mathematical Olympiad 2007). Let a, b, c, d be positive


real numbers with a + b + c + d = 4. Prove that

a2bc + b2cd + c2da + d2 ab ≤ 4.

Example 4 (Middle European Mathematical Olympiad 2007). Let a, b, c, d be real num-


1
bers which satisfy ≤ a, b, c, d ≤ 2 and abcd = 1. Find the maximum value of
2
    
1 1 1 1
a+ b+ c+ d+ .
b c d a

Example 5 (China Northern Mathematical Olympiad 2007). Let a, b, c be side lengths


of a triangle and a + b + c = 3. Find the minimum of
4abc
a2 + b2 + c2 + .
3
Example 6 (China Northern Mathematical Olympiad 2007). Let α, β be acute angles.
Find the maximum value of
√ 2
1 − tan α tan β
.
cot α + cot β
Example 7 (China Northern Mathematical Olympiad 2007). Let a, b, c be positive real
numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that
ak bk ck 3
+ + ≥ ,
a+b b+c c+a 2
for any positive integer k ≥ 2.
6 www.batdangthuc.net

Example 8 (Croatia Team Selection Test 2007). Let a, b, c > 0 such that a + b + c = 1.
Prove that
a2 b2 c2
+ + ≥ 3(a2 + b2 + c2).
b c a
Example 9 (Romania Junior Balkan Team Selection Tests 2007). Let a, b, c three pos-
itive reals such that
1 1 1
+ + ≥ 1.
a+b+1 b+c+1 c+a+1
Show that
a + b + c ≥ ab + bc + ca.

Example 10 (Romania Junior Balkan Team Selection Tests 2007). Let x, y, z ≥ 0 be


real numbers. Prove that
x3 + y 3 + z 3 3
≥ xyz + |(x − y)(y − z)(z − x)|.
3 4
Example 11 (Yugoslavia National Olympiad 2007). Let k be a given natural number.
Prove that for any positive numbers x, y, z with the sum 1 the following inequality holds

xk+2 yk+2 z k+2 1


+ k+1 + k+1 ≥ .
xk+1 k
+y +z k y k
+z +x k z + xk + y k 7
Example 12 (Cezar Lupu & Tudorel Lupu, Romania TST 2007). For n ∈ N, n ≥
P
n P
n Pn
2, ai, bi ∈ R, 1 ≤ i ≤ n, such that a2i = b2i = 1, i=1 aibi = 0. Prove that
i=1 i=1
!2 !2
X
n X
n
ai + bi ≤ n.
i=1 i=1

Example 13 (Macedonia Team Selection Test 2007). Let a, b, c be positive real numbers.
Prove that
3 6
1+ ≥ .
ab + bc + ca a+b+c
Example 14 (Italian National Olympiad 2007). a) For each n ≥ 2, find the maximum
constant cn such that
1 1 1
+ +...+ ≥ cn,
a1 + 1 a2 + 1 an + 1
for all positive reals a1 , a2, . . ., an such that a1 a2 · · · an = 1.
b) For each n ≥ 2, find the maximum constant dn such that
1 1 1
+ + ...+ ≥ dn
2a1 + 1 2a2 + 1 2an + 1
for all positive reals a1 , a2, . . ., an such that a1 a2 · · · an = 1.
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Example 15 (France Team Selection Test 2007). Let a, b, c, d be positive reals such taht
a + b + c + d = 1. Prove that
1
6(a3 + b3 + c3 + d3) ≥ a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 + .
8
Example 16 (Irish National Mathematical Olympiad 2007). Suppose a, b and c are
positive real numbers. Prove that
r  
a+b+c a2 + b2 + c2 1 ab bc ca
≤ ≤ + + .
3 3 3 c a b

For each of the inequalities, find conditions on a, b and c such that equality holds.

Example 17 (Vietnam Team Selection Test 2007). Given a triangle ABC. Find the
minimum of
cos2 A 2 B
2 cos 2 cos2 B2 cos2 C2 cos2 C2 cos2 A
2
C
+ A
+ .
cos2 2 cos2 2 cos2 B2

Example 18 (Greece National Olympiad 2007). Let a,b,c be sides of a triangle, show
that
(c + a − b)4 (a + b − c)4 (b + c − a)4
+ + ≥ ab + bc + ca.
a(a + b − c) b(b + c − a) c(c + a − b)
Example 19 (Bulgaria Team Selection Tests 2007). Let n ≥ 2 is positive integer. Find
the best constant C(n) such that
n
X X √
xi ≥ C(n) (2xi xj + xi xj )
i=1 1≤j<i≤n

1
is true for all real numbers xi ∈ (0, 1), i = 1, ..., n for which (1 − xi)(1 − xj ) ≥ , 1 ≤
4
j < i ≤ n.

Example 20 (Poland Second Round 2007). Let a, b, c, d be positive real numbers satisfying
the following condition:
1 1 1 1
+ + + = 4.
a b c d
Prove that:
r r r r
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
3 a + b 3 b + c 3 c + d 3 d + a
+ + + ≤ 2(a + b + c + d) − 4.
2 2 2 2
Example 21 (Turkey Team Selection Tests 2007). Let a, b, c be positive reals such that
their sum is 1. Prove that
1 1 1 1
2
+ 2
+ 2
≥ .
ab + 2c + 2c bc + 2a + 2a ac + 2b + 2b ab + bc + ac
8 www.batdangthuc.net

Example 22 (Moldova National Mathematical Olympiad 2007). Real numbers


1
a1 , a2, . . . , an satisfy ai ≥ , for all i = 1, n. Prove the inequality
i
   
1 1 2n
(a1 + 1) a2 + · · · · · an + ≥ (1 + a1 + 2a2 + · · · + nan ).
2 n (n + 1)!
Example 23 (Moldova Team Selection Test 2007). Let a1, a2, . . . , an ∈ [0, 1]. Denote
S = a31 + a32 + . . . + a3n , prove that
a1 a2 an 1
+ + ...+ ≤ .
2n + 1 + S − a31 2n + 1 + S − a32 2n + 1 + S − a3n 3
Example 24 (Peru Team Selection Test 2007). Let a, b, c be positive real numbers, such
that
1 1 1
a+b+c≥ + + .
a b c
Prove that
3 2
a+b+c ≥ + .
a + b + c abc
Example 25 (Peru Team Selection Test 2007). Let a, b and c be sides of a triangle. Prove
that √ √ √
b+c−a c+a−b a+b−c 0
√ √ √ +√ √ √ +√ √ √ ≤ 3.
b+ c− a c+ a− b a+ b− c
Example 26 (Romania Team Selection Tests 2007). If a1, a2, . . . , an ≥ 0 satisfy a21 +
· · · + a2n = 1, find the maximum value of the product (1 − a1) · · · (1 − an ).
Example 27 (Romania Team Selection Tests 2007). Prove that for n, p integers, n ≥ 4
and p ≥ 4, the proposition P(n, p)
Xn Xn n
X
1
p
≥ xi p for xi ∈ R, xi > 0, i = 1, . . ., n , xi = n,
i=1
x i i=1 i=1

is false.
Example 28 (Ukraine Mathematical Festival 2007). Let a, b, c be positive real numbers
and abc ≥ 1. Prove that
(a).    
1 1 1 27
a+ b+ c+ ≥ .
a+1 b+1 c+1 8
(b).

27(a3 +a2 +a+1)(b3 +b2 +b+1)(c3 +c2 +c+1) ≥≥ 64(a2 +a+1)(b2 +b+1)(c2 +c+1).

Example 29 (Asian Pacific Mathematical Olympiad 2007). Let x, y and z be positive


√ √ √
real numbers such that x + y + z = 1. Prove that
x2 + yz y2 + zx z 2 + xy
p +p +p ≥ 1.
2x2(y + z) 2y2 (z + x) 2z 2(x + y)
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Example 30 (Brazilian Olympiad Revenge 2007). Let a, b, c ∈ R with abc = 1. Prove


that
   
1 1 1 1 1 1 b c a c c b
a2 +b2 +c2+ 2 + 2 + 2 +2 a + b + c + + + ≥ 6+2 + + + + + .
a b c a b c a b c a b c

Example 31 (India National Mathematical Olympiad 2007). If x, y, z are positive real


numbers, prove that

(x + y + z)2 (yz + zx + xy)2 ≤ 3(y2 + yz + z 2 )(z 2 + zx + x2)(x2 + xy + y2 ).

Example 32 (British National Mathematical Olympiad 2007). Show that for all positive
reals a, b, c,

(a2 + b2)2 ≥ (a + b + c)(a + b − c)(b + c − a)(c + a − b).

Example 33 (Korean National Mathematical Olympiad 2007). For all positive reals
a, b, and c, what is the value of positive constant k satisfies the following inequality?
a b c 1
+ + ≥ .
c + kb a + kc b + ka 2007
Example 34 (Hungary-Isarel National Mathematical Olympiad 2007). Let a, b, c, d be
real numbers, such that

a2 ≤ 1, a2 + b2 ≤ 5, a2 + b2 + c2 ≤ 14, a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ≤ 30.

Prove that a + b + c + d ≤ 10.


Chapter 1

Problems

Pro 1. (Vietnamese National Olympiad 2008) Let x, y, z be distinct


non-negative real numbers. Prove that
1 1 1 4
2
+ 2
+ 2
≥ .
(x − y) (y − z) (z − x) xy + yz + zx

Pro 2. (Iranian National Olympiad (3rd Round) 2008). Find the


smallest real K such that for each x, y, z ∈ R+ :
√ √ √ p
x y + y z + z x ≤ K (x + y)(y + z)(z + x)

Pro 3. (Iranian National Olympiad (3rd Round) 2008). Let x, y, z ∈


R+ and x + y + z = 3. Prove that:

x3 y3 z3 1 2
3
+ 3
+ 3
≥ + (xy + xz + yz)
y +8 z +8 x +8 9 27

Pro 4. (Iran TST 2008.) Let a, b, c > 0 and ab + ac + bc = 1. Prove that:


√ √ √ √
a3 + a + b 3 + b + c 3 + c ≥ 2 a + b + c

4
Inequalities from 2008 Mathematical Competition ?????

Pro 5. (Macedonian Mathematical Olympiad 2008.) Positive num-


bers a, b, c are such that (a + b) (b + c) (c + a) = 8. Prove the inequality
r
a+b+c 3 3 3
27 a + b + c

3 3

Pro 6. (Mongolian TST 2008) Find the maximum number C such that
for any nonnegative x, y, z the inequality
x3 + y 3 + z 3 + C(xy 2 + yz 2 + zx2 ) ≥ (C + 1)(x2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x).
holds.

Pro 7. (Federation of Bosnia, 1. Grades 2008.) For arbitrary reals
x, y and z prove the following inequality:

2 2 2 3(x − y)2 3(y − z)2 3(y − z)2


x + y + z − xy − yz − zx ≥ max{ , , }.
4 4 4

Pro 8. (Federation of Bosnia, 1. Grades 2008.) If a, b and c are
positive reals such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 1 prove the inequality:
a5 + b 5 b5 + c 5 c 5 + a5
+ + ≥ 3(ab + bc + ca) − 2
ab(a + b) bc(b + c) ca(a + b)

Pro 9. (Federation of Bosnia, 1. Grades 2008.) If a, b and c are
positive reals prove inequality:
4a 4b 4c
(1 + )(1 + )(1 + ) > 25
b+c a+c a+b

Pro 10. (Croatian Team Selection Test 2008) Let x, y, z be positive
numbers. Find the minimum value of:
x2 + y 2 + z 2
(a)
xy + yz
x2 + y 2 + 2z 2
(b)
xy + yz
Inequalities from 2008 Mathematical Competition ?????

Pro 11. (Moldova 2008 IMO-BMO Second TST Problem 2) Let


a1 , . . . , an be positive reals so that a1 + a2 + . . . + an ≤ n2 . Find the minimal
value of s s s
1 1 1
A = a21 + 2 + a22 + 2 + . . . + a2n +
a2 a3 a21

Pro 12. (RMO 2008, Grade 8, Problem 3) Let a, b ∈ [0, 1]. Prove that

1 a + b ab
≤1− + .
1+a+b 2 3

Pro 13. (Romanian TST 2 2008, Problem 1) Let n ≥ 3 be an odd


integer. Determine the maximum value of
p p p p
|x1 − x2 | + |x2 − x3 | + . . . + |xn−1 − xn | + |xn − x1 |,

where xi are positive real numbers from the interval [0, 1]

Pro 14. (Romania Junior TST Day 3 Problem 2 2008) Let a, b, c


be positive reals with ab + bc + ca = 3. Prove that:
1 1 1 1
+ + ≤ .
1+ a2 (b + c) 1+ b2 (a + c) 1+ c2 (b + a) abc

Pro 15. (Romanian Junior TST Day 4 Problem 4 2008) Determine


the maximum possible real value of the number k, such that
 
1 1 1
(a + b + c) + + −k ≥k
a+b c+b a+c

for all real numbers a, b, c ≥ 0 with a + b + c = ab + bc + ca.


Inequalities from 2008 Mathematical Competition ?????

Pro 16. (Serbian National Olympiad 2008) Let a, b, c be positive real


numbers such that x + y + z = 1. Prove inequality:
1 1 1 27
1 + 1 + 1 ≤ .
yz + x + x
xz + y + y
xy + z + z
31

Pro 17. (Canadian Mathematical Olympiad 2008) Let a, b, c be


positive real numbers for which a + b + c = 1. Prove that
a − bc b − ca c − ab 3
+ + ≤ .
a + bc b + ca c + ab 2

Pro 18. (German DEMO 2008) Find the smallest constant C such that
for all real x, y
1 + (x + y)2 ≤ C · (1 + x2 ) · (1 + y 2 )
holds.

Pro 19. (Irish Mathematical Olympiad 2008) For positive real num-
bers a, b, c and d such that a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = 1 prove that

a2 b2 cd + +ab2 c2 d + abc2 d2 + a2 bcd2 + a2 bc2 d + ab2 cd2 ≤ 3/32,

and determine the cases of equality.

Pro 20. (Greek national mathematical olympiad 2008, P1) For the
positive integers a1 , a2 , ..., an prove that
 Pn 2  knt n
i=1 ai Y
Pn ≥ ai
i=1 ai i=1

where k = max {a1 , a2 , ..., an } and t = min {a1 , a2 , ..., an }. When does the
equality hold?


Inequalities from 2008 Mathematical Competition ?????

Pro 21. (Greek national mathematical olympiad 2008, P2)


If x, y, z are positive real numbers with x, y, z < 2 and x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 3 prove
that
3 1 + y 2 1 + z 2 1 + x2
< + + <3
2 x+2 y+2 z+2

Pro 22. (Moldova National Olympiad 2008) Positive real numbers


a, b, c satisfy inequality a + b + c ≤ 32 . Find the smallest possible value for:

1
S = abc +
abc

Pro 23. (British MO 2008) Find the minimum of x2 + y 2 + z 2 where


x, y, z ∈ R and satisfy x3 + y 3 + z 3 − 3xyz = 1

Pro 24. (Zhautykov Olympiad, Kazakhstan 2008, Question 6) Let


a, b, c be positive integers for which abc = 1. Prove that
X 1 3
≥ .
b(a + b) 2

Pro 25. (Ukraine National Olympiad 2008, P1) Let x, y and z are
non-negative numbers such that x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 3. Prove that:
x y z √
p +p +p ≤ 3
x2 + y + z x + y2 + z x + y + z2

Pro 26. (Ukraine National Olympiad 2008, P2) For positive a, b, c, d


prove that

4
(a + b)(b + c)(c + d)(d + a)(1 + abcd)4 ≥ 16abcd(1 + a)(1 + b)(1 + c)(1 + d)


Inequalities from 2008 Mathematical Competition ?????

Pro 27. (Polish MO 2008, Pro 5) Show that for all nonnegative real
values an inequality occurs:
√ √ √
4( a3 b3 + b3 c3 + c3 a3 ) ≤ 4c3 + (a + b)3 .

Pro 28. (Chinese TST 2008 P5) For two given positive integers m, n >
1, let aij (i = 1, 2, · · · , n, j = 1, 2, · · · , m) be nonnegative real numbers, not
all zero, find the maximum and the minimum values of f , where

n ni=1 ( m
P P 2
Pm Pn 2
j=1 aij ) + m j=1 ( i=1 aij )
f = Pn Pm
( i=1 j=1 aij )2 + mn ni=1 m 2
P P
i=j aij

Pro 29. (Chinese TST 2008 P6) Find the maximal constant M , such
that for arbitrary integer n ≥ 3, there exist two sequences of positive real
Pn a1 , a2 , · · · , an , and b1 , b2 , · · · , bn , satisfying
number
(1): k=1 bk = 1, 2bk ≥ bk−1 + bk+1 , k = 2, 3, · · · , n − 1;
(2):a2k ≤ 1 + ki=1 ai bi , k = 1, 2, 3, · · · , n, an ≡ M .
P
Weird Inequalities
Black Lecture, June 29

1. (IMO 2003/05) Let x1 ≤ x2 ≤ · · · ≤ xn be real numbers. Prove that


n n
X 2 2 2 X
|xi − xj | ≤ (n − 1) (xi − xj )2
i,j=1
3 i,j=1

and determine when equality occurs.


2. (IMO 1999/2) Let n ≥ 2 be a fixed integer. Find the smallest constant C such that for all non-negative
reals x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ,
X n
X 4
xi xj (x2i + x2j ) ≤ C xi .
1≤i<j≤n i=1

3. (Russia 2004) Let n > 3 be an integer and let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be positive reals with product 1. Prove
that
1 1 1
+ +···+ > 1.
1 + x 1 + x 1 x2 1 + x 2 + x 2 x3 1 + x n + x n x1
4. (Romania 2004) Let n ≥ 2 be an integer and let a1 , a2 , . . . , an be real numbers. Prove that for any
non-empty subset S ⊂ {1, 2, 3, . . . , n}, we have
X 2 X
ai ≤ (ai + · · · + aj )2 .
i∈S 1≤i≤j≤n

5. (Romania 1996) Let x1 , . . . , xn+1 be positive real numbers such that x1 + · · · + xn = xn+1 . Prove that
v
Xn p u n
uX
xi (xn+1 − xi ) ≤ t xn+1 (xn+1 − xi ).
i=1 i=1

6. (IMO 2001 short list) Let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be arbitrary real numbers. Prove the inequality
x1 x2 xn √
2 + 2 2 +··· + 2 2
< n.
1 + x1 1 + x 1 + x2 1 + x1 + · · · + xn
Pn Pn 1
7. Let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be positive real numbers with i=1 xi = i=1 xi . Prove that
n
X 1
≤ 1.
i=1
n − 1 + xi

8. (IMO 2004 short list) Let n be a positive integer and let (x1 , . . . , xn ) and (y1 , . . . , yn ) be two sequences of
2
positive real numbers. Suppose (z2 , . . . , z2n ) is a sequence of positive real numbers such that zi+j ≥ xi yj
for all 1 ≤ i, j ≤ n. Let M = max{z2 , . . . , z2n }. Prove that
 M + z + · · · + z 2  x + · · · + x  y + · · · + y 
2 2n 1 n 1 n
≥ .
2n n n

1
7. Let n > 1 be a positive integer and a1 , a2 , . . . , an positive reals such that a1 a2 . . . an = 1.
Show that
1 1 a1 + · · · + an + n
+ ··· + ≤
1 + a1 1 + an 4
8. (Aaron Pixton) Let a, b, c be positive reals with product 1. Show that
a b c
5+ + + ≥ (1 + a)(1 + b)(1 + c)
b c a

9. (Valentin Vornicu13 ) Let a, b, c, x, y, z be arbitrary reals such that a ≥ b ≥ c and either


x ≥ y ≥ z or x ≤ y ≤ z. Let f : R → R+ 0 be either monotonic or convex, and let k be
a positive integer. Prove that

f (x)(a − b)k (a − c)k + f (y)(b − c)k (b − a)k + f (z)(c − a)k (c − b)k ≥ 0

10. (IMO 01/2) Let a, b, c be positive reals. Prove that


a b c
√ +√ +√ ≥1
a2 + 8bc 2
b + 8ca 2
c + 8ab

11. (Vasile Cirtoaje) Show that for positive reals a, b, c,


a3 b3 c3 1
2 2 2 2
+ 2 2 2 2
+ 2 2 2 2

(2a + b )(2a + c ) (2b + c )(2b + a ) (2c + a )(2c + b ) a+b+c

12. (USAMO 04/5) Let a, b, c be positive reals. Prove that


¡ 5 ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢
a − a2 + 3 b5 − b2 + 3 c5 − c2 + 3 ≥ (a + b + c)3

13. (Titu Andreescu) Show that for all nonzero reals a, b, c,


a2 b2 c2 a c b
2
+ 2+ 2 ≥ + +
b c a c b a

14. (Darij Grinberg) Show that for positive reals a, b, c,


b2 + c2 − a2 c2 + a2 − b2 a2 + b2 − c2 3
+ + ≥
a(b + c) b(c + a) c(a + b) 2

15. (IMO 96 Shortlist) Let a, b, c be positive reals with abc = 1. Show that
ab bc ca
+ 5 + 5 ≤1
a5 + b + ab b + c + bc c + a5 + ca
5 5

13
This improvement is more widely known than the other one in this packet, and is published in his book,
Olimpiada de Matematica... de la provocare la experienta, GIL Publishing House, Zalau, Romania. (In
English, “The Math Olympiad... from challenge to experience.”)

41
16. Let a, b, c be positive reals such that a + b + c = 1. Prove that
√ √ √ √ √ √
ab + c + bc + a + ca + b ≥ 1 + ab + bc + ca

17. (IMO 00/2) Positive reals a, b, c have product 1. Prove that


µ ¶µ ¶µ ¶
1 1 1
a−1+ b−1+ c−1+ ≤1
b c a

18. (APMO 2005/2) Let a, b, c be positive reals with abc = 8. Prove that

a2 b2 c2 4
p +p +p ≥
(a3 + 1) (b3 + 1) (b3 + 1) (c3 + 1) (c3 + 1) (a3 + 1) 3

19. Show that for all positive reals a, b, c,

a3 b3 c3
+ + ≥a+b+c
b2 − bc + c2 c2 − ca + a2 a2 − ab + b2

20. (USAMO 97/5) Prove that for all positive reals a, b, c,


1 1 1 1
+ + ≤
a3 + b3 + abc b3 + c3 + abc c3 + a3 + abc abc

21. (Moldova 1999) Show that for all positive reals a, b, c,

ab bc ca a b c
+ + ≥ + +
c(c + a) a(a + b) b(b + c) c+a a+b b+c

22. (Tuymaada 2000) Prove that for all reals 0 < x1 , . . . , xn ≤ 21 ,


µ ¶n Yn µ ¶
n 1
−1 ≤ −1
x1 + · · · + xn i=1
x i

23. (Mathlinks Lore) Show that for all positive reals a, b, c, d with abcd = 1, and k ≥ 2,
1 1 1 1
k
+ k
+ k
+ ≥ 22−k
(1 + a) (1 + b) (1 + c) (1 + d)k

24. (Tiks) Show that for all reals a, b, c > 0,

a2 b2 c2 1
+ + ≤
2a + b)(2a + c) (2b + c)(2b + a) (2c + a)(2c + b) 3

42
25. (Hyun Soo Kim) Let a, b, c be positive reals with product not less than one. Prove that
1 1 1
+ + ≤1
a + b2005 + c2005 b + c2005 + a2005 c + a2005 + b2005

26. (IMO 05/3) Prove that for all positive a, b, c with product at least 1,

a5 − a2 b5 − b2 c5 − c2
+ + ≥0
a5 + b2 + c2 b5 + c2 + a2 c5 + a2 + b2

27. (Mildorf) Let a, b, c, k be positive reals. Determine a simple, necessary and sufficient
condition for the following inequality to hold:
¡ ¢
(a + b + c)k ak bk + bk ck + ck ak ≤ (ab + bc + ca)k (ak + bk + ck )

28. Let a, b, c be reals with a + b + c = 1 and a, b, c ≥ − 34 . Prove that

a b c 9
+ 2 + 2 ≤
a2 +1 b +1 c +1 10

29. (Mildorf) Show that for all positive reals a, b, c,



3

3

3 4a2 4b2 4c2
4a3 + 4b3 + 4b3 + 4c3 + 4c3 + 4a3 ≤ + +
a+b b+c c+a

30. Let a, b, c, x, y, z be real numbers such that

(a + b + c)(x + y + z) = 3, (a2 + b2 + c2 )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) = 4

Prove that
ax + by + cz ≥ 0

31. (Po-Ru Loh) Let a, b, c be reals with a, b, c > 1 such that


1 1 1
+ 2 + 2 =1
a2 −1 b −1 c −1
Prove that
1 1 1
+ + ≤1
a+1 b+1 c+1
32. (Weighao Wu) Prove that
(sin x)sin x < (cos x)cos x
for all real numbers 0 < x < π4 .

43
33. (Michael Rozenberg) Show that for all positive reals a, b, c,
a2 b2 c2 3 a3 + b3 + c3
+ + ≥ · 2
b+c c+a a+b 2 a + b2 + c2

34. (Hungktn) Prove that for all positive reals a, b, c,


a2 + b2 + c2 8abc
+ ≥2
ab + bc + ca (a + b)(b + c)(c + a)

35. (Mock IMO 05/2) Let a, b, c be positive reals. Show that



a b c 3 2
1< √ +√ +√ ≤
a 2 + b2 b2 + c2 c2 + a2 2

36. (Gabriel Dospinescu) Let n ≥ 2 be a positive integer. Show that for all positive reals
a1 , a2 , . . . , an with a1 a2 . . . an = 1,
r r
a21 + 1 a2n + 1
+ ··· + ≤ a1 + · · · + an
2 2

37. Let n ≥ 2 be a positive integer, and let k ≥ n−1 n


be a real number. Show that for all
positive reals a1 , a2 , . . . , an ,
µ ¶k µ ¶k µ ¶k
(n − 1)a1 (n − 1)a2 (n − 1)an
+ + ··· + ≥n
a2 + · · · + an a3 + · · · + an + a1 a1 + · · · + an−1

38. Show that for reals x, y, z which are not all positive,
16 ¡ 2 ¢¡ ¢¡ ¢
x − x + 1 y 2 − y + 1 z 2 − z + 1 ≥ (xyz)2 − xyz + 1
9

39. (Mildorf) Let a, b, c be arbitrary reals such that a ≥ b ≥ c, and let x, y, z be nonnegative
reals with x + z ≥ y. Prove that

x2 (a − b)(a − c) + y 2 (b − c)(b − a) + z 2 (c − a)(c − b) ≥ 0

and determine where equality holds.


40. (IMO 06/3) Determine the least real number M such that for all reals a, b, c,
¯ 3 ¯ ¡ ¢
¯a b + b3 c + c3 a − a3 c − b3 a − c3 b¯ ≤ M · a2 + b2 + c2 2

41. (Kiran Kedlaya) Show that for all nonnegative a1 , a2 , . . . , an ,


√ √ r
a1 + a1 a2 + · · · + n a1 · · · an a1 + a2 a1 + · · · + an
≤ n a1 · ···
n 2 n

44
42. (Vasile Cirtoaje) Prove that for all positive reals a, b, c such that a + b + c = 3,
a b c 3
+ + ≥
ab + 1 bc + 1 ca + 1 2

43. (Gabriel Dospinescu) Prove that ∀a, b, c, x, y, z ∈ R+ | xy + yz + zx = 3,


a(y + z) b(z + x) c(x + y)
+ + ≥3
b+c c+a a+b

44. (Mildorf) Let a, b, c be non-negative reals. Show that for all real k,
X max(ak , bk )(a − b)2 X X min(ak , bk )(a − b)2
≥ ak (a − b)(a − c) ≥
cyc
2 cyc cyc
2

(where a, b, c 6= 0 if k ≤ 0) and determine where equality holds for k > 0, k = 0, and


k < 0 respectively.
45. (Vasile Cirtoaje) Let a, b, c, k be positive reals. Prove that
ab + (k − 3)bc + ca bc + (k − 3)ca + ab ca + (k − 3)ab + bc 3(k − 1)
+ + ≥
(b − c)2 + kbc (c − a)2 + kca (a − b)2 + kab k

46. (Darij Grinberg and Vascile Cirtoaje) Show that for positive reals a, b, c, d,
1 1 1 1 2
+ 2 + 2 + 2 ≥√
a2 + ab b + bc c + cd d + da abcd

47. (Vasile Cirtoaje; inspired by the next problem) Show the for all positive reals a, b, c,
3a2 + ab 3b2 + bc 3c2 + ca
+ + ≥3
(a + b)2 (b + c)2 (c + a)2

48. (Vasile Cirtoaje; inspired by the next problem) Show that for all positive reals a, b, c,
3a2 − 2ab − b2 3b2 − 2bc − c2 3c2 − 2ca − a2
+ + ≥0
a2 + b2 b2 + c2 c2 + a2

49. (Mildorf) Show that for all positive reals a, b, c,


3a2 − 2ab − b2 3b2 − 2bc − c2 3c2 − 2ca − a2
+ + ≥0
3a2 + 2ab + 3b2 3b2 + 2bc + 3c2 3c2 + 2ca + 3a2

50. (Vasile Cirtoaje) Show that for real numbers a, b, c,


à !à ! à !2
X X X X X X
2 2 4 2 2 3
4 a b − abc a a − a b ≥3 a b − abc a
cyc cyc cyc cyc cyc cyc

45
Chapter 1

Warm-up problem set

1.1 Applications
1. Let a, b, c, d be real numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = 4. Prove that

a3 + b3 + c3 + d3 ≤ 8.

2. If a, b, c are non-negative numbers, then


3
b+c
a3 + b3 + c3 − 3abc ≥ 2 −a .
2
3. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that

a+b+c 5 a2 + b2 + c2
≥ .
3 3
4. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that a3 + b3 + c3 = 3. Prove that

a4 b4 + b4 c4 + c4 a4 ≤ 3.

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-A, 1, 2003)

5. If a, b, c are non-negative numbers, then

a2 + b2 + c2 + 2abc + 1 ≥ 2(ab + bc + ca).

(Darij Grinberg, MS, 2004)

6. If a, b, c are distinct real numbers, then


a2 b2 c2
+ + ≥ 2.
(b − c)2 (c − a)2 (a − b)2

5
6 1. Warm-up problem set

7. If a, b, c are non-negative numbers, then


√ √ √
(a2 − bc) b + c + (b2 − ca) c + a + (c2 − ab) a + b ≥ 0.

8. If a, b, c, d are non-negative real numbers, then

a−b b−c c−d d−a


+ + + ≥ 0.
a + 2b + c b + 2c + d c + 2d + a d + 2a + b

9. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that

a2 + b2 + c2 = a + b + c.

Prove that
a2 b2 + b2 c2 + c2 a2 ≤ ab + bc + ca.

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2006)

10. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of them are zero. Then,

a2 b2 c2
+ + ≥ 1.
a2 + ab + b2 b2 + bc + c2 c2 + ca + a2

11. If a, b, c are non-negative numbers, then

a3 b3 c3
+ + ≥ 1.
a3 + (b + c)3 b3 + (c + a)3 c3 + (a + b)3

12. Let a, b, c be positive numbers and let

E(a, b, c) = a(a − b)(a − c) + b(b − c)(b − a) + c(c − a)(c − b).

Prove that:
a) (a + b + c)E(a, b, c) ≥ ab(a − b)2 + bc(b − c)2 + ca(c − a)2 ;
1 1 1
b) 2 + + E(a, b, c) ≥ (a − b)2 + (b − c)2 + (c − a)2 .
a b c
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

13. Let a, b, c and x, y, z be real numbers such that a + x ≥ b + y ≥ c + z ≥ 0


and a + b + c = x + y + z. Prove that

ay + bx ≥ ac + xz.
1.1. Applications 7

1
14. Let a, b, c ∈ , 3 . Prove that
3
a b c 7
+ + ≥ .
a+b b+c c+a 5
15. Let a, b, c and x, y, z be non-negative numbers such that

a + b + c = x + y + z.

Prove that

ax(a + x) + by(b + y) + cz(c + z) ≥ 3(abc + xyz).

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

16. If a, b, c are non-negative numbers, then

4(a + b + c)3 ≥ 27(ab2 + bc2 + ca2 + abc).

17. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that a + b + c = 3. Prove that


1 1 1
+ + ≥ 1.
2ab2 +1 2bc2 +1 2ca2 +1
18. If a, b, c, d are positive numbers, then
1 1 1 1 4
+ 2 + 2 + 2 ≥ .
a2 + ab b + bc c + cd d + da ac + bd

1 √
19. If a, b, c ∈ √ , 2 , then
2
3 3 3 2 2 2
+ + ≥ + + .
a + 2b b + 2c c + 2a a+b b+c c+a
20. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that ab + bc + ca = 3. Prove
that
1 1 1
2
+ 2 + 2 ≤ 1.
a +2 b +2 c +2
21. Let a, b, c be non-negative real numbers such that ab+bc+ca = 3. Prove
that
1 1 1 3
2
+ 2 + 2 ≥ .
a +1 b +1 c +1 2
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)
8 1. Warm-up problem set

22. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 3. Prove


that
a b c
+ + ≤ 1.
b+2 c+2 a+2
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

23. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that


a−1 b−1 c−1
a) + + ≥ 0;
b c a
a−1 b−1 c−1
b) + + ≥ 0.
b+c c+a a+b

24. Let a, b, c, d be non-negative numbers such that a2 −ab+b2 = c2 −cd+d2 .


Prove that
(a + b)(c + d) ≥ 2(ab + cd).

25. Let a1 , a2 , . . . , an be positive numbers such that a1 a2 . . . an = 1. Prove


that
1 1 1
+ + ··· + ≥ 1.
1 + (n − 1)a1 1 + (n − 1)a2 1 + (n − 1)an
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 10, 1991)

26. Let a, b, c, d be non-negative real numbers such that a2 +b2 +c2 +d2 = 1.
Prove that
(1 − a)(1 − b)(1 − c)(1 − d) ≥ abcd.

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 9-10, 2001)

27. If a, b, c are positive real numbers, then

2a 2b 2c
+ + ≤ 3.
a+b b+c c+a

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 7-8, 1992)

28. If a, b, c, d are positive real numbers, then

2 2 2 2
a b c d
+ + + ≥ 1.
a+b b+c c+d d+a

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 6, 1995)


1.1. Applications 9

1 1 1
29. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that a + b + c = + + . If
a b c
a ≤ b ≤ c, then
ab2 c3 ≥ 1.

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 11, 1998)

30. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of them are zero. Then

a2 b2 c2 a b c
2 2
+ 2 2
+ 2 2
≥ + + .
b +c c +a a +b b+c c+a a+b
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 10, 2002)

31. If a, b, c are non-negative numbers, then

2(a2 + 1)(b2 + 1)(c2 + 1) ≥ (a + 1)(b + 1)(c + 1)(abc + 1).

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-A, 2, 2001)

32. If a, b, c are non-negative numbers, then

3(1 − a + a2 )(1 − b + b2 )(1 − c + c2 ) ≥ 1 + abc + a2 b2 c2 .

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, Mircea Lascu, RMT, 1-2, 1989)

33. If a, b, c, d are non-negative numbers, then


2
1 + abcd
(1 − a + a2 )(1 − b + b2 )(1 − c + c2 )(1 − d + d2 ) ≥ .
2

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 1, 1992)

34. If a, b, c are non-negative numbers, then

(a2 + ab + b2 )(b2 + bc + c2 )(c2 + ca + a2 ) ≥ (ab + bc + ca)3 .

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, Mircea Lascu, ONI, 1995)

35. Let a, b, c, d be positive numbers such that abcd = 1. Prove that

1 1 1 1
+ + + ≤ 1.
1 + ab + bc + ca 1 + bc + cd + db 1 + cd + da + ac 1 + da + ab + bd
10 1. Warm-up problem set

36. If a, b, c and x, y, z are real numbers, then

4(a2 + x2 )(b2 + y 2 )(c2 + z 2 ) ≥ 3(bcx + cay + abz)2 .

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2004)

37. If a ≥ b ≥ c ≥ d ≥ e, then

(a + b + c + d + e)2 ≥ 8(ac + bd + ce).

For e ≥ 0, determine when equality occurs.


(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

38. If a, b, c, d are real numbers, then

6(a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 ) + (a + b + c + d)2 ≥ 12(ab + bc + cd).

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

39. If a, b, c are positive numbers, then

1 1 1 1 1 1
(a + b + c) + + ≥1+ 1+ (a2 + b2 + c2 ) 2
+ 2+ 2 .
a b c a b c

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 11, 2002)

40. If a, b, c, d are positive numbers, then

1 1 1 1 1 1
5+ 2(a2 + b2 + c2 ) 2
+ 2 + 2 − 2 ≥ (a + b + c) + + .
a b c a b c
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 5, 2004)

41. If a, b, c, d are positive numbers, then

a−b b−c c−d d−a


+ + + ≥ 0.
b+c c+d d+a a+b
42. If a, b, c > −1, then

1 + a2 1 + b2 1 + c2
2
+ 2
+ ≥ 2.
1+b+c 1+c+a 1+a+b
(Laurenţiu Panaitopol, Junior BMO, 2003)
1.1. Applications 11

43. Let a, b, c and x, y, z be positive real numbers such that

(a + b + c)(x + y + z) = (a2 + b2 + c2 )(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) = 4.

Prove that
1
abcxyz < .
36
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, Mircea Lascu, ONI, 1996)

44. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 3. Prove that

a2 + b2 b2 + c2 c2 + a2
+ + ≥ 3.
a+b b+c c+a
(Cezar Lupu, MS, 2005)

45. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Prove


that
1 1 1 3
+ + ≥ .
a2 + bc b2 + ca c2 + ab ab + bc + ca
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

46. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Prove


that
1 1 1 3
+ 2 + 2 ≥ .
b2 − bc + c2 c − ca + a2 a − ab + b 2 ab + bc + ca
47. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that a + b + c = 3. Prove that
12
abc + ≥ 5.
ab + bc + ca

48. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 3. Prove


that
12 + 9abc ≥ 7(ab + bc + ca).

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

49. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that ab + bc + ca = 3. Prove


that
a3 + b3 + c3 + 7abc ≥ 10.

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)


12 1. Warm-up problem set

50. If a, b, c are positive numbers such that abc = 1, then

(a + b)(b + c)(c + a) + 7 ≥ 5(a + b + c).

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

51. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Prove


that
a3 b3 c3 1
2 2 2 2
+ 2 2 2 2
+ 2 2 2 2
≤ .
(2a +b )(2a +c ) (2b +c )(2b +a ) (2c +a )(2c +b ) a+b+c
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

52. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that a + b + c ≥ 3. Prove that


1 1 1
+ + ≤ 1.
a2 + b + c a + b + c a + b + c2
2

53. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that ab + bc + ca = 3. If r ≥ 1,


then
1 1 1 3
2 2
+ 2 2
+ 2 2
≤ .
r+a +b r+b +c r+c +a r+2
(Pham Van Thuan, MS, 2005)

54. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that


1 1 1 5
+ + + ≥ 1.
(1 + a)3 (1 + b)3 (1 + c)3 (1 + a)(1 + b)(1 + c)
(Pham Kim Hung, MS, 2006)

55. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that


2 1 3
+ ≥ .
a+b+c 3 ab + bc + ca
56. If a, b, c are real numbers, then

2(1 + abc) + 2(1 + a2 )(1 + b2 )(1 + c2 ) ≥ (1 + a)(1 + b)(1 + c).

(Wolfgang Berndt, MS, 2006)

57. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Prove


that
a(b + c) b(c + a) c(a + b)
+ 2 + 2 ≥ 2.
a2 + bc b + ca c + ab
(Pham Kim Hung, MS, 2006)
1.1. Applications 13

58. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Prove


that
a(b + c) b(c + a) c(a + b)
2
+ 2
+ ≥ 2.
a + bc b + ca c2 + ab
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2006)

59. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Prove


that
1 1 1 a b c
+ + ≥ 2 + 2 + 2 .
b+c c+a a+b a + bc b + ca c + ab
60. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Prove
that
1 1 1 2a 2b 2c
+ + ≥ 2 + 2 + 2 .
b+c c+a a+b 3a + bc 3b + ca 3c + ab
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

61. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 3. Prove that

3
5(a + b + c) + ≥ 18.
abc
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

62. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that a + b + c = 3. Prove that

1 1 1 3
+ + ≤ .
6 − ab 6 − bc 6 − ca 5
63. Let n ≥ 4 and let a1 , a2 , . . . , an be real numbers such that

a1 + a2 + · · · + an ≥ n and a21 + a22 + · · · + a2n ≥ n2 .

Prove that
max{a1 , a2 , . . . , an } ≥ 2.
(Titu Andreescu, USAMO, 1999)

64. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Prove


that
a b c 13 2(ab + bc + ca)
+ + ≥ − .
b+c c+a a+b 6 3(a2 + b2 + c2 )
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2006)
14 1. Warm-up problem set

65. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Prove


that
a2 (b + c) b2 (c + a) c2 (a + b)
+ 2 + 2 ≥ a + b + c.
b2 + c2 c + a2 a + b2
(Darij Grinberg, MS, 2004)

66. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that

(a + b)(b + c)(c + a) = 2.

Prove that
(a2 + bc)(b2 + ca)(c2 + ab) ≤ 1.
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)
Chapter 8

Final problem set

8.1 Applications
19. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that

a+b b+c c+a


+ + ≥ 3.
b+1 c+1 a+1

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MC, 2005)

20. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that

a b c 3
+ + ≥ .
b+3 c+3 a+3 2

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

21. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that a + b + c = 3. Prove that

5 − 3bc 5 − 3ca 5 − 3ab


+ + ≥ ab + bc + ca.
1+a 1+b 1+c

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

22. Let a, b, c, d be non-negative numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = 4.


Prove that
(abc)3 + (bcd)3 + (cda)3 + (dab)3 ≤ 4.

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2004)

371
372 8. Final problem set

23. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Then,

a b c
+ + ≤ 1.
4a + 5b 4b + 5c 4c + 5a
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-A, 1, 2004)

24. Let a1 , a2 , . . . , an be positive numbers. Prove that

(a1 + a2 + · · · + an )2 (n − 1)n−1
(a) ≤ ;
(a21 2 2
+ 1)(a2 + 1) . . . (an + 1) nn−2
1
a1 + a2 + · · · + an (2n − 1)n− 2
(b) 2 2 ≤ .
(a1 + 1)(a2 + 1) . . . (a2n + 1) 2n nn−1
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 6, 1994)

25. Let a1 , a2 , . . . , an and b1 , b2 , . . . , bn be real numbers. Prove that


2
a1 b1 +· · ·+an bn + (a21 + · · · + a2n )(b21 + · · · + b2n ) ≥ (a1 +· · ·+an )(b1 +· · ·+bn ).
n
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, Kvant, 11, 1989)

26. Let k and n be positive integers with k < n, and let a1 , a2 , . . . , an be


real numbers such that a1 ≤ a2 ≤ · · · ≤ an . Prove that

(a1 + a2 + · · · + an )2 ≥ n(a1 ak+1 + a2 ak+2 + · · · + an ak )

in the following cases:


(a) for n = 2k;
(b) for n = 4k.
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, CM, 5, 2005)

27. Let a, b, c, d be positive numbers such that abcd = 1. Prove that


1 1 1 1
2 3
+ 2 3
+ 2 3
+ ≥ 1.
1+a+a +a 1+b+b +b 1+c+c +c 1 + d + d2 + d3
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 11, 1999)

28. If a, b, c are non-negative numbers, then

9(a4 + 1)(b4 + 1)(c4 + 1) ≥ 8(a2 b2 c2 + abc + 1)2 .

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 3, 2004)


8.1. Applications 373

29. If a, b, c, d are non-negative numbers, then


(1 + a3 )(1 + b3 )(1 + c3 )(1 + d3 ) 1 + abcd
2 2 2 2
≥ .
(1 + a )(1 + b )(1 + c )(1 + d ) 2
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 10, 2002)

30. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Then,


1 1 1 9
+ 2 + 2 ≥ .
a2 + ab + b2 b + bc + c2 c + ca + a2 (a + b + c)2
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 9, 2000)

31. Let a, b, c be positive numbers, and let


1 1 1
x=a+ − 1, y = b + − 1, z = c + − 1.
b c a
Prove that
xy + yz + zx ≥ 3.
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 1, 1991)

32. Let a, b, c be positive numbers, no two of which are zero. If n is a positive


integer, then
2an − bn − cn 2bn − cn − an 2cn − an − bn
+ 2 + 2 ≥ 0.
b2 − bc + c2 c − ca + a2 a − ab + b2
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 1, 2004)

33. Let 0 ≤ a < b and let a1 , a2 , . . . , an ∈ [a, b]. Prove that


√ √ √ 2
a1 + a2 + · · · + an − n n a1 a2 . . . an ≤ (n − 1) b − a .

