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Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Bipolar Junction Transistors

Chapter 3

Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Construction

There are two types of

transistors:

pnp and npn

The terminals are labeled:

E - Emitter

B - Base

C - Collector

pnp

npn

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Operation

With the external sources, V EE and V CC , connected as shown:

The emitter-base junction is forward

biased

The base-collector

junction is reverse

biased

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Currents in a Transistor

Emitter current is the sum of the

collector and base currents:

I

E I

C I

B

The collector current is comprised of

two currents:

I

C I

C

( majority )

I

CO(minority)

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Common-Base Configuration

The base is common to both input (emitterbase) junction and output (collectorbase) junction of the transistor.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Common-Base Amplifier

Input Characteristics

This curve shows the relationship between of input current (I E ) to input voltage (V BE ) for three output voltage (V CB ) levels.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Common-Base Amplifier

Output Characteristics

This graph

demonstrates

the output

current (I C ) to an output voltage (V CB ) for various

levels of input current (I E ).

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Operating Regions

Active

Operating range of the amplifier.

Cutoff

The amplifier is basically off. There is

voltage, but little current.

Saturation

The amplifier is fully on. There is current,

but little voltage.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Approximations

Emitter and collector currents:

I

C I

E

Base-emitter voltage:

V

BE

0 7 V (for Silicon)

.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Alpha ()

Alpha () is the ratio of I C to I E :

I
C
α
dc
I
E
Ideally:
 = 1

In reality:

I C

I

C majority

(

)

I

CO(minority)

I

C

 I I

E

CBO

falls somewhere between

0.9 and 0.998

Alpha () in the AC mode:

ΔI
C
α ac
ΔI
E

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Amplifier

Currents and Voltages:

V 200 mV
i
I 
I
 10 mA
E
i
R
20Ω
i
I
C
 I
E
I
L
I
 10 mA
i
V
I
R
(
10 mA
)(
5 kΩ
)
50 V
L
L
Voltage Gain:
V
50 V
L
A
 250
v
V
200 mV
i

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Common-Emitter

Configuration

The emitter is common to

both input (base-emitter) and output (collector-

emitter) circuits.

The input is applied to the base and the output is

taken from the collector.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Common-Emitter Characteristics

Collector Characteristics

Base (input) Characteristics

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Common-Emitter Amplifier Currents

Ideal Currents

Actual Currents

I E = I C + I B

I C = I E

I C = I E + I CBO

where I CBO = minority collector current

I CBO is usually so small that it can be ignored, except in high power transistors and in high temperature environments.

When I B = 0 A the transistor is in cutoff, but there is some minority current flowing called I CEO .

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

I
I
CBO
CEO
I
 0 μA
1  α
B

Ch.3 Summary

Beta ()

represents the amplification factor of a transistor.

In DC mode:

In AC mode:

I
β
C
dc
I
B
 I
C
 ac
 I
 constant
V CE
B

ac is sometimes referred to as h fe , a term used in transistor modeling calculations

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Beta ()

Determining from a Graph

(
3 2
.
mA
22
.
mA)
β
AC
(
30
A
20
A)
1 mA
V
 7 .
5 V
CE
10  A
 100
2 7
.
mA
β
DC
7 5
.
V
V CE
25  A
 108
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Beta ()

Relationship between amplification factors and :

β
α 
β 1
α
β 
α 1

Relationship Between Currents:

I

C βI

B

I

E (β 1)I

B

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Common-Collector Configuration

The input is on the base and the output is on the emitter.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Common-Collector Configuration

The characteristics

are similar to those of the common- emitter amplifier,

except the vertical axis is I E .

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Operating Limits

V CE is maximum and I C is minimum in the cutoff

region.

I C (max)

I

CEO

I C is maximum and V CE is minimum in the saturation region.

V CE (max)

V

(

CE sat

)

V

CEO

The transistor operates in the active region between saturation and cutoff.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Power Dissipation

Common-base:

P Cmax

V I

CB C

Common-emitter:

P Cmax

V I

CE C

Common-collector:

P

Cmax

V

CE

I

E

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Specification Sheet

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Specification Sheet

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Specification Sheet

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Testing

Curve Tracer

Provides a graph of the characteristic curves.

DMM

Some DMMs measure DC or h FE .

Ohmmeter:

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory