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ABB INDIA.

POWER GENERATION

BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER


POWER GENERATION
BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER

INDEX

1.0 INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................................1

2.0 DESCRIPTION OF OPERATION .....................................................................................................2

2.1 Speed Controller..................................................................................................................2


2.2 Load Controller ....................................................................................................................3
2.3 Throttle Pressure Limiter .....................................................................................................4
2.4 Load Limiter .........................................................................................................................5
2.5 Runback Logic .....................................................................................................................5
2.6 Stop Valve / Control Valve Transfer Logic...........................................................................5
2.7 Single / Sequential Mode Transfer Logic.............................................................................5
2.8 Stop Valve and Control Valve Test Logic ............................................................................6
2.9 Trip / Reset Logic.................................................................................................................7
2.10 Reheat Valve and Intercept Valve Logic..............................................................................7
2.11 Overspeed Protection Logic ................................................................................................7
2.12 Stop Valve Logic ..................................................................................................................8
2.13 Control Valve Logic..............................................................................................................9
2.14 Valve Calibration Logic ......................................................................................................10

3.0 OPERATOR INTERFACE ..............................................................................................................10

4.0 INPUT / OUTPUT ...........................................................................................................................10

5.0 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS .............................................................................................................11

5.1 MHC Interface....................................................................................................................11


5.2 Throttle Pressure Control for Combined Cycle Units.........................................................12

LIST OF FIGURES

1-1 BTC BLOCK DIAGRAM....................................................................................................................1


2-1 SPEED CONTROLLER ....................................................................................................................2
2-2 LOAD CONTROLLER ......................................................................................................................3
2-3 THROTTLE PRESSURE LIMITER...................................................................................................4
2-4 STEAM CHEST CONFIGURATIONS ..............................................................................................6
2-5 STOP VALVE LOGIC .......................................................................................................................8
2-6 CONTROL VALVE LOGIC ...............................................................................................................9
5-1 THROTTLE PRESSURE CONTROL for COMBINED CYCLE UNITS...........................................12

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BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The Base Turbine Controller (BTC) is designed to operate on utility type turbine generators. While the
nomenclature for various features will vary based on the turbine manufacturer, the basic control
philosophy remains the same.

The control system has been designed to fully operate the turbine as a stand alone entity with
accommodations for interfacing to the PLANT AUTOMATION Automatic Turbine Start-Up (ATS) package
and/or a coordinated front end or Unit Load Master (ULM).

The Base Turbine Controller is made up of 14 major functional blocks. The functions actually
implemented will vary based on the turbine manufacturer, the existence and/or availability of necessary
inputs and the operating procedures of the customer.

Speed Load Throttle Load Runback


Controller Controller Pressure Limiter Logic
Limiter

Gen Breaker
T Open

Low Select Gate

Flow Demand

Valve
Transfer
Logic

Valve SV & CV Sing/Seq


Calibrate Test Transfer
Logic Logic Logic

Trip/Reset
Logic

Stop Overspeed Control


RV & IV
Valve Protection Valve
Logic
Logic Logic Logic

Reheat Valves Stop Valves Solenoids Control Valves


Intercept Valves

Figure 1-1
BTC Block Diagram

The terminology for the modulating valves will vary from one manufacturer to another. Stop Valves (SV)
are sometimes referred to as Throttle Valves (TV) and typically are used for speed control because they
include an integral bypass valve capable of tight control at low steam flow conditions. Control Valves (CV)

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BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER

are sometimes referred to as Governor Valves (GV) and are typically used for load control. There are
some turbines however, that will operate in load control with the Stop Valves up to the full travel point of
the internal bypass valves before transferring to the Control Valves. Other turbines will roll off of turning
gear and accelerate to synchronous speed utilizing the Control Valves.

Some manufacturers operate the Intercept Valves (IV) as modulating valves, allowing them to open when
the turbine is reset, and closing them proportionally to the amount of overspeed. Other manufacturers
operate the Intercept Valves as open/close valves allowing them to open when the turbine is reset, and
closing them during an overspeed condition by energizing a solenoid in the hydraulic circuit.

To allow the system to respond quickly to frequency upsets, the processor has been divided into two (2)
segments. The first segment contains the Speed Droop portion of Load Control, Stop Valve Logic, and
Control Valve Logic and will execute at a higher speed to meet the response times necessary for proper
frequency correction. The remaining functional blocks will execute in the second segment where speed of
execution is not as critical.

2.0 DESCRIPTION OF OPERATION

2.1 Speed Controller

Speed Control is used to operate the turbine prior


ST ST ST to synchronization from turning gear to
0.0 synchronous speed. Speed Control includes the
2-out-of-3 logic for speed measurement, the
2 of 3
speed proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative
Speed Speed (PID) controller, the Acceleration Rate logic and
in Critical Τ Α Logic the Speed M/A Station.
Range

Acc Rate - In SPEED MANUAL mode, the operator has direct


Acc Rate
from ATS
OPER
SEL Slow > +
∆ control of the M/A Station output for manually
adjusting Flow Demand when the generator
Medium Speed Error
Fast breaker is open. When in the MANUAL mode, the
(RPM)
Hold Selector station setpoint will track actual speed.
Τ V>
OPER
SEL PID In SPEED AUTO mode, the controller responds to
Remote SP
the operator adjusted setpoint from the M/A
from ATS Station. A rate limiter function block controls the
M/A rate of change of the speed setpoint to three (3)
0.0 T A T A operator selectable Acceleration Rates (Slow,
Medium, or Fast). The Acceleration Rate will high
select between a pre-defined rate and the
operator entered rate when the speed setpoint is
V> ramping through any one of three pre-defined
critical speed ranges. For those systems that
include Automatic Turbine Start-Up (ATS), the
controller still responds to the setpoint form the
Speed Signal (%)
M/A Station, however this set point is generated in
the ATS module. The Acceleration Rate is also
determined by the ATS.

Figure 2-1
Speed Controller

An alarm will be generated if the speed setpoint remains in one of the three (3) pre-defined critical speed
ranges.

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BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER

When the unit is synchronized to the grid, the station is held in AUTO and the output is held at zero. This
prepares the controller for a scenario where the generator breaker opens and an immediate transfer to
speed control is required.

2.2 Load Control

Turbine Demand Throttle First Stage Load Control is used to load the
(from Unit Load Master) Pressure Pressure
Load Rate
turbine after the unit has been
PT
from ATS synchronized to the grid. Load
Rated Rated
Throttle 1st Stage Control includes the Load M/A
Load Rate Pressure Pressure Station, the Load Rate logic, the
OPER
SEL < >< Α
X
Y
X
Y Α First Stage Pressure Controller, and
Slow the Speed Droop Controller. The
Medium
Fast First Stage Pressure Controller is
Hold Selector
M/A X only recommended for valve tests,
T A Y
single/sequential transfers and on-
Τ
OPER
SEL 0.0
line valve calibrations. Speed
- Droop Control is used for frequency
V>
+
∆ correction.

In LOAD MANUAL mode, the operator


1st Stage
Speed Error (RPM) Loop In Τ adjusts the output of the M/A
Station which corresponds to Flow
- Demand. A rate limiter controls the
Regulation (%) + rate of change of the output based
Α Σ ∆
on the operator entered Load Rate.
Droop
Control Α Deadband (RPM) For those systems that include
Automatic Turbine Start-Up (ATS),
Α Max Effect (%) PID the control system continues to
respond to the output from the M/A
1st Stage
Loop In Τ Station, however for specific start-
up steps, this value is generated in
the ATS module. In ATS, the
Σ
operator entered Load Rate is low
selected with the Load Rate
determined by the ATS.
Load Signal (%)

Figure 2-2
Load Controller

In LOAD CASCADE mode, the output of the M/A Station tracks the signal from the Unit Load Master (ULM).
The station setpoint will track turbine demand. Load targets, load rates, load limits and runbacks are
controlled by the ULM while in LOAD CASCADE mode.

Before the unit is synchronized to the grid, the station is held in MANUAL and the output tracks Flow
Demand plus the Initial Megawatt pick-up value. This prepares the controller for when the generator
breaker closes.

The First Stage Pressure Controller is a proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID) controller. If the


First Stage Pressure loop is IN SERVICE, the controller uses the output of the Load Control M/A Station as a
setpoint. Feedback to the controller is calculated turbine valve position, as a function of first stage
pressure and throttle pressure. If the First Stage Pressure loop is OUT OF SERVICE, the output of the
controller tracks Turbine Valve Demand so as to provide a bumpless transfer.

The Speed Droop Controller is a proportional-only controller that responds to a speed error. Under normal
operating conditions, the output is zero, however, when a speed error is present, the controller responds

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BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER

by biasing the load control signal with a value proportional to the speed error. A typical value of 5% droop
regulation indicates that the valves will respond 100% for a 5% error in speed.

To avoid unnecessary fluctuations due to minor frequency upsets, and to allow the customer flexibility in
determining how a turbine will respond to frequency upsets, the following constants have been provided.
Typically, they are not operator adjustable from the CRT control console but are adjustable through an
engineering work station or other tuning device.

* Deadband (RPM)
* Regulation (%)
* Max Effect (%)

Upon failure of 2 of the 3 speed input signals, the bias signal will be set zero.

2.3 Throttle Pressure Limiter


Throttle Pressure Setpoint Throttle Pressure The Throttle Pressure Limiter provides two (2) functions for throttle
(from Boiler or TPC)
PT pressure protection. The first function operates as a floor limiter
by running the turbine back should throttle pressure drop below a
low limit setpoint. The second function operates as a gradient
limiter by running the turbine back should the rate of decreasing
V> throttle pressure exceed a pre-determined value.

The runback is achieved by utilizing an integral-only controller.


Deadband +
- This controller tracks the Turbine Flow Demand signal when not
Α ∆ active to prevent integral wind-up. The setpoint to the controller is
the high selected value of the operator adjustable setpoint from
the M/A Station and the rate limited throttle pressure value. If
throttle pressure decreases faster than the allowable rate, a
> negative error signal is generated and the controller begins to
ramp down from it's tracked value. If throttle pressure decreases
- within the allowable rate, but eventually drops below the setpoint
+ from the M/A Station, again a negative error signal is generated
∆ and the controller begins to ramp down from it's tracked value.

+ In THROTTLE PRESSURE MANUAL mode, the Throttle Pressure


Controller is disabled, and the operator can make setpoint

adjustments. The controller will be forced into MANUAL upon
- failure of the throttle pressure signal.

Α
M/A In THROTTLE PRESSURE AUTO mode, the Throttle Pressure
T A T Controller is enabled for control. The setpoint can not be adjusted
Setpoint Bias when in AUTO. To place the M/A Station in AUTO, the setpoint must
be at least 100 PSI below the current throttle pressure. This
Throttle Pressure Limit Signal (%)
prevents accidental initiation of the Throttle Pressure Limiter.
F
i
gure 2-3
Throttle Pressure Limiter

In THROTTLE PRESSURE CASCADE mode, the Throttle Pressure Controller is enabled for control. The
setpoint now tracks a fixed amount below the throttle pressure setpoint generated in either the boiler
control system (Unit Load Master ) or the Throttle Pressure Controller.

2.4 Load Limiter

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BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER

The Load Limiter operates as a Flow Demand limiter that performs a high limit function on the output of
the Speed and Load Controllers. The Load Limiter is disabled when the Load Controller is in the AUTO
mode as this becomes a Unit Load Master function.

2.5 Runback Logic

The Runback Logic includes five (5) runback signals each with its own independent runback rate and
runback threshold. When one or more runbacks are active, the system will run the turbine back to the
appropriate threshold at the fastest rate of the active runbacks. The Runback Logic is disabled when the
Load Controller is in the AUTO mode as this becomes a Unit Load Master function.

2.6 Stop Valve / Control Valve Transfer Logic

The Valve Transfer Logic includes the digital logic associated with determining that transfer permissives
are met, that a transfer is in progress and that a transfer is complete.

The terminology for the valve transfer will vary from one turbine manufacturer to another. Some
manufacturers dictate that the Stop Valves can only be used in speed control and require a transfer from
the Stop Valves to the Control Valves prior to synchronization. Other manufacturers allow synchronization
and initial loading with the Stop Valves and require a transfer from the Stop Valves to the Control Valves
after the Stop Valves have reached the limit of the internal bypass valve.

The valve transfer is initiated by the operator. However, for the systems that include Automatic Turbine
Start-Up, the transfer is initiated during the appropriate step of the start-up sequence.

For units where the transfer takes place prior to synchronization, the Control Valves are held full open and
the Stop Valves are used to roll the turbine to the transfer point. Once the transfer has been initiated, the
Control Valves begin to ramp close until a decrease in speed is sensed. Once the system confirms that
the Control Valves are in control, the Stop Valves are ramped full open and a return transfer to Stop
Valves is not allowed.

For units where the transfer takes place after synchronization, the Control Valves are held full open and
the Stop Valves are used to roll the turbine, synchronize and load the turbine to the transfer point. Once
the transfer has been initiated, the Control Valves begin to ramp close until chest pressure increases to a
fixed percentage of throttle pressure or a decrease in load is sensed. Once the system confirms that the
Control Valves are in control, the Stop Valves are ramped full open. Once a transfer is complete, control
can be transferred back to the Stop Valves.

2.7 Single/Sequential Mode Transfer Logic

Single/Sequential Transfer only applies to turbines with individual actuators for the Control Valves and
where transfers are allowed to (and from) a sequential or staggered valve sequence (partial arc
admission) from (and to) a single valve sequence (full arc admission). For some turbines, this transfer to
partial arc admission is completed in conjunction with the transfer from the Stop Valves to Control Valves.
Partial arc admission is more efficient because throttling losses are minimized. However, at low loads,
heating problems can arise due to the staggered valve sequence, and full arc admission is preferred.

The Single/Sequential Logic includes the digital logic associated with determining that transfer
permissives are met, that a transfer is in progress and that a transfer is complete. It also includes the
analog logic associated with transferring between the single and sequential curves.

The transfer is initiated by the operator. Once a transfer is in progress, the operator can halt the transfer,
or initiate a transfer back, should plant conditions dictate such a move. It is recommended that First Stage
Pressure Loop be place IN SERVICE prior to initiating a transfer. With this loop in service, the control valves

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BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER

will maintain a constant flow through the turbine during the transfer thus preventing unwanted excursions
in Throttle Steam Pressure.

The system will respond to changes in Load Control during the transfer. This allows the turbine to
continue loading while a transfer is in progress.

2.8 Stop Valve & Control Valve Test Logic

The Stop Valve & Control Valve Test Logic includes the digital logic associated with determining that test
permissives are met, that a test is in progress and that a test is complete. It also includes the analog logic
associated with determining the test signals sent to the Stop Valve Logic and the Control Valve Logic.

The number and type of tests will vary, depending on the turbine configuration of the manufacturer. For
units that test only the Stop Valve, the Stop Valve is ramped to the test position and after a limit switch
confirms the test position for a pre-determined amount of time, the valve is ramped full open. Typically,
the Stop Valve Test can only be initiated once the unit is on-line and the Control Valves are in control.

For units that test both Stop Valves and Control Valves, the test varies depending on the existence of a
single or double ended steam chest. For single ended steam chests, the control valves are first ramped
close, and then the corresponding Stop Valve is closed and after a pre-determined amount of time, the
valves are opened in the reverse order. Typically, the Stop Valve Test can only be initiated once the unit
is on-line and the Control Valves are in control and in single mode (when applicable). It is recommended
that First Stage Pressure Loop be place IN SERVICE prior to initiating a test. With this loop in service, the
Control Valves will maintain a constant flow through the turbine during the test thus preventing unwanted
excursions in throttle steam pressure.
Stop Valve Stop Valve Stop Valve

Throttle Throttle Throttle


Steam Steam Steam

Control Valves Control Valves

Turbine Flow Inlet Nozzles Turbine Flow Inlet Nozzles

Stop Valve Stop Valve Stop Valve

Throttle Throttle Throttle


Steam Steam Steam

Single Ended Steam Chest Double Ended Steam Chest

Figure 2-4
Steam Chest Configurations

For double ended steam chests, the Stop Valves can be tested without affecting the Control Valves. The
Stop Valve is closed and after a pre-determined amount of time, the valve is opened. Typically, the Stop
Valve Test can only be initiated once the unit is on-line.

For units with individual actuators for the Control Valves, individual Control Valve tests can be initiated.
The selected Control Valve is ramped close and after a pre-determined amount of time, the valve is
ramped open. Typically, the Control Valve Test can only be initiated once the unit is on-line and the
Control Valves are in control and in single mode. It is recommended that First Stage Pressure Loop be
place IN SERVICE prior to initiating a test. With this loop in service, the control valves will maintain a
constant flow through the turbine during the test thus preventing unwanted excursions in Throttle Steam
Pressure.

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BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER

Some valve tests also include the testing of a Fast Solenoid associated with the valve actuators. All valve
tests are initiated by the operator. Once a test is in progress, it will complete itself with no further action
from the operator, however, the operator can terminate a test once it is in progress.

2.9 Trip/Reset Logic

Anytime a trip condition is initiated by the logic, the autostop (AST) or emergency trip (ET) solenoids are
energized to ensure that a turbine trip occurs. Simultaneously, all servo demand signals for all modulating
valves are set to -3.0%. After a complete turbine trip is confirmed (loss of pressure in the Trip Oil Header)
and all turbine valves are closed, all solenoids are released. On units that employ ABB’s EHC and OSP
hydraulic manifolds, trip signals are sent to the solenoids on these manifolds to dump the high-pressure
EH fluids directly, causing the valves to close.

Overspeed Trip is sensed and initiated independent of the control system logic and accomplished as a
function of the Turbine Protection Module (see Section 2.11 below).

Some turbines include a remote reset feature that allow the turbine to be RESET through the operator
console.

2.10 Reheat Valve & Intercept Valve Logic

Some manufacturers operate the Intercept Valves as modulating valves, allowing them to open when the
turbine is reset, and closing them proportionally to the amount of overspeed. Other manufacturers
operate the Intercept Valves as open/close valves allowing them to open when the turbine is reset, and
closing them during an overspeed condition by energizing a solenoid in the hydraulic circuit.

Testing of the Reheat Valves and Intercept Valves is accomplished as a combined test. The Intercept
Valve is first closed, and then the corresponding Reheat Valve is closed and after a pre-determined
amount of time, the valves are opened in the reverse order. Some turbines are configured with two (2)
Intercept Valves per Reheat Valve. In this arrangement, both Intercept Valves must be closed to continue
the test.

Logic is included such that anytime a Reheat Valve is not full open, the corresponding Intercept Valve is
closed.

2.11 Overspeed Protection Logic

Overspeed Protection is accomplished with the ABB Turbine Protection Module. Data is analyzed in three
(3) independent TP modules with 2-out-of-3 protection logic provided by the output relays. Each module
has independent inputs for Speed, Generator Megawatts, IP Exhaust Pressure, Turbine Reset, Breaker
Closed, and, on some TP Modules, Generator Current. All of these inputs available to the processor as
analog or digital points. Each module detects overspeed protection (typically 103%), overspeed trip
(typically 110%) and power load imbalance and passes this information to the processor as well as to the
output relays. When 2 of the 3 modules detect the same condition, the appropriate action will be taken.
All overspeed protection and overspeed trip setpoints can be modified through the engineering
workstation.

Overspeed Protection is initiated when turbine speed exceeds the OSP Setpoint (typically 103%). When
this occurs, the solenoids on the Overspeed Protection (OSP) hydraulic header (if applicable) are
energized and the hydraulic oil header supplying pressure to the Control Valves and the Intercept Valves
is dumped to drain. This does not constitute a turbine trip. On units that do not have an OSP header such
as GE units, the intercept valves start to close when the speed exceeds the setpoint. If the speed still
reaches 103%, the OSP function closes the intercepts and governors by means of the fast acting
solenoids on the valves.

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BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER

Overspeed Trip is initiated when turbine speed exceeds the TRIP Setpoint (typically 110%). When this
occurs, the solenoids on the trip header are energized and the hydraulic oil header supplying pressure to
all valves is dumped to drain.

Power Load Imbalance is calculated as IP Exhaust Pressure (as a % of rated) minus Generator
Megawatts (as a % of rated) or Generator Current (as a % of rated) and when this value exceeds the
Load Imbalance Setpoint (typically 30%), the Intercept Valves are closed for a minimum period of time
(typically 10 Sec) or until the imbalance clears.

An important feature of the Turbine Protection module is the ability to provide on-line testing of ABB’s OSP
and EHC Manifolds. These optional manifolds are designed to dump the OSP header and EHC trip
header pressures respectively. The OSP header is specifically designed for Westinghouse style hydraulic
arrangements. It hydraulically forces the governor and intercept valves closed at 103% overspeed and
during power load imbalance. The EHC manifold dumps the high-pressure trip header line forcing all the
valves closed.

These manifolds come in two styles. The first style includes four (4) independent solenoids, functioning in
a 1-out-of-2-twice logic scheme. With this arrangement, each solenoid can be energized and then de-
energized with the proper operation confirmed by monitoring the pressure transmitter located between the
solenoid pairs. The testing is completely automated and the system will generate an alarm if a specific
test is not properly executed.

The second style uses a two-out-of-three logic arrangement inherent in the manifold itself. This manifold
connects directly to the Turbine Protection Module without the intervening relay logic. The manifold
contains all the solenoids, transmitters, and test hardware to provide the functionality.

2.12 Stop Valve Logic


Flow Demand (%) Stop Valve Logic includes the Stop
Valve M/A Station and the analog
signals that position the individual
Stop Valves based on Turbine
103.0
Valve Demand. The Valve
CV in Control Τ Α Transfer Logic determines when
the Stop Valves and the Control
Valves are in control.
M/A
T A
When the Stop Valves are in
control, Turbine Valve Demand is
characterized with a five segment
Valve Curve Valve Curve Valve Curve function generator block (1 per
f(x) for SV1 f(x) for SV2 f(x) for SV4 valve). When the turbine is
tripped or when the fast solenoids
are energized, the demand for the
SV1 Test
Signal
< individual valves is set to zero.

SV2 thru SV4 as Required During the transfer of control from


-3.0 the Stop Valves to Control Valves,
Trip the time constant of the transfer
SV1 Fast
Τ Α
function block controls the rate of
opening of the Stop Valves after
the Control Valves are in control.
Stop Valve #1
Figure 2-5
Stop Valve Logic

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BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER

When the Control Valves are in control, the Stop Valves are held full open, but can close during a Valve
Test or for fast solenoid action.

In STOP VALVE MANUAL mode, the operator has complete control of the Stop Valves. This is not a normal
operating mode and should be used only in emergency situations. When in MANUAL, the Load and Speed
M/A Stations are forced into MANUAL.

In STOP VALVE AUTO mode, the Stop Valves are properly positioned by the logic.

2.13 Control Valve Logic

Control Valve Logic includes the analog signals that position the individual Control Valves based on
Turbine Valve Demand. The Valve Transfer Logic determines when the Stop Valves and the Control
Valves are in control. Some units have individual actuators on the Control Valves and include the
additional feature of a transfer between single and sequential modes. For these units, the
Single/Sequential Logic determines the proper mode of the Control Valves.

When the Stop Valves are in control, the Control Valves are held full open but when the turbine is tripped
or when the fast solenoids are energized, the demand for the individual valves is set to zero.

During the transfer of control from the Stop Valves to Control Valves, the rate limiter function block control
the rate of closing of the Control Valves until they are in control.

When the Control Valves are in control, Turbine Valve Demand is characterized with a five segment
function generator (1 per valve) and then low selected with the individual valve test signals. When the
turbine is tripped or when the fast solenoids are energized, the demand for the individual valves is set to
zero.

Control Valve Logic (without Single/Sequential Transfer) Control Valve Logic (with Single/Sequential Tarnsfer)

Flow Demand (%) 103.0 Flow Demand (%) 103.0

Α Α

-3.0 -3.0
Trip
Trip
Τ Α SV/CV Xfer
Τ Α
SV/CV Xfer
in Progress in Progress

SV in Control Τ f(x) V> SV in Control Τ f(x) V>

M/A M/A
T A T A

Single Mode
Valve Curve f(x)

Sin/Seq Sin/Seq Sin/Seq


Valve Curve Valve Curve Valve Curve Transfer Transfer Transfer
f(x) for CV1 f(x) for CV2 f(x) for CV4
f(x) f(x) f(x)
Logic Logic Logic
Valve Curve Valve Curve Valve Curve
for CV1 for CV2 for CV8

CV1 Test < CV1 Test


Signal
<
Signal
CV2 thru CV4 as Required CV2 thru CV8 as Required
-3.0
-3.0
Trip
Trip
Τ Α CV1 Fast
Τ Α
CV1 Fast

Control Valve #1
Control Valve #1

Figure 2-6
Control Valve Logic

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BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER

For units that require a transfer between the single and sequential modes, a single 5 segment function
generator characterizes Turbine Valve Demand for single mode. For sequential mode, there are
individual 5 segment function generators to characterize Turbine Valve Demand. For each Control Valve,
the single valve curve and the individual curve are inputs into the Single/Sequential Logic.

In CONTROL VALVE MANUAL mode, the operator has complete control of the Control Valves. This is not a
normal operating mode and should be used only in emergency situations. When in MANUAL, the Load and
Speed M/A Stations are forced into MANUAL.

In CONTROL VALVE AUTO mode, the Control Valves are properly positioned by the logic.

2.14 Valve Calibration

Calibration is required for proper positioning of the servo valve actuators. The user selects which valves
to calibrate, the calibration rate, and the number of times to cycle the selected valve. With the unit off-line,
all of the valves can be calibrated at once. The selected valve is stroked full open and then full close. The
allowable full stroke rates are: 30 Sec, 60 Sec, 30 Min, and 60 Min. Provisions are included to allow
halting the calibration to set limit switches.

Depending on the valve configuration of the turbine, individual calibration of specific valves may be
permitted while the unit is on-line. Only one valve at a time and only the slower calibration rates are
allowed for an on-line calibration. It is recommended that First Stage Pressure Loop be place IN SERVICE
prior to initiating an on-line calibration. With this loop in service, the Control Valves will maintain a
constant flow through the turbine during the calibration thus preventing unwanted excursions in throttle
steam pressure.

3.0 OPERATOR INTERFACE

The system is designed for complete console based CRT control. Hardwired panels or hard M/A Stations
can be offered as options but are not considered to be part of the base package. The standard operator
interface selections are as follows:

* Turbine Trip / Reset Selector


* Speed M/A Station
* Load M/A Station
* Throttle Pressure Limit M/A Station
* Acceleration Rate Selector (Slow, Medium, Fast)
* Load Rate Selector (Slow, Medium, Fast)
* Hold Selector
* First Stage Pressure Loop In / Out Selector
* Stop Valve / Control Valve Transfer Selector
* Single / Sequential Mode Selector
* Start / Halt Selector (for Single/Sequential Transfer)
* Valve Test Selectors (as required)
* OSP, EHC, and TRIP Solenoid Test Selectors
* Stop Valve M/A Station
* Control Valve M/A Station

4.0 INPUT / OUTPUT

Analog Inputs

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BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER

Throttle Steam Pressure


First Stage Steam Pressure
IP Exhaust Steam Pressure (3)
Generator Megawatts (3)
Turbine Demand (from Unit Load Master)
Throttle Pressure Setpoint (from Boiler Controls)

Digital Inputs
Turbine Trip System Reset (3)
Generator Breaker (3)
Turbine Runback (5)
TRIP Manifold Pressure Switch (2) (Part of optional manifold)
EHC Manifold Pressure Switch (2) (Part of optional manifold)
OSP Manifold Pressure Switch (2) (Part of optional manifold)
Stop Valve Open & Close Limit Switches (as required)
Control Valve Open & Close Limit Switches (as required)
Reheat Valve Open & Close Limit Switches (as required)
Intercept Valve Open & Close Limit Switches (as required)

Speed Inputs
Magnetic Speed Pick-Up (3)

Relay Outputs
Trip Solenoid (4) (Part of optional manifold)
EHC Solenoid (4) (Part of optional manifold)
OSP Solenoid (4) (Part of optional manifold)
Reset Solenoid
Stop Valve Test & Fast Solenoids (as required)
Control Valve Test & Fast Solenoids (as required)
Reheat Valve Test & Fast Solenoids (as required)
Intercept Valve Test & Fast Solenoids (as required)

Control Actuator Interface


Servo & LVDT (per modulating valve actuator)

5.0 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS

5.1 MHC Interface

When interfacing the new controls to MHC systems, Raise / Lower pulses are transmitted through relays
that are wired to the existing motor circuits. The control system functions as described above with the
exception that Speed Droop Control for frequency correction is eliminated from the Load Controller as this
function is inherent in the mechanical governor.

Logic is added to convert the individual valve demand signals into Raise / Lower signals utilizing a pulse
positioner. An LVDT for position is required as feedback to the pulse positioner.

Most MHC systems include a Load Limit motor in addition to the Stop Valve and Control Valve motors.
Logic is included to allow the operator a CRT interface to the Load Limit motor.

5.2 Throttle Pressure Control for Combined Cycle Units

When the Base Turbine Controller is used to control a steam turbine operating in a Combined Cycle
configuration, a Throttle Pressure Controller (TPC) is added to regulate throttle pressure. Throttle
Pressure Control includes the Throttle Pressure M/A Station and the proportional-plus-integral-plus-
derivative (PID) controller. The TPC signal is an additional input into the low select gate.

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BASE TURBINE CONTROLLER

Typically, Throttle Pressure Control is not enabled for control until after the unit is on-line and the Main
Steam Bypass Valve (MSBV) has closed to some minimum value. Prior to this, the MSBV controls
pressure, and as the turbine is loaded, the MSBV closes to maintain throttle pressure. Once the minimum
position is reached, the turbine takes over pressure control and the MSBV is ramped close. It is not
uncommon to include the MSBV controls with the turbine because of the required coordination.

Throttle Pressure In TPC MANUAL mode, the Throttle Pressure Controller is disabled, and the
operator can make no setpoint or control output adjustments. In MANUAL, the
PT
setpoint tracks actual Throttle Pressure. The controller will be forced into
MANUAL upon failure of the throttle pressure signal.
+
- In TPC AUTO mode, once TPC is enabled, the controller responds to the operator
∆ adjusted setpoint from the M/A Station. The turbine valves are closed to
Throt Press Error increase pressure and opened to reduce pressure.
(PSI)

V> PID

Remote Sp

M/A
T A T

TPC Signal (%)


to Low Select Gate

Figure 5-1
Throt Press Control
for Combined Cycle
Units

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