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje and Gabriel Dospinescu, MS, 2005)

34. Let a, b, c and x, y, z be positive numbers such that x + y + z = a + b + c.


Prove that
ax2 + by 2 + cz 2 + xyz ≥ 4abc.
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-A, 4, 1987)

35. Let a, b, c and x, y, z be positive numbers such that x + y + z = a + b + c.


Prove that
x(3x + a) y(3y + a) z(3z + a)
+ + ≥ 12.
bc ca ab
374 8. Final problem set

36. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 3. Prove that

a b c 9
+ + ≥ .
b c a a+b+c
37. Let a1 , a2 , . . . , an be positive numbers such that a1 a2 . . . an = 1. Prove
that
1 1 1 4n
+ + ··· + + ≥ n + 2.
a1 a2 an n + a1 + a2 + · · · + an
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

38. Let a1 , a2 , . . . , an be positive numbers such that a1 a2 . . . an = 1. Prove


that

1 1 1
a1 + a2 + · · · + an − n + 1 ≥ n−1
+ + ··· + − n + 1.
a1 a2 an

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2006)

39. Let r > 1 and let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that ab+bc+ca = 3.
Prove that
ar (b + c) + br (c + a) + cr (a + b) ≥ 6.

40. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that abc ≥ 1. Prove that
a b c
(a) a b b c c a ≥ 1;
a b
(b) a b b c cc ≥ 1.

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, CM, 4, 2005)

41. Let a, b, c, d be non-negative numbers. Prove that

4(a3 + b3 + c3 + d3 ) + 15(abc + bcd + cda + dab) ≥ (a + b + c + d)3 .

42. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that


1 1 1
(a + b − c) + − = 4.
a b c
Prove that
1 1 1
(a4 + b4 + c4 ) 4
+ 4+ 4 ≥ 2304.
a b c
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MC, 2005)
8.1. Applications 375

43. Let a, b, c be positive numbers. Prove that


1 1 1 2
+ 2 + 2 > .
a2 + 2bc b + 2ca c + 2ab ab + bc + ca
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

44. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Prove


that
a(b + c) b(c + a) c(a + b) ab + bc + ca
+ + ≥1+ 2 .
a2 + 2bc b2 + 2ca c2 + 2ab a + b2 + c2
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2006)

45. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Then

(b + c)2 (c + a)2 (a + b)2


+ 2 + 2 ≥ 6.
a2 + bc b + ca c + ab
(Peter Scholze and Darij Grinberg, MS, 2005)

46. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Then

b+c c+a a+b 6


2
+ 2 + 2 ≥ .
2a + bc 2b + ca 2c + ab a+b+c
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2006)

47. If a, b, c are non-negative numbers, then

a a2 + 3bc + b b2 + 3ca + c c2 + 3ab ≥ 2(ab + bc + ca).

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

48. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Then

a2 − bc b2 − ca c2 − ab
√ +√ +√ ≥ 0.
a2 + bc b2 + ca c2 + ab
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

49. If a, b, c are non-negative numbers, then

(a2 − bc) a2 + 4bc + (b2 − ca) b2 + 4ca + (c2 − ab) c2 + 4ab ≥ 0.

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)


376 8. Final problem set

50. If a, b, c are positive numbers, then

a2 − bc b2 − ca c2 − ab
+ + ≥ 0.
8a2 + (b + c)2 8b2 + (c + a)2 8c2 + (a + b)2

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2006)

51. If a, b, c are non-negative numbers, then


3
a2 + bc + b2 + ca + c2 + ab ≤ (a + b + c).
2
(Pham Kim Hung, MS, 2005)

52. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 3. Then,

21 + 18abc ≥ 13(ab + bc + ca).

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

53. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 3. Then


1 1 1
+ + ≤ 1.
5 − 2ab 5 − 2bc 5 − 2ca
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

54. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 3. Then,

(2 − ab)(2 − bc)(2 − ca) ≥ 1.

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

55. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that a + b + c = 2. Prove that


bc ca ab
+ + ≤ 1.
a2 + 1 b2 + 1 c2 + 1
(Pham Kim Hung, MS, 2005)

56. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Then,

a3 + 3abc b3 + 3abc c3 + 3abc


+ + ≥ a + b + c.
(b + c)2 (c + a)2 (a + b)2

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)


8.1. Applications 377

57. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that a4 + b4 + c4 = 3. Then,

a2 b2 c2
a) + + ≥ 3;
b c a
a2 b2 c2 3
b) + + ≥ .
b+c c+a a+b 2
(Alexey Gladkich, MS, 2005)

58. If a, b, c are positive numbers, then

a3 − b3 b3 − c3 c3 − a3 (a − b)2 + (b − c)2 + (c − a)2


+ + ≤ .
a+b b+c c+a 8
(Marian Tetiva and Darij Grinberg, MS, 2005)

59. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Prove


that

a2 b2 c2 1
+ + ≤ .
(2a + b)(2a + c) (2b + c)(2b + a) (2c + a)(2c + b) 3

(Tigran Sloyan, MS, 2005)

60. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Prove


that
1 1 1 1
+ + ≥ 2 .
5(a2 2 2 2 2 2
+ b ) − ab 5(b + c ) − bc 5(c + a ) − ca a + b2 + c2

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2006)

61. Let a, b, c be non-negative real numbers such that a2 +b2 +c2 = 1. Prove
that
bc ca ab 3
2
+ 2 + 2 ≤ .
a +1 b +1 c +1 4
(Pham Kim Hung, MS, 2005)

62. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 = 1. Prove


that
1 1 1 9
2
+ 2
+ 2
≤ .
3 + a − 2bc 3 + b − 2ca 3 + c − 2ab 8
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje and Wolfgang Berndt, MS, 2006)
378 8. Final problem set

63. If a, b, c are positive numbers, then


4a2 − b2 − c2 4b2 − c2 − a2 4c2 − a2 − b2
+ + ≤ 3.
a(b + c) b(c + a) c(a + b)
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2006)

64. If a, b, c are positive numbers such that abc = 1, then


3 1 1 1
a2 + b2 + c2 + 6 ≥ a+b+c+ + + .
2 a b c
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2006)

65. Let a1 , a2 , . . . , an be positive numbers such that a1 + a2 + · · · + an = n.


Prove that
1 1 1
a1 a2 . . . an + + ··· + − n + 3 ≤ 3.
a1 a2 an
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2004)

66. Let a, b, c be the side lengths of a triangle. If a2 + b2 + c2 = 3, then

ab + bc + ca ≥ 1 + 2abc.

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

67. Let a, b, c be the side lengths of a triangle. If a2 + b2 + c2 = 3, then

a + b + c ≥ 2 + abc.

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

68. If a, b, c are the side lengths of a non-isosceles triangle, then


a+b b+c c+a
a) + + > 5;
a−b b−c c−a
a2 + b2 b2 + c2 c2 + a2
b) + + > 3.
a2 − b2 b2 − c2 c2 − a2
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-B, 3, 2003)

69. Let a, b, c be the lengths of the sides of a triangle. Prove that


b c a
a2 − 1 + b2 − 1 + c2 − 1 ≥ 0.
c a b
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, Moldova TST, 2006)
8.1. Applications 379

70. Let a, b, c be the lengths of the sides of an triangle. Prove that

1 1 1 a b c
(a + b + c) + + ≥6 + + .
a b c b+c c+a a+b

(Vietnam TST, 2006)

1 √
71. If a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 , a5 , a6 ∈ √ , 3 , then
3
a1 − a2 a2 − a3 a6 − a1
+ + ··· + ≥ 0.
a2 + a3 a3 + a4 a1 + a2

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, AJ, 7-8, 2002)

72. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ 3. Prove that

a5 − a2 b5 − b2 c5 − c2
+ 2 + 2 ≥ 0.
a5 2
+b +c 2 a +b +c5 2 a + b2 + c5
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

73. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that x + y + z ≥ 3. Then,

1 1 1
+ + ≤ 1.
x3 + y + z x + y + z x + y + z3
3

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2005)

74. Let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be positive numbers such that x1 x2 . . . xn ≥ 1.


If α > 1, then
xα1
≥ 1.
xα1 + x2 + · · · + xn
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, CM, 2, 2006)

75. Let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be positive numbers such that x1 x2 . . . xn ≥ 1.


−2
If n ≥ 3 and ≤ α < 1, then
n−2
xα1
≤ 1.
xα1 + x2 + · · · + xn

(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, CM, 2, 2006)


380 8. Final problem set

76. Let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be positive numbers such that x1 x2 . . . xn ≥ 1.


If α > 1, then
x1
≤ 1.
xα1 + x2 + · · · + xn
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, CM, 2, 2006)

77. Let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be positive numbers such that x1 x2 . . . xn ≥ 1.


2
If −1 − ≤ α < 1, then
n−2
x1
≥ 1.
xα1 + x2 + · · · + xn
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, CM, 2, 2006)

78. Let n ≥ 3 be an integer and let p be a real number such that 1 < p < n−1.
pn − p − 1
If 0 < x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ≤ such that x1 x2 . . . xn = 1, then
p(n − p − 1)
1 1 1 n
+ + ··· + ≥ .
1 + px1 1 + px2 1 + pxn 1+p
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, GM-A, 1, 2005)

79. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that


1 1 1 2
2
+ 2
+ 2
+ ≥ 1.
(1 + a) (1 + b) (1 + c) (1 + a)(1 + b)(1 + c)
(Pham Van Thuan, MS, 2006)

80. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that

a2 + b2 + c2 + 9(ab + bc + ca) ≥ 10(a + b + c).

81. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers such that ab + bc + ca = 3. Prove


that
a(b2 + c2 ) b(c2 + a2 ) c(a2 + b2 )
+ 2 + 2 ≥ 3.
a2 + bc b + ca c + ab
(Pham Huu Duc, MS, 2006)

82. If a, b, c are positive numbers, then


a2 b2 c2 6(a2 + b2 + c2 )
a+b+c+ + + ≥ .
b c a a+b+c
(Pham Huu Duc, MS, 2006)
8.1. Applications 381

83. If a, b, c are positive numbers, then

a2 b2 c2 3(a3 + b3 + c3 )
+ + ≥ .
b+c c+a a+b 2(a2 + b2 + c2 )

(Pham Huu Duc, MS, 2006)

84. If a, b, c are given non-negative numbers, find the minimum value E(a, b, c)
of the expression
ax by cz
E= + +
y+z z+x x+y
for any positive numbers x, y, z.
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2006)

85. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that a + b + c = 3. Prove that

1 1 1
+ + ≥ a2 + b2 + c2 .
a2 b2 c2
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, Romania TST, 2006)

86. Let a, b, c be non-negative real numbers such that a + b + c = 3. Prove


that
(a2 − ab + b2 )(b2 − bc + c2 )(c2 − ca + a2 ) ≤ 12.

(Pham Kim Hung, MS, 2006)

87. Let a, b, c be non-negative real numbers such that a + b + c = 1. Prove


that
a + b2 + b + c2 + c + a2 ≥ 2.

(Phan Thanh Nam)

88. If a, b, c are non-negative real numbers, then

a3 + b3 + c3 + 3abc ≥ bc 2(b2 + c2 ).

89. If a, b, c are non-negative real numbers, then

15
(1 + a2 )(1 + b2 )(1 + c2 ) ≥ (1 + a + b + c)2 .
16
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2006)
382 8. Final problem set

90. Let a, b, c, d be positive real numbers such that abcd = 1. Prove that

(1 + a2 )(1 + b2 )(1 + c2 )(1 + d2 ) ≥ (a + b + c + d)2 .

(Pham Kim Hung, MS, 2006)

91. If x1 , x2 , . . . , xn are non-negative numbers, then

√ x21 + x22 + · · · + x2n


x1 + x2 + · · · + xn ≥ (n − 1) n x1 x2 . . . xn + .
n
(Vasile Cı̂rtoaje, MS, 2006)

92. If k is a real number and x1 , x2 , . . . , xn are positive numbers, then

(n−1) xn+k
1 +xn+k
2 + · · · +xn+k
n +x1 x2 . . . xn xk1 +xk2 + · · · +xkn ≥
≥ (x1 +x2 + · · · +xn ) xn+k−1
1 +xn+k−1
2 + · · · +xn+k−1
n .

(Gjergji Zaimi and Keler Marku, MS, 2006

93. Let a, b, c be non-negative numbers, no two of which are zero. Prove


that
a4 b4 c4 a+b+c
3 3
+ 3 3
+ 3 ≥ .
a +b b +c c + a3 2

8.2 Solutions
1. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that

a+b b+c c+a


+ + ≥ 3.
b+1 c+1 a+1
Solution. By AM-GM Inequality, it follows that

a+b b+c c+a (a + b)(b + c)(c + a)


+ + ≥36 .
b+1 c+1 a+1 (b + 1)(c + 1)(a + 1)
Thus, we still have to show that

(a + b)(b + c)(c + a) ≥ (a + 1)(b + 1)(c + 1).

Let A = a + b + c and B = ab + bc + ca. The AM-GM Inequality yields


A ≥ 3 and B ≥ 3. Since

(a + b)(b + c)(c + a) = (a + b + c)(ab + bc + ca) − abc = AB − 1


Inequalities
Reid Barton
June 13, 2005
1. (IMO ’95) Let a, b, c be positive real numbers with abc = 1. Prove that
1 1 1
+ + ≥ 1.
a3 (b + c) b3 (c + a) c3 (a + b)

2. (MOP ’00?) Show that if k is a positive integer and x1 , x2 , . . . , xn are positive real numbers which
sum to 1, then
n
Y 1 − xki
k
≥ (nk − 1)n .
i=1
x i

(Hint: the case k = 1 is equivalent to USAMO 98/3.)


3. (IMO ’01) Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove that
a b c
√ +√ +√ ≥ 1.
a2 + 8bc b2 + 8ca c2 + 8ab

4. (USAMO ’04) Let a, b, c be positive reals. Prove that

(a5 − a2 + 3)(b5 − b2 + 3)(c5 − c2 + 3) ≥ (a + b + c)3 .

5. (IMO ’96 shortlist) Let a, b, c be positive reals with abc = 1. Prove that
ab bc ca
+ + ≤ 1.
a5 + b5 + ab b5 + c5 + bc c5 + a5 + ca

6. (APMO ’05) Let a, b, c be real numbers with abc = 8. Prove that

a2 b2 c2 4
p +p +p ≥ .
2 2
(a + 1)(b + 1) 2 2
(b + 1)(c + 1) 2 2
(c + 1)(a + 1) 3

7. (Poland ’96?) Let a, b, c be real numbers with a + b + c = 1 and a, b, c ≥ −3/4. Prove that
a b c 9
+ + ≤ .
a 2 + 1 b2 + 1 c2 + 1 10

8. (Japan, ’97) Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove that

(b + c − a)2 (c + a − b)2 (a + b − c)2 3


2 2
+ 2 2
+ 2 2
≥ .
(b + c) + a (c + a) + b (a + b) + c 5

9. (MOP ’02) Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove that


 2/3  2/3  2/3
2a 2b 2c
+ + ≥ 3.
b+c c+a a+b

10. (USAMO ’97) Prove that for all positive real numbers a, b, c,
1 1 1 1
+ + ≤ .
a3 + b3 + abc b3 + c3 + abc c3 + a3 + abc abc