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1.

INTRODUCTION
Concrete is a brittle material. The present trend in concrete technology is toward increasing
its strength and various properties like durability etc. to meet the demand of modern
construction. The aim of this study is to see the effects of different types of fibers. . FRC has
high tensile strength and have fire resistant properties thereby making the concrete fire
resistant. Concrete is a brittle material which is weak in tension and the tensile strength is
found to be one tenth of its compressive strength. With such characteristics, concrete alone
could not support such loads and stresses. The Concrete members are reinforced with
continuous reinforcing bars in order to withstand these tensile stresses and to compensate for
lack of ductility and thereby strength. Such steel reinforcement are effective in critical regions
which are under high potential tensile and shear stresses. On the other hand , there are the
micro-cracks present in plain concrete are main cause of its weakening in tension. On
application of load , the micro cracks propagates within the matrix. The propagation of micro-
cracks and thereby macro-cracks, cannot be arrested or slowed by the sole use of continuous
reinforcement. The main role of fibers is to bridge the cracks that develop in concrete and
increase the ductility of concrete elements. There is considerable improvement in the post-
cracking behavior of concrete containing fibers due to both plastic shrinkage and drying
shrinkage. They also reduce the permeability of concrete and thus reduce bleeding of water.
Some types of fibers produce greater abrasion resistance in concrete. Imparts more resistance
to Impact load. Randomly dispersed fibres in concrete help in reducing the crack width thus,
reduces the permeability of concrete. In addition to crack control, fibres also improve the
mechanical properties of plain concrete such as fracture resistance, resistance to impact, and
resistance to dynamic loads. Concrete containing Cement, Water, Aggregate, and uniformly
dispersed or discrete fibers is called Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC).It is a composite
obtained by adding a single type or a blend of fibers to the conventional concrete mix. Fibers
can be in form of steel fibers, glass fibers, natural fibers , synthetic fibers, etc..In the present
paper, we are focusing on the glass fiber and steel fiber effects on the mechanical properties of
the concrete.
2.FIBRE REINFORCED CONCRETE (FRC):
2.1 MIXING OF FIBRES:
New manufacturing techniques and applications on fibres for concrete have been developed.
These introduce various aspects of fibre reinforced concrete and introduced to market
worldwide. Fibres can be used with the admixture to modify the hardening and setting of the
cement by influencing the rate of hydration. Different type of admixtures are there to reduce
the water content by reducing surface tension of water. They increase workability, accelerated
and retarded rate of hydration of cements, and resistance to freeze and thaw conditions. They
provided a significant improvement to the fibre-reinforced concrete used in the fields.

2.2 ROLE OF FIBRE IN FRC:


Main role of fibers is to bridge the cracks that develop in concrete and increase the ductility of
concrete elements. There is considerable improvement in the post-cracking behavior of
concrete containing fibers due to both plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage. They also reduce
the permeability of concrete and thus reduce bleeding of water. Some types of fibers produce
greater abrasion resistance in concrete. Imparts more resistance to Impact load.

3.FACTORS AFFECTING THE FIBER REINFORCED


CONCRETE:
Following are the factors that affects the properties of the FRC :

• Volume of fibres

• Aspect ratio of fibres

• Orientation of the fibres

• Relative fiber matrix stiffness

VOLUME OF FIBRES:

Low volume fraction(less than 1%) is used in slab and pavement that have large exposed
surface leading to high shrinkage cracking. Moderate volume fraction(between 1 and 2 percent)
is used in Construction method such as Shortcrete & in Structures which requires improved
capacity against delamination, spalling & fatigue. High volume fraction(greater than 2%) is
used in making high performance fiber reinforced composites.

ASPECT RATIO OF FIBRES:

It is defined as ratio of length of fiber to it’s diameter (L/d). Increase in the aspect ratio upto
75, there is increase in relative strength and toughness. Beyond 75 of aspect ratio, there is
decrease in relative strength and toughness.
ORIENTATION OF THE FIBRES:

It is observed that fibers aligned parallel to applied load offered more tensile strength and
toughness than randomly distributed or perpendicular fibers.

RELATIVE FIBRES MATRIX STIFFNESS:

Modulus of elasticity of matrix must be less than of fibers for efficient stress transfer. Low
modulus of fibers imparts more energy absorption while high modulus fibers imparts strength
and stiffness. Low modulus fibers e.g. Nylons and Polypropylene fibers. High modulus fibers
e.g. Steel, Glass, and Carbon fibers.

4.FIBER CEMENT INTERACTION:


The effectiveness of fibres in enhancing the mechanical performance of the brittle matrix is
dependent to a large extent on the fibre–matrix interactions. Three types of interactions are
particularly important:

• Physical and chemical adhesion;

• Friction;

• Mechanical anchorage induced by deformations on the fibre surface or by overall


complex geometry (e.g. crimps, hooks, deformed fibres).

The adhesional and frictional bonding between a fibre and cementitious matrix are relatively
weak. They have however significant contribution and practical significance in the case of
composites having high surface area fibres (e.g. thin man-made synthetic filaments such as
carbon, referred to sometimes as microfibres, with diameters in the range of 10 μm

5.NEED OF STUDY

● Main role of fibers is to bridge the cracks that develop in concrete and increase the
ductility of concrete elements.
● There is considerable improvement in the post-cracking behavior of concrete
containing fibers due to both plastic shrinkage and drying shrinkage.
● They also reduce the permeability of concrete and thus reduce bleeding of water.
● Some types of fibers produce greater abrasion resistance in concrete.
● Imparts more resistance to Impact load.
6. OBJECTIVES

1. To develop high performance concrete of grade M60 by replacing cement with


metakaolin having different proportion.
2. To study effects of different types of fibre on the mechanical properties of the
HPFRC and comparison among them.
3. To study effect of different types of fibres on the durability of HPFRC.

7.SCOPE OF STUDY:

1. To develop M60 using OPC 53 grade.


2. Replacement of cement with metakaolin by 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight of
cement.
3. Two different types of fibres - straight and corrugated are used.
4. Effect with change in volume of fibre-1%, 1.5% and 2%.on the mechanical properties
of HPFRC will be examined
A) compressive strength test
B) split tensile strength test
C) flexural strength test
5. Effect of steel fibres on the Durability of the HPFRC
a) sulphate attack
b) acid attack
8.REFERENCES: