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Notes on sets

April 28, 2019


1 Axioms of set theory
Definition 1. Axioms of set theory

Extensionality axiom

∀ A∀ B[∀ x(x ∈ A ⇐⇒ x ∈ B) =⇒ A = B]

Empty set axiom


∃ S : ∀ x : x 6∈ S

Pairing axiom
∀ u∀ v∃ S : ∀ x(x ∈ S ⇐⇒ (x = u ∨ x = v))

Union axiom
∀ A : ∃ B : ∀ x[x ∈ B ⇐⇒ (∃ b ∈ A : x ∈ B)]

Power set axiom


∀ A : ∃ B : (∀ x : x ∈ B ⇐⇒ x ⊆ A)

Subset axioms For each φ not containing B the following is an axiom

∀ t1 . . . ∀ tk : ∀ c : ∃ B : ∀ x(x ∈ B ⇐⇒ x ∈ c ∧ φ)

Infinity axiom
∃ A : [∅ ∈ A ∧ (∀ a ∈ A : a+ ∈ A)]

Choice axiom

(∀ relation R)(∃ function F )(F ⊆ R ∧ dom(F ) = dom(R))

Replacement axioms
Regurality axiom

2 Omega
Definition 2. ω
We define ω as a smallest of all inductive sets.
By infinity axiom there exists inductive set, lets call on such set A, and by a subset
axiom:
∀ x(x ∈ ω ⇐⇒ x ∈ A ∧ (∀ C : C is inductive =⇒ x ∈ C))
Theorem 1. Recursion theorem
For each set A, a ∈ A and F : A → A there exists unique function h such that

h:ω→A
h(0) = a
∀ n ∈ ω : h(n+ ) = F (h(n))

Proof. We start by defining a acceptable function.


v : ω → A is acceptable iff
1. 0 ∈ dom(v) =⇒ v(0) = a

1
2. ∀ n ∈ ω : n+ ∈ dom(v) =⇒ (n ∈ dom(v) ∧ v(n+ ) = F (v(n)))
We call a set of acceptable function K and define
[
h := K

We claim that h is a function we are looking for.


We need to prove four things:
1. h is a function.
Let S be a set of natural numbers such that n ∈ S iff h(n) maps to a single
number. That is:
S := {n ∈ ω : ∃! y ∈ A : hn, yi ∈ h}
We’ll show that S is inductive.
Suppose y1 , y2 ∈ h−1 (0). Then there exists two function v, v 0 such that
v(0) = y1 ∧ v 0 (0) = y2
but v, v 0 are acceptable, thus: y1 = a = y2 . We conclude 0 ∈ S.
Suppose y1 , y2 ∈ h−1 (n+ ), again we have v, v 0 and
y1 = v(n+ ) = F (v(n)) =
|{z} F (v 0 (n)) = v 0 (n+ ) = y2
hypothesis/assumption

We conclude that h is a function.


2. h is acceptable.
{h0, ai} is acceptable function, thus h(0) = a.
Lets assume n+ ∈ dom(h). Then there must be some acceptable v such that
h(n+ ) = v(n+ ) = F (v(n)) = F (h(n))
thus h is acceptable.
3. dom(h) = ω.
We will show that dom(h) is inductive. {h0, ai} is an acceptable function so
0 ∈ dom(h). Suppose k ∈ dom(h).
v := h ∪ {hk + , F (h(k))i}
Since h is acceptable, v also is, but then v ⊆ h which implies k + ∈ dom(h).
4. h is unique.
Uniqueness follows by simple induction.
Suppose there are two function h, g fitting the definition. Proceed by induction:
h(0) = g(0)
and inductive step:
h(n+ ) = F (h(n)) = F (g(n)) = g(n+ )

Theorem 2. Any Peano system hN, S, ei is isomorphic to hω,+ , ∅i. That is, there exists
bijection h : ω → N such that
h(0) = e
h(n+ ) = S(h(n))

2
Proof. Such function exists (and is unique) by recursion theorem.
We only need to show that h is bijection.
To show range(h) = S we use Peano induction postulate.
We only need to show h(x) = h(y) =⇒ x = y
Let
T := {n ∈ ω : ∀ m ∈ ω : h(m) = h(n) =⇒ m = n}
We will show that T is inductive.
We know h(0) = e, so we have to show that 6 ∃ m : h(m+ ) = e.
We have
h(m+ ) = S(h(m))
but ∀ x ∈ N : S(x) 6= e.
Now we need to show
n ∈ T =⇒ n+ ∈ T
So suppose n ∈ T .
Let h(n+ ) = h(m0 ) since m0 6= 0 we can rewrite as h(n+ ) = h(m+ ). Then

S(h(n)) = h(n+ ) = h(m+ ) = S(h(m))

That leaves h(n) = h(m), which, by inductive hypothesis gives n = m.

3 Cardinality
Theorem 3. Cantor theorem
Let A be any set. Then
card(A) < card(P (A))
Proof. Assume there exists function f : A → P (A).
We can define subset
B := { a ∈ A | a 6∈ f (a)}
Assume ∃ a : f (a) = B. Then

a ∈ B =⇒ a 6∈ B
a 6∈ B =⇒ a ∈ B

Contradiction.
Theorem 4. Schröder–Bernstein
Let A, B be sets. Then

card(A) ≤ card(B) ∧ card(B) ≤ card(A) =⇒ card(A) = card(B)

Proof. Let

f :A→B
g:B→A

be surjections.
We define Cn by

C0 := A − range g
Cn+ := g[f [Cn ]]

3
We define h : A → B be
(
f (x) if x ∈ Cn for some n
h(x) := −1
g (x) otherwise

Notice that second case is only possible if x ∈ range g (the first conditions).
We know define Dn by:
Dn := f [Cn ]
We know need to prove two things: that h is one-to-one (injective) and onto (surjective).

Injectivity: Suppose x, x0 ∈ A.
Surjectivity: