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Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory
Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

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Bipolar Junction Transistors
Bipolar Junction Transistors

Chapter 3

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad Bipolar Junction Transistors Chapter 3

Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Construction

There are two types of

transistors:

pnp and npn

The terminals are labeled:

E - Emitter

B - Base

C - Collector

terminals are labeled: E - Emitter B - Base C - Collector pnp npn Electronic Devices

pnp

npn

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Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Operation

With the external sources, V EE and V CC , connected as shown:

The emitter-base junction is forward

biased

The base-collector

junction is reverse

biased

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Ch.3 Summary

Currents in a Transistor

Emitter current is the sum of the

collector and base currents:

I

E I

C I

B

The collector current is comprised of

two currents:

I

C I

C

( majority )

I

CO(minority)

I C  I C ( majority )  I CO(minority) Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

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Ch.3 Summary

Common-Base Configuration

Ch.3 Summary Common-Base Configuration The base is common to both input (emitter – base) junction and

The base is common to both input (emitterbase) junction and output (collectorbase) junction of the transistor.

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Ch.3 Summary

Common-Base Amplifier

Input Characteristics

This curve shows the relationship between of input current (I E ) to input voltage (V BE ) for three output voltage (V CB ) levels.

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Ch.3 Summary

Common-Base Amplifier

Output Characteristics

This graph

demonstrates

the output

current (I C ) to an output voltage (V CB ) for various

levels of input current (I E ).

C B ) for various levels of input current ( I E ). Electronic Devices and

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Ch.3 Summary

Operating Regions

Active

Operating range of the amplifier.

Cutoff

The amplifier is basically off. There is

voltage, but little current.

Saturation

The amplifier is fully on. There is current,

but little voltage.

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Ch.3 Summary

Approximations

Emitter and collector currents:

I

C I

E

Base-emitter voltage:

V

BE

0 7 V (for Silicon)

.

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Ch.3 Summary

Alpha ()

Alpha () is the ratio of I C to I E :

I C α  dc I E Ideally:  = 1
I
C
α
dc
I
E
Ideally:
 = 1

In reality:

I C

I

C majority

(

)

I

CO(minority)

I

C

 I I

E

CBO

falls somewhere between

0.9 and 0.998

Alpha () in the AC mode:

ΔI C  α ac ΔI E
ΔI
C
α ac
ΔI
E

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Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Amplifier

Ch.3 Summary Transistor Amplifier Currents and Voltages: V 200 mV i I   I 

Currents and Voltages:

V 200 mV i I   I   10 mA E i R
V 200 mV
i
I 
I
 10 mA
E
i
R
20Ω
i
I
C
 I
E
I
L
I
 10 mA
i
V
I
R
(
10 mA
)(
5 kΩ
)
50 V
L
L
Voltage Gain: V 50 V L A    250 v V 200 mV
Voltage Gain:
V
50 V
L
A
 250
v
V
200 mV
i

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Ch.3 Summary

Common-Emitter

Configuration

The emitter is common to

both input (base-emitter) and output (collector-

emitter) circuits.

The input is applied to the base and the output is

taken from the collector.

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Ch.3 Summary

Common-Emitter Characteristics

Ch.3 Summary Common-Emitter Characteristics Collector Characteristics Base (input) Characteristics Electronic Devices and

Collector Characteristics

Common-Emitter Characteristics Collector Characteristics Base (input) Characteristics Electronic Devices and Circuit

Base (input) Characteristics

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Ch.3 Summary

Common-Emitter Amplifier Currents

Ideal Currents

Actual Currents

I E = I C + I B

I C = I E

I C = I E + I CBO

where I CBO = minority collector current

I CBO is usually so small that it can be ignored, except in high power transistors and in high temperature environments.

When I B = 0 A the transistor is in cutoff, but there is some minority current flowing called I CEO .

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I I  CBO CEO I  0 μA 1  α B
I
I
CBO
CEO
I
 0 μA
1  α
B

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Ch.3 Summary

Beta ()

represents the amplification factor of a transistor.

In DC mode:

In AC mode:

I β  C dc I B
I
β
C
dc
I
B
 I C   ac  I  constant V CE B
 I
C
 ac
 I
 constant
V CE
B

ac is sometimes referred to as h fe , a term used in transistor modeling calculations

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Ch.3 Summary

Beta ()

Determining from a Graph

( 3 2 . mA  22 . mA) β AC  ( 30 
(
3 2
.
mA
22
.
mA)
β
AC
(
30
A
20
A)
1 mA
V
 7 .
5 V
CE
10  A
 100
2 7 . mA β  DC 7 5 . V V CE 25 
2 7
.
mA
β
DC
7 5
.
V
V CE
25  A
 108
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Ch.3 Summary

Beta ()

Relationship between amplification factors and :

β α  β 1
β
α 
β 1
α β  α 1
α
β 
α 1

Relationship Between Currents:

I

C βI

B

I

E (β 1)I

B

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Ch.3 Summary

Common-Collector Configuration

The input is on the base and the output is on the emitter.

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Ch.3 Summary

Common-Collector Configuration

The characteristics

are similar to those of the common- emitter amplifier,

except the vertical axis is I E .

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Ch.3 Summary

Operating Limits

V CE is maximum and I C is minimum in the cutoff

region.

is maximum and I C is minimum in the cutoff region. I C (max)  I

I C (max)

I

CEO

I C is maximum and V CE is minimum in the saturation region.

V CE (max)

V

(

CE sat

)

V

CEO

region. V CE (max)  V ( CE sat )  V CEO The transistor operates

The transistor operates in the active region between saturation and cutoff.

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Ch.3 Summary

Power Dissipation

Common-base:

P Cmax

V I

CB C

Common-emitter:

P Cmax

V I

CE C

Common-collector:

P

Cmax

V

CE

I

E

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Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Specification Sheet

Ch.3 Summary Transistor Specification Sheet Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad © 2013 by Pearson Higher

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

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Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Specification Sheet

Ch.3 Summary Transistor Specification Sheet Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad © 2013 by Pearson Higher

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

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Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Specification Sheet

Ch.3 Summary Transistor Specification Sheet Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad © 2013 by Pearson Higher

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory

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Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Testing

Curve Tracer

Provides a graph of the characteristic curves.

DMM

Some DMMs measure DC or h FE .

Ohmmeter:

Some DMMs measure  D C or h F E . Ohmmeter: Electronic Devices and Circuit
Some DMMs measure  D C or h F E . Ohmmeter: Electronic Devices and Circuit

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Ch.3 Summary

Transistor Terminal Identification

Ch.3 Summary Transistor Terminal Identification Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory Boylestad © 2013 by Pearson Higher

